FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to friction products and can be used in brakes for car and rail vehicles. Product contains steel basis 1 with hollows 2, covered by two layers 3 and 4 of bronze, and cover plate made of ceramic-metal, implemented of two layers 5, 6, corresponding mixture of sintered metallic and non-metallic sintered components. Thickness of layer 4 of bronze considerably increases thickness of bronze layer 3, and layer 5 of ceramic-metal is implemented with cavities, filled by material of layer 6, and amount of silica and graphite oxide in the latter increases amount of those components in layer 5.
EFFECT: adhesion increasing between metallic basis and cover plate, increasing of resistance to formation in cover plate of splits, longitudinal and transverse cracks.
6 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in many industries in the brake devices for the automotive, rail vehicles, tractors and machinery road construction machinery.
Known friction product, it is a steel with a copper coating and lining made of metal on top of it (see patent No. 2114719 RF "Method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper-based", IPC-6: B22F 7/04, F16D 69/04, declared 06.10.1997).
When the friction during braking on the surface of the cermet lining the forces of vibration and the power of the compression - tension. First, they can tear off the pad from the metal base, and secondly, they can call it the appearance of cracks, transverse as well as longitudinal and chips, preventing further use of the product. Because of the above reasons, the known friction product has low reliability.
Known friction product selected as closest as to the technical essence and the achieved effect, it is the closest to the claimed friction product.
The task of the claimed invention is to improve operational reliability.
The technical result of the ATA is to increase adhesion between the metal base and cover plate made of metal, to increase the counter-education in her longitudinal and transverse cracking, and chipping.
This task is achieved by the fact that in the known friction product, made in the form of a steel base with a copper coating and lining made of metal on top of it, which is a mixture of sintered metal and non-metal powder component according to the invention, the steel substrate-side pads are made deeper, as the copper-containing coating used bronze, applied in two layers, of which the thickness of the second layer exceeds the thickness of the first, and the overlay of the cermet contains two layers including copper, tin, lead, iron, silicon oxide and graphite, and the first layer from the second layer of the cermet is made with cavities filled with material of the second layer, the amount of silicon oxide and graphite which exceeds the amount of these components in the first layer.
Friction product may have or conical, or pyramidal or cylindrical recesses in the steel base.
In friction product on the surfaces of the steel base made in her recesses can be applied microfactory.
In friction product microfactory can be caused by shot peening.
In friction product thickness in rnego bronze layer may exceed the thickness of the lower layer in 13-15 times.
In friction product of the second layer of the lining of sintered metal carbide may contain oxide of silicon and graphite more 45-55%, than the first layer.
Studies on patent and scientific and technical information sources show that the proposed friction product is unknown and should not be explicitly studied the prior art, and therefore, meets the criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".
The claimed invention may be made in the conditions of enterprises in the industry, engaged in the manufacture of friction products, using standard domestic or imported equipment, known technologies and mass-produced by industry of the respective powder materials and parts. It can be widely used in many industries in the brake devices.
Thus, the claimed friction product meets the criterion of "industrial applicability".
We offer a set of essential features according to the claimed device new properties that allow you to solve the problem.
The presence of grooves on the steel base of the claimed design increases traction surface of the first layer of bronze, which protects the steel surface from corrosion to the base, the second layer is made of bronze. It should also be noted that the recesses can have a different geometric form:
conical, pyramidal, cylindrical, but the easiest is to perform a cone by pressing. Shot blasting allows us to apply microfactory on the surfaces of the steel base made in her recesses, which further increases the surface adhesion between the layers of bronze.
The excess of the thickness of the top layer of bronze compared to the thickness of the lower layer in 13-15 times is best obtained experimentally. The top layer of bronze is designed to provide a strong diffusion bond with the first layer of the cermet, which is a damping layer between the second layer of the cermet and the lower metal-based friction products. It is known from practice that operators consider the friction product unfit for further use, when the remaining thickness of the cermet layer reaches 4-5 mm. It has served as a starting point to create friction products with two layers of metal, one outside, more plastic than the work of the friction layer. The latter provides direct contact with the rotating counterbody and is subjected to considerable mechanical stress, because the counterbody tends to tear N. the clutch made of metal on metal base. Both layers of metal contain a mixture of sintered powders of the same elements: copper, tin, lead, iron, silica and graphite, but in a different percentage, which gives the layers of metal of different physico-mechanical and performance properties. Second, the working layer of the cermet, contains more non-metallic components: silicon dioxide and graphite than the first. Experimentally it was found that the best performance is achieved when excess up to 45-55%. The damping layer, i.e. the first layer of the cermet, not only more flexible, but also has a higher density, lower porosity and higher hardness, which provides greater durability and helps prevent delamination between the layers during operation.
For reliable connection of layers of metal-ceramic damping layer is made with cavities filled with material of the second working layer. They allow you to align the coefficient of thermal expansion, to prevent the formation of longitudinal cracks in the sintering process and to increase the combat formation of longitudinal and transverse cracks, and chips in the metal-ceramic layers during the operation of friction products. Furthermore, increasing the surface of the coupling components of the second layer, Zap livsic cavity of the first layer, enhances adhesion of the layers of metal together. The top layer of the cermet according to their properties - more fragile. However, during braking mechanism deformation more fragile layer on more plastic base prevents separation of the metal from the metallic base, and reduces the possibility of cracking, chipping and eliminates the destructive influence of the vibration.
The inventive friction piece is presented on the drawings:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of a friction products;
Figure 2 is a view As in figure 1 on an enlarged scale.
The inventive friction product is a multilayer structure on a steel base 1, one side of which holes 2, for example conical, or pyramidal, or cylindrical, or other geometric shape. For steel substrate 1 is taken low carbon steel, because it is quite flexible and allows you to get recesses 2 by pressing. Due to shot peening on the surface of the base 1 and the recesses 2 caused microfactory (not shown) to increase the surface adhesion with the first layer of bronze coating 3. The main purpose of this layer is to create a galvanic coating steel substrate 1 to protect it from corrosion. Layer 3 contains the optimal ratio of copper and tin: 90% and 1% respectively. Its thickness is small compared to the second layer of the bronze coating 4, which in 13-15 times the thickness of the coating 3. This thickness ratio was obtained experimentally. This provides good durability diffusion bonding between the steel base 1 and a cover plate (not shown), made of two layers of metal: the first 5 and second 6, which is a mixture of sintered metal and non-metal powder component. The first layer 5 of metal is made with a cavity 7 is filled with material of the second layer 6. The composition of the cermet contains the following components: copper, tin, lead, iron, silicon oxide and graphite, however, the amount of silicon oxide and graphite in the second layer exceeds the specified number of components in the first layer in the best case scenario at 45-55%.
The inventive friction product installed, for example, in a disc brake for railway cars, works as follows.
When braking the car on the friction product under the influence of the braking force: horizontal force and vertical force pressing the cermet layer to the rotating counterbody. The net effect of these forces tends to tear a piece of the metal from the metal base 1.
However, due to the presence of the second layer of the bronze coating 4 and the two who asnyk composition and the thickness of the layer of metal 5, 6, separation does not occur. Due to the fact that the layers 5, 6 different resist shear deformations relative to the metal base 1, and a significant decrease in the influence of vibration in the interaction of friction products with rotating counterbody during braking, increases the operational reliability of the claimed invention. This dramatically reduces the possibility of formation of longitudinal, transverse cracks and chips in the metal-ceramic layers, increases service life by reducing premature failures friction products.
The advantages of the proposed friction products:
- increase of operational reliability;
- increase durability;
to increase corrosion resistance;
- increase service life in 2-2,5 times.
1. Friction products, made in the form of a steel base with a copper coating and on top plate made of metal which is a mixture of sintered metal and non-metal powder component, characterized in that the steel substrate-side pads are made deeper, as the copper-containing coating used bronze, applied in two layers, the thickness of the upper layer of which exceeds the thickness of the bottom and cover of the cermet contains two layers, in which with copper, tin, lead, iron, silicon oxide and graphite, the first layer in which the side of the second layer of the cermet is made with cavities filled with material of the second layer lining, the amount of silicon oxide and graphite which exceeds the amount of these components in the first layer.
2. Friction product according to claim 1, characterized in that the recesses in the steel base is made conical or pyramidal or cylindrical.
3. Friction product according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the surface of the steel base made in her holes caused microfactory.
4. Friction product according to claim 3, characterized in that microfactory caused by shot peening.
5. Friction product according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the upper layer of bronze is greater than the thickness of the lower layer in 13-15 times.
6. Friction product according to claim 1, characterized in that the second layer of the lining of the cermet contains oxide of silicon and graphite more 45-55%, than the first layer.
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the railway transport, in particular to brake blocks of the railway transport brakes. Brake block without metal support plate has metal insert containing the main body, two wing-shaped feathers integrated into the main body, located on its opposing sides, digressed wherefrom and having backside surfaces adjacent to the backside surface of the brake block. It also has two mostly parallel feathers spreading in radial direction and integrated into the main body and/or to the wing-shaped feathers. Parallel feathers form the keyway. When the brake block is installed at the brake head the keyway passes through the hole located in the brake head.
EFFECT: invention increases the technical characteristics of the block.
8 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, namely, to friction bake shoe linings of disk brakes. Proposed device comprises moulding material attached to load bearing plate with opposite surfaces, one or several out-of-round extrusion orifices arranged over the plate depth, and ledges or any other fixed mounting ledge. Aforesaid moulding material is arranged above aforesaid opposite surfaces after extruding through aforesaid extrusion orifices to produce a homogeneous structure. In this structure moulding material on one side of load bearing plate acts as friction material of the lining, and, on the other side, it acts as a noise-reducing element. The number, shape and arrangement of extrusion orifices may vary to vary noise-reducing properties of the block, thus, reducing risks of brake system components locking.
EFFECT: improved noise-reducing properties.
49 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: automotive industry.
SUBSTANCE: braking block comprises metallic frame and friction lining secured to the frame with a glue. The mass of the glue layer relates to the mass of the friction lining as 1:100-1:150.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: transport engineering; brake systems of wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wheeled vehicle contains brake mechanisms, brake mechanism liquid cooling device, stop signaling electric system and windshield washer including reservoir with liquid, pump and pump drive motor electrically coupled with supply source through switch. Washer is furnished with two-position electromagnetic valve whose input is connected with pump, and normally open output, with washer, and normally closed output, with brake mechanism cooling device through normally-closed electromagnetic valve. Electromagnet of two-position valve is connected to stop signaling circuit, electromagnet of normally-closed valve, to threshold device electrically coupled with supply source and brake mechanism temperature sensor, and switch is furnished with electromagnetic switching drive connected to stop signaling circuit. Friction pads are secured on brake disks, and brake shoes are made hollow, with partitions inside. Input of brake shoe space is hydraulically connected with pump of brake mechanism cooling device, and output, with reservoir with liquid.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of braking and traffic safety.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; friction units containing reinforcing metal framework, for example blocks for automobile disk brakes; friction units for various machines and mechanisms.
SUBSTANCE: proposed friction unit has metal framework with holes and friction member molded to it and provided with projections corresponding to holes in framework; projections are received by these holes. Novelty of invention consists in height of projections which is lesser than depth of holes; surface which is not brought in contact with framework inside holes has recesses in at least one of projections. Proposed friction unit enhances resistance of joint of framework with friction member to shear loads.
EFFECT: enhanced resistance to shear loads; reduced mass; low requirements for strength of composite material; facilitated procedure of manufacture.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment producing plate-like elements from combined material, for example photovoltaic cells. Proposed machine comprises heating plate, device to transfer cells and movable top part accommodating membrane. Distributing foil sections are arranged between aforesaid membrane and heating plate to move therein. Each aforesaid sections is held by its one edge oriented across transfer direction with the help of clamps. Foil sections are not jointed together. Aforesaid clamps can move along feed direction driven by appropriate drive appliances. Membrane is coupled with tensioning devices arranged in upper part that comprise at least, one device that generates tensioning force.
EFFECT: higher quality and lower costs.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multi-layer materials, such as paper, cardboard or nonwoven fabric having surface suitable for printing text or graphics, consisting of the base fabric and a layer of the identification made in the form of a luminescent covering layer containing sensitive to UV light identification agent. There is at least one covering layer on the basis fabric coated. Surface profile of identification layer, which corresponds essentially to the natural formation of the base fabric and surface profile of the other covering layers, possibly coated on top of the base fabric in such a way that ensured the identification layer of variable thickness, for example by the method of doctor blade knife coating, so that the covering layer in the areas of the identification layer meeting the ridges of base fabric, coated finer than in the areas of the base fabric furrows. Layer of identification mainly covers the entire surface of the underlying paper, cardboard or nonwoven fabric. Layer of identification is breaking with respect to its intensity in response to UV light, due to changes in the thickness of the coating layer, causing cloud-like appearance.
EFFECT: high degree of counterfeit protection of the declared material, with the simplicity of its identification.
26 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: semi-closed thermoplastic folded honeycomb structure is produced from endless strip of material by plastic deformation perpendicular to material plane for forming semi-hexagonal walls of honeycombs and minor connecting parts. Folded honeycomb structure is formed by multiple honeycombs arranged in rows. Honeycombs have lateral walls adjoining each other to make a circle and limited by planes of covering layers. Honeycombs are overlapped completely or partially by one or another covering layer plane. Folded honeycomb structure consists, in fact, of solid flat body, features multiple 3D structure formed by plastic deformation, and jointing sections. Method of producing folded honeycomb structure from flat body made up of plastically deformed material comprises the stages that follow. Flat body is plastically deformed to form first 3D structures and second jointing sections. Note here that the latter are formed between 3D structures. The latter are folded towards each other to form honeycombs with walls adjoining each other to make a circle and limited by planes of covering layers so that wall of one honeycomb adjoins the wall of other honeycomb. In folding in transportation direction, honeycomb walls are jointed to form honeycomb structure. Equipment for production of folded honeycomb structure comprises device for plastic deformation of flat body for it to form first 3D structures and second jointing sections there inside, second jointing sections and device to fold 3D structures towards each other to form honeycombs with walls adjoining each other to make a circle and limited by planes of covering layers.
EFFECT: ease of manufacture.
25 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: there is disclosed three-dimensional apertured film containing the first plane surface in the first default plane, the second plane surface in the second default plane and a set of apertures passing between the first and second surfaces. The three-dimensional apertured film also comprises at least one element that overlaps each set of apertures to form thereby a set of smaller apertures. The element overlapping each aperture has an upper face arranged below the first default plane.
EFFECT: three-dimensional apertured film has improved properties in processing the fluid when used in disposable absorbing products.
57 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of workpiece from thermally sealed and foldable laminate for packing container resisting SHF heating. Endless ribbon (1) of starting laminate (10) moves in packing laminate conversion line. Endless workpieces for aforesaid packing containers are directed from top to bottom and across machine processing direction in conversion line and top-to-bottom interface (51). Starting laminate (10) is made with bents and cuts for workpieces (50a, 50b). Endless ribbon (2) from heat and electrically conducting material is applied along machine processing direction above aforesaid interface (51) and in combination with stage (a). Elongated indication (53) of hole is effected prior to or after applying ribbon (2). Hole indicator stays within the limits of aforesaid ribbon. Packing container is formed by folding, is filled and sealed by workpiece (50a, 50b).
EFFECT: higher density, reliability and tightness.
23 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technologies of fillers production from sheet materials and may be used in production of multi-layer panels applied in aircrafts, construction and other industry fields. Filler is a volume structure from polymer paper in the form of folded sheet stock, both sides of which are coated with binding material. Flat facets of filler are arranged as parallelograms and rectangles linked to each other along all sides. At that flat facets in the form of parallelograms are coupled with creation of vertical walls of filler and are rigidly connected to each other with a binding material, such as thermally set resin. Method for production of filler includes application of binding material on sheet stock in its flat condition, thermal setting of binder until polymerisation extent of not more than 70%. Further sheet stock is shaped till compressed condition of volume structure, at which coupled surfaces of flat stock facets are joined each other and set thermally until final polymerisation of binding material.
EFFECT: improved resistance to loss of stability, when compressing loads are applied to filler.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology of corrugated structures making with plicate structure from composite materials and may be used in aircraft construction and other industry fields. Method includes laying of flat stock sheet onto shaping accessory, at that stock sheet consists of woven reinforcing material impregnated with a polymer binding composition, supply of heat with production of flat stock-semifinished product in the form of combination of rigid sections, having shape of filler facets and separated from each other by strips along lines of plicate structure marking, further shaping of stock by means of bending-folding by strips along lines of marking with production of filler relief of required geometry and final hardening of binding composition along filler ribs. Stock used is a hard sheet of reinforced composite with thermoplastic binder, and stock-semifinished product is made by means of heat supply by strips along marking lines till plastic condition of binding composition in these strips, at that facets remain in solid state.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of method: simplified technology of plicate filler making and better ecological compatibility of the process, provision of possibility to make a plicate filler from hard-sheet stock of reinforced composite material with thermoplastic matrix, improved accuracy of plicate filler making due to accurate correspondence of bending lines position and shape of facets to nominal marking of plicate structure, and also provision of possibility to use it for impregnation of facets with binding composition of cold hardening, which results in reduced energy intensity of process and cost reduction of item.
SUBSTANCE: actuator contains resilient member, rigidly connected with it element made of material with effect of shape memory, implemented with preliminary pseudoductility deformation and source of agent, managing effect of shape memory. Additionally element made of material with effect of shape memory is implemented with preliminary pseudoductility deformation of torsion. Element with effect of shape memory and resilient member are implemented of cylindrical shape with co-axial location and are rigidly connected to generatrix of cylindrical surface. Actuator also can be implemented in the form of wound spring or in the form of set of spring elements.
EFFECT: expansion of device range of application.
9 cl, 6 dwg, 9 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: laminar material has at least one area with smaller amount of layers compared with the other area. Proposed method comprises forming stack from 1st row of layers comprising material layers and one layer of fibers arranged there between and impregnated by binding compound. 2nd row of layers is arranged shifted relative to the 2nd row of layers. The latter has its size different from that of the 1st row and comprises at least one layer of fibers impregnated by binding compound. Extending part of the 2nd row accommodates auxiliary tool with the structure similar to that of the 1st row of layers to activate binding compound by increase in pressure and temperature.
EFFECT: production of required mechanical properties.
15 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for production of biodegradable flaky paper-based materials, in particular to containers for liquid or hard, hot or cooled food products. Biodegradable flaky material contains paper base, having the first and second layers of polyethers applied at least on single surface of base. Intermediate layers of polymers between surface of base and copolyethers applied on base surface are actually unavailable. Copolyethers of both layers are non-identical products of copolymerisation of benzol-1,4-dicarboxylic acid with aliphatic diatomic spirit and at least one reagent selected from group including aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, cyclic diatomic spirit, aromatic diatomic spirit.
EFFECT: production of moulded product with improved technical characteristics resistant to damage and softening.
27 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: on surface of plate made from titanium it is located powder of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) compound and it is implemented cold deformation by means of rolling with receiving of preferred-orientation scales of HTSC compound. Scales are separated from substrate, it is collected multilayer packet from scales with alternating spacers from silver and it is pressed with formation of multilayer composite silver-HTSC-silver. Composite is placed into envelope made of silver, it is rolled with receiving of band of specified geometry and is thermal treated at temperatures in the range 800-930°C during 20-100 hours.
EFFECT: increasing current-carrying ability of band and filling factor by superconductor.