Method for performing heat exchange and heat exchanger for realisation thereof

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: method for performing heat exchange involves consequent cooling of the first fluid medium by indirect heat exchange with the second fluid medium, in which there are the following stages: - introduction of the first fluid medium subsequently at least into two bundles of concentrical U-shaped tubes comprising at least the first heating zone and the second heating zone correspondingly, - introduction of the second fluid medium to the side of casing of U-shaped tube bundles; at that, each heating zone is partially separated from the other one by means of a wall, the first heating zone is a colder zone and the second heating zone is a hotter heating zone, tube bundle of the first heating zone which is colder is made from low-alloyed steel, and tube bundle of the second heating zone which is hotter is made from thermal resistant and corrosion resistant alloy; - drain of the second fluid medium which is cooled and the first fluid medium which is heated. Invention also refers to heat exchanger intended for implementing the above described method.

EFFECT: improving heat exchange characteristics owing to improved resistance to metal dusting and to corrosion damage.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a heat exchanger technology, more specifically the invention relates to a process of heat transfer and heat exchanger for his execution.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Steam reforming is often a essential stage in the production of synthesis gas enriched with carbon monoxide. In this reaction, the methane and steam to convert when applying heat to the gas composition comprising hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, steam and methane. The temperature of the synthesis gas after reforming is often at the level of from 750°C. to 1050°C. Hot synthesis gas is then cooled in the boiler or superheater.

One of the major drawbacks associated with the cooling gas produced in the reformer is corrosion, known as propilivanie metal. Propilivanie metal is a result of the damaging effects of gas enriched with carbon monoxide, alloys based on iron and/or Nickel. The main reaction when propilivanii metal consists in the decomposition of carbon monoxide in the redox reaction or reactions in the Boudoir. Propilivanie metal occurs only when the surface temperature of the metal is lower than the equilibrium temperature in these reactions. It usually ranges from 750°C to 850°C. However, if the temperature is lower, typically below 450°C, the reaction rate b is the minor children. This means that there exists an intermediate value of the surface temperature, which should be avoided in contact with the gas in the cooling gas in the reforming process. The ranges of these temperatures are 450-800°C for high alloy based on Nickel and 400-800°C for low-alloy steels.

The heat transfer surface of the boiler exhaust heat are cooled by efficient heat transfer to boiling water and therefore can usually be made so as to avoid conditions propilivanija metal. However, the use of superheaters as coolers for the synthesis gas should be aware of the possibility propilivanija metal.

Other serious conditions that need to be taken into account in the design of the superheaters, represent the possibility of corrosive destruction under the influence of wet steam, which is subject to overheating. Alloys based on Nickel are very sensitive to corrosive destruction, while low-alloy steel is not sensitive to it. Alloys based on Nickel must therefore be in contact only with dry steam.

Thus, the present invention is directed to a heat exchanger, which has improved resistance to propilivanie metal and corrosive destruction.

The INVENTION

The invention provides a method of heat transfer, pre who sees consistent cooling the first fluid by indirect heat exchange with a second fluid medium and which includes the following stages:

- the introduction of the first fluid sequentially in at least two beam concentric U-shaped tubes forming at least a first heating zone and a second heating zone, respectively;

- the introduction of the second fluid on the side of the cowl beams of U-shaped tubes, each heating zone is partially separated from the other by a wall, the first heating zone is more cold zone and a second heating zone is more hot zone, the beam tubes in the first cooler heating area is made of low alloy steel, and the beam tubes in the second over a hot cooking zone made of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy;

- drain the cooled second fluid and the heated first fluid.

The invention also provides a heat exchanger designed for use in the above-described method, and the heat exchanger is designed for use in the above-mentioned heat exchange process, the heat exchanger contains a lot of U-shaped tubes, which allows the heat exchange surface, providing heat transfer between the first and second fluid-fluid, and U-shaped tubes arranged in at least two successive concentric beam tubes, bundles of tubes form at least first and second heating zone is relevant to the military, each heating zone is partially separated from the other by a wall, the first heating zone is a colder zone heating and a second heating zone represents the hotter the heating zone and the beam tubes in the first cooler heating area is made of low alloy steel, and the beam tubes in the second over a hot cooking zone made of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a heat exchanger with two heating zones.

Figure 2 - view of the heat exchanger in the horizontal section.

Figure 3 - heat exchanger with three heating zones.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

The invention concerns a heat exchanger, which is used as a superheater and which is designed to prevent propilivanija metal and the corrosive destruction by choosing the right combinations of metal alloys and/or flow of gas/vapor through the given structure bundles of heat exchange tubes. The heat exchanger is designed for heat transfer between the first and second fluid media. An example of such a fluid is a vapor (first fluid) and synthesis gas (the second fluid). Hot synthesis gas from steam reforming reactor is cooled by steam in the heat exchanger.

The heat exchanger is a heat exchanger U-shaped with a thick pipe is of ATiM element. Lots of U-shaped tubes to transfer the first fluid are parallel and spaced from each other with a Central inlet and a peripheral outlet for the second fluid. The heat exchanger on the side of the casing is reinforced through the disk and annular partitions. Many tubes are arranged in bundles of tubes, each beam tubes corresponds to a specific heating area.

The first fluid medium, for example steam, flows through the tubes and a second fluid, such as steam reforming process gas flows around the tubes, i.e. on the side of the casing, thus providing the surface heat transfer.

An essential principle of the invention consists in that in a heat exchanger using at least two beam tubes and they are connected to one tubular element in the form of concentric rings. Compartments for each bundle of tubes separated by metal walls with holes in the middle or on the edges, through which the second fluid passes and is divided into several flows, when the flow from one compartment to another compartment.

The second fluid flows simultaneously in counterflow and parallel flow with the first fluid medium in each compartment bundles of tubes, as shown by the arrows in figures 1 and 3.

The heat exchanger according to the invention will be described in more detail below:

<> Figures 1 and 3 the flow directions of the first and second fluid indicated by curved arrows.

Figure 1 relates to an embodiment of the invention having two heating zones separated by a wall. The first fluid medium, such as steam, enters the heat exchanger through the inlet 1. The first fluid then enters the compartment containing the U-shaped tube of the first beam tubes and forms the first zone 2 heating. After passing through the U-shaped tube in the first heating zone in indirect heat exchange with a second fluid medium, the first fluid enters the second compartment containing a U-shaped tube of the second beam tubes and forming a second zone 3 heating.

U-shaped tube of the second bundle of tubes arranged in series after the U-shaped tubes of the first beam tubes. Figure 1 is a bundle of tubes forming a second zone 3 heating, is located deeper in the heat exchanger, while the beam tubes, forms the first zone 2 heating, is located closer to the edge, and the two beam tubes separated by a wall 12. The wall 12 may be made of metal and it is made so as to provide openings 15 and 16, allowing the separation of the flow of the second fluid medium into multiple streams, with the overflow from one compartment to another. The first fluid flows through the U-shaped tube in the second zone 3 heating when op is sledovane heat exchange with a second fluid medium. After passing through the second area 3 of the first heating fluid becomes heated, and exits the heat exchanger through the outlet 4.

The second fluid medium, such as synthesis gas, or any other hot gas, which is required to be cooled enters the heat exchanger through the inlet 5. The inlet 5 leads to the Central pipe 13 located in the middle of the more deeply situated beam tubes. This Central pipe 13 has an opening 14 that allows the second fluid to exit from the Central pipe 13, and enters the second zone 3 heating-side housing with respect to the beams of the tubes forming the heating zone. Preferably the holes 14 are not located at the ends of the Central tube 13 to provide simultaneously a parallel flow and counter flow.

The second fluid enters the middle of zone 3 heating through the holes 14, and the fluid then is split so that it flows in the direction of the two ends of the beam tubes. The second fluid medium, thus, contact with external surfaces, i.e. on the side of the casing of U-shaped tubes, internal beam tubes and is cooled in indirect heat exchange with the first fluid medium. The second fluid then flows through the terminal holes 15 and 16 in the wall 12 separating the two beam tubes forming first and W is the ROI zones 2 and 3 of the heat. The hole 15 is located on the bottom edge of wall 12, and a hole 16 is located on the top edge of the wall 12. The second fluid then passes on the side of the casing of the beam tubes, forming a first zone 2 heat that surrounds the inner beam, forming a second zone 3 heating. The gas then passes into the beam tube from the end holes 15 and 16 in the direction to the middle of zone 2 heating. Additionally cooled second fluid then exits the first zone 2 heat exchanger through the outlet 6.

Figure 2 shows the placement of tube bundles with respect to each other in the heat exchanger. The wall 12 divides the heating zone into two compartments, resulting in the formation zones 2 and 3 of the heat. Bundles of tubes are located in the heat exchanger so that the beam tube zone 2 heating is located closer to the outer side, and the beam tube zone 3 heating is located deeper inside.

In the embodiment of the invention, the heat exchanger can have three heating zones, as shown in figure 3. In this case, there is a third beam of U-shaped tubes surrounding the second beam. The third beam also forms a zone 11 of the heat, providing additional heat to the first fluid with the second. The second fluid enters the middle of the heating zone through the Central opening 17 in the wall 18 separating the external beam tubes from two vnutrennikh tubes. The wall 18 separates thus the zone 11 of the heat from the zones 2 and 3 of the heat. Fluid then is divided into flows in the direction of the two ends of the beam tubes.

The wall separating the compartments, thus can have holes at either of their ends (15 and 16) or in the middle (17). When there are multiple heating zones, the holes in each successive wall so alternate and are located either on the end wall or in the middle. This ensures that the flow of the second fluid flows simultaneously in parallel flow and counter flow relative to the flow of the first fluid in each heating zone. This ensures efficient heat transfer.

The second fluid is cooled so in the following thread (separated flow) through two or three beam tubes. When there are two heating zones, as shown in figure 1, first the fluid is heated by successive passage through the tube, starting from the outer beam, which is the coolest and has the lowest temperature, and the fluid medium enters after passing through the inner beam, which is the most hot and therefore has the highest temperature. External beam pipe, forming a zone 2 heating, therefore, corresponds to a cold area (the area with low temperature)and the internal onion, brazowski zone 3 heating therefore, corresponds to the hot zone (the zone with the highest temperature).

When there are three heating zones, as shown in figure 3, zone 2 heat between zones 3 and 11 heating has an intermediate temperature between the hot (high temperature) and the coldest area (with low temperature) areas.

In the heating zones can be located walls to improve heat distribution. Partitions, in particular suitable for the heat exchanger are partitions in the form of a disc or ring-shaped. They allow the flow of the second fluid through the heating zone a zig-zag path, and in addition, facilitate the placement of U-shaped tubes. Partitions 7, 8 and 9, shown in figure 1, held in place with rods. The partition 7 is hot, that is exposed to high temperature, and the partition 8 is cold, that is exposed to low temperature. Partitions 10 in the Central tube are hot walls. Partitions can also be located in an embodiment shown in figure 3.

Hot (high temperature) tube bundle forming zone 3 heating must be made of a material resistant to propilivanie metal. He may represent, for example, high alloy, such as the superheater, any alloy of Nickel/chromium/iron, for example, InconelŪ. Walls, the rods and the walls forming the channels that have bundles of tubes must also be resistant to propilivanie metal. Cold (low temperature) beam tubes forming zone 2 heating can be made of low-alloy steels, and in most cases, partitions and rods can also be made of low-alloyed alloy. If there is a third beam tubes, as shown in figure 3, tube medium/intermediate beam can be made of low-alloy steel, while the studs, partitions and wall channels can be made of InconelŪ. Low-alloy steel may represent, for example, ferrite, iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon steel.

The feature of the heat exchanger according to the invention is that the U-shaped tube made of a material resistant to propilivanie metal, when the surface of the material is sufficiently hot, and not the risk of propilivanija metal. U-shaped tube can be made of cheaper low-alloy steels when they are located in the colder regions. Low alloy steel is not susceptible to corrosion resulting from wet stress. When the first fluid is a vapor, it enters the U-shaped tube of diskology the bath of steel, and no steam comes in contact with the U-shaped tubes high alloy until then, until it becomes completely dry.

The heat exchanger according to the invention has improved heat transfer characteristics due to improved resistance to propilivanie metal and the corrosive destruction.

The usual process that uses a heat exchanger is a steam reforming process, which is described below: hot thread, for example gas reformer containing carbon monoxide, such as synthesis gas from the reformer reactor, enters the superheater, where the temperature of the hot flow is reduced, for example, 1050°C to 475°C, when using steam supplied from a steam boiler. The cooled stream is then fed into the heat exchanger according to the invention, where its temperature is further limited to 360°C as a result of heat exchange with steam. The heat exchanger functions as a superheater. Used steam can flow from the steam boiler and thus can be heated from a temperature of, for example, from 320°to 400°C.

1. Method for making heat exchange, providing consistent cooling the first fluid by indirect heat exchange with a second fluid medium, in which the following stages:
the introduction of the first fluid sequentially in at least two beam end is traceski U-shaped tubes, forming at least a first heating zone and a second heating zone, respectively,
the introduction of the second fluid on the side of the cowl beams of U-shaped tubes, each heating zone is partially separated from the other by a wall, the first heating zone is colder zone and the second zone is more hot zone, the beam tubes in the first, more cold zone heat, made of low-alloy steels, and the beam tubes in the second, more hot cooking zone made of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy
drain the cooled second fluid and the heated first fluid.

2. The method of heat transfer according to claim 1, in which the first fluid is a vapor, and the second fluid is a gas reformer.

3. The method of heat transfer according to claim 1, in which heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy is an austenitic alloy of Nickel/chromium/iron.

4. Method of heat exchange according to claim 2, in which the heated first fluid medium is superheated steam.

5. A heat exchanger for use in the method according to claim 1, containing a lot of U-shaped tubes, which allows the heat exchange surface, allowing heat transfer between the first and second fluid-fluid, and U-shaped tubes are at least two consecutive concentricus is their bundles of tubes, bundles of tubes form at least first and second heating zones, respectively, and each heating zone is partially separated from the other by a wall, when the first heating zone is a colder zone heating and a second heating zone represents the hotter the heating zone and the beam tubes in the first, more cold zone heat, made of low-alloy steels, and the beam tubes in the second, more hot cooking zone made of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy.

6. The heat exchanger according to claim 5, in which the heat exchanger contains three beam tubes, and the third beam is located in the middle between the first and second beams.

7. The heat exchanger according to claim 5, in which heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy are austenitic alloy of Nickel/chromium/iron.

8. The heat exchanger according to claim 5, in which the heat exchanger contains partitions of disk and ring shapes.

9. The heat exchanger according to claim 6, wherein the third tube bundle located in the middle, made of low alloy steel, and the walls and the rods that hold the baffles in place, and the walls of the middle beam is made of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy.

10. The heat exchanger according to claim 5, in which the wall separating the heating zone, made of metal and located so that it shared on the OK second fluid medium into multiple streams due to the stream flows through holes in the wall.



 

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