Method for determining maximum temperature of drying agent when drying thermolabile products

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining maximum temperature of drying agent provides for determination of maximum temperature and heating period of the product by an experiment, and is based on the tests performed for many times, and as per the results of which there determined is heating period of the product, provides qualitative measures of the specimens within the limits specified by the appropriate standard, and on condition that product heating temperature and exposure period during drying process do not exceed appropriate values when the specimens are tested. The new feature of the method is that two batches of specimens of thermolabile products are used for experiments; specimens are subject to drying, at that, in the first specimen batch, drying period is determined every 10°C to the final product humidity, and in the second one - maximum drying period at which qualitative measures of the product remain within the limits specified by the appropriate standard. Then on the basis of the obtained data, there built is combined diagram of drying period to final humidity and maximum drying period versus reciprocal value of absolute drying agent temperature, and maximum allowable temperature of drying agent is determined as per crossing point of those diagrams for each concrete thermolabile product.

EFFECT: method provides the possibility of using the obtained results for choosing temperature drying conditions, thus improving the quality of finished products.

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The invention relates to the food, chemical and other related industries, and can be used in research and development of new technologies of drying of thermolabile products to determine the maximum allowable temperature of the drying agent.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is a method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of dispersed products [Patent RU No. 2230267, "Method for determining the allowable temperature drying mode dispersion products", the authors Arapov V.M., Shah SV, Arapov M.V., Moses I.S., Yampolskaya N.A., published 10.06.2004,], defining the maximum temperature and duration of heating of the product by experiment, conducting multiple tests, the results of which determine the duration of heating of the product, and ensuring the quality indicators of the samples within the limits established by the relevant standard, and provided that the heating temperature product and duration of exposure to the drying process does not exceed the corresponding values in the test samples.

The disadvantage of this method is the duration determine the maximum temperature due to a large number of trials and the lack of accuracy of the spine when determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent, as tests are carried out with a certain step of increasing the temperature of the drying agent.

An object of the invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of thermolabile products, reducing the complexity and the intensification of the process of its definition.

The technical problem of the invention is achieved in that in the method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent, providing for the determination of the maximum temperature and duration of heating of the product through experimentation, based on the execution of multiple tests, the results of which determine the duration of heating of the product, and ensuring the quality indicators of the samples within the limits established by the relevant standard, and provided that the heating temperature of the product and the duration of exposure to the drying process does not exceed the corresponding values in the test samples, what is new is that for the experiments use two batches of thermolabile products are drying, and the first batch of samples to determine the duration of drying every 10C° to the final moisture content of the product, and the second maximum duration of drying, in which qualitative indicators of product remain in sight of the crystals, specified by the relevant standard, then on the basis of the received data to build a combined graph of the dependency of the duration of drying to a final moisture content and the maximum duration of drying from the inverse of the absolute temperature of the drying agent and the point of intersection of these graphs determine the maximum allowable temperature of the drying agent for each specific thermolabile product.

The technical result is to increase the quality of the finished product, the accuracy of determination of the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of thermolabile products, intensification of the process of its determination and the possibility of using the results to select the temperature drying mode.

The method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of thermolabile products is as follows.

For experiments using two batches of thermolabile products are drying, and the first batch of samples to determine the duration of drying every 10C° to the final moisture content of the product, and the second maximum duration of drying, in which the quality parameters of the product remain within the limits established by the relevant standard, then on the basis of the received data p is Yat combined dependency graph drying to a final moisture content and the maximum duration of drying from the inverse of the absolute temperature of the drying agent and the point of intersection of these graphs determine the maximum allowable temperature of the drying agent for each specific thermolabile product (point a in figure 1).

In the process of drying of thermolabile products under the influence of heat is not only moisture, but also the collapse of the securities or the accumulation of harmful components. On the one hand, the drying must be made before until the moisture content of the product will decrease to the desired value. On the other hand, the drying process should be stopped, if the collapse of the securities (the accumulation of harmful components reaches the maximum value allowed by the relevant standard.

Thus, on the one hand, qualitative indicators should conform to the following expression

β≥β (1),

where β - the maximum number of decayed securities (the accumulation of harmful component allowed by the standard; β is the current number of decayed securities (accumulated harmful component in the drying process at time τ.

On the other hand, the drying condition in which the product complies with the specified standard, you can write

τwith≤τmax(2),

where τmax- the maximum processing time of product drying agent with absolute temperature Twith; τwith- the drying time of the product to the final moisture content.

To determine the maximum temperature of the drying agent on the basis of the conditions (1), (2), you must install the regularity of the kinetics of the decay of the securities (the accumulation of harmful components under the influence of heat in the drying process.

However, we proceed from the following provisions.

1. Under thermal influence on the product during the drying process it is the collapse of valuable components or the accumulation of harmful components. In the General case we will call the loss component of their initial (native) properties under the influence of the warmth of his transition to the activated complex. The maximum number of the component passed into the activated complex must not exceed the value set by the relevant standard for the product.

2. The speed of the transition component in the activated complex is determined by the laws of kinetics of chemical reactions.

3. The average volume temperature of the material, which he acquires during the drying process, is a function of the temperature of the drying gas; in a first approximation, be regarded medium-integral value in the range of only drying time is proportional to the temperature of the drying gas.

Consider a food product that contains multiple thermolabile components. Let, according to the current standard of the product, the maximum number of each of these components, converted to the activated complex under the influence of heat does not exceed with therefore, its M imax. The rate of transition in the activated complex of the i-th component we define the law of kinetics of chemical reactions in the form

where f(α') is a function of the degree of conversion of the i-th component; Kithe reaction rate constant of the i-th component, with-]; αi=Mi/Minthe degree of conversion of the i-th component; MiMin- the mass (concentration) at time τ and the initial mass of the i-th component, kg/kg

The rate constant of decay of the securities (the accumulation of harmful component is represented by the equation Aringa (Joly M. Physical chemistry denaturation of proteins. - M.: Mir, 1968. - 364 S.)

where ΔF is the increase in free energy, j/mol; k - Boltzmann constant, j/K; h is the Planck constant, j·s; R is the universal gas constant, j/(kg·K); T(τ) is the temperature of the material at time τ, K.

A function of degree of conversion of securities (the accumulation of harmful component is represented by the equation:

f(a)=(1-a) (5)

where n is the reaction order decay component.

Experimental study of thermal denaturation of proteins, inactivation of microorganisms and thermal decomposition of other thermolabile components of food often corresponds to a first order reactions. Then from equations (4) and (5)

Since the material temperature T(τ) in the process of drying is proportional to the temperature of the drying agent Twithit is possible to prevent equality

where z is the factor, 1/(s·K); b - coefficient, K.

From equation (7) determine the maximum processing time of product drying agent with absolute temperature Twithcorresponding to the maximum admissible degree of conversion of the component.

Equation (8) determines the formula of dependence τmaxfrom the absolute temperature of the drying agent TS.To establish this relation is required to hold not less than 2 experiments to calculate the coefficients b and z,in contrast to existing methods can reduce the number of experiments. This equation allows to verify the correctness of the method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of thermolabile products.

The values of the coefficients of z and b is determined experimentally by measuring in each experiment the temperature of the drying agent Twithand the drying time τ to the maximum degree of conversion αmax. The degree of decomposition is determined by the formula

where C0- the initial number of securities (harmful) to the component; with the current number of decayed securities (accumulated harmful component in the drying process at time τ.

In the operation of industrial drying devices there is the problem of optimizing the temperature of the drying mode. The proposed method allows to determine the maximum temperature of the drying agent, in which the quality parameters of the product remain within the limits established by the relevant standard.

The method is illustrated by the following example.

To implement this method, experimental data were used for the duration of the drying process of carrot and experimental data the maximum processing time of product drying agent with absolute temperature Twithin the drying unit librarypage layer (temperature of the drying agent - 70...120°C, the oscillation frequency of 95 Hz, the speed of the air - 1,2...2 m/s), which are shown respectively in table 1 and table 2, a graphical illustration is presented in the drawing. The pilot studies were used carrot varieties Nantes, finely ground in a centrifugal machine-grater and partially dehydrated by centrifugation until a moisture content of 5 kg/kg In the drawing shows the curves: 1 - the dependence of the duration of the drying time from the inverse of the absolute temperature of drying is about agent obtained experimentally and 2 - the dependence of the maximum duration of drying, in which the quality parameters of the product remain within the limits established by the relevant standard, from the inverse of the absolute temperature of the drying agent, obtained by experiment.

The results of the experiments confirm the validity of formula (1) and enable a relatively small number of experiments to determine the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of thermolabile products in the drying unit of a certain design.

As can be seen from the example of tables 1 and 2, this method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of heat-sensitive products can be used to determine the maximum temperature of the drying agent, more accurately, to intensify the process of its determination, reduce the complexity of this process and to give the possibility of using the results to select the temperature mode of drying and thereby improve the quality of the finished product.

The proposed method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of heat-sensitive products can be used in chemical, food and other related industries, in research and development of new drying technology and allows you to define mA the maximum temperature of the drying agent in the drying of any thermolabile products in the drying unit of any type, to intensify this process, to reduce its complexity. This method gives the possibility of using the results to select the temperature drying mode, thereby improving the quality of the finished product.

Table 2
№ p/pThe temperature of the drying agent TCThe exposure time,
min
The content of β - carotene according to GOST
7588-71 mg
134326,640
235316,240
3363the 10.140
43736,540
53834,240

The method of determining the maximum temperature of the drying agent, providing for the duration of the heat ol the product and the maximum temperature experimentally, based on the execution of multiple tests, the results of which determine the duration of heating of the product and ensuring the quality indicators of the samples within the limits established by the relevant standard, and provided that the heating temperature of the product and the duration of exposure to the drying process does not exceed the corresponding values in the test sample, characterized in that for the experiments use two batches of thermolabile products are drying, and the first batch of samples to determine the duration of drying after every 10°C to a final moisture content of the product, and the second maximum duration of drying, in which the quality parameters of the product remain within the limits established the relevant standard, then on the basis of the received data to build a combined graph of the dependency of the duration of drying to a final moisture content and the maximum duration of drying from the inverse of the absolute temperature of the drying agent and the point of intersection of these graphs determine the maximum allowable temperature of the drying agent for each specific thermolabile product.



 

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