Method for development of boulder gravel deposits of minerals
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry and may be used in overburden and getting operations in gravel deposits of minerals, with application of bulldozer-scraper aggregates. Method includes overburden operations, excavation and transportation of sands by bulldozer-scraper aggregate to enrichment equipment. Primary transportation of sands is carried out to specially prepared or developed space with arranged trench in bedrock along lower edge of bench with creation of slant, and secondary transportation of sands to enrichment equipment is done from slant of bench.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of getting equipment.
3 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for Stripping and mining operations on the alluvial deposits of minerals using dozer and scraper assemblies.
Famous bulldozer mining method permafrost and seasonal freezing placers, consisting in layered trimming dozer blade thawed rocks and transporting it to the receiving bin with subsequent washing (Emelyanov Century. And. Technology bulldozer development of permafrost deposits. - M.: Nedra, 1976. Pp.163-177).
The disadvantages of this method are low technical and economic indicators of the intensity of the process of rock mass transportation dragged to the receiving bin, a small rational way of moving rocks and associated small size of the mining block, inefficient work of the bulldozers when developing salonisti rocks.
Also known radial-circular way to develop Sands bulldozers and wheel scrapers. In this way the breed with a distant relative to the hopper sections of the mining block layers are cut and transported scrapers, and neighbors plots bulldozers (Sulin GA Technique and technology of the placers in an open way. - M.: Nedra, 1974. S-213).
The disadvantage of this method is inefficient work to the forest scraper when developing salonisti rocks, occurring often, because of the relatively small traction, implemented on wheels, big tire wear when interacting with the sharp edges of boulders and low occupancy rates buckets.
As the prototype accepted method of development of alluvial deposits, consisting of layer-by-layer excavation powerful bulldozer Sands with their subsequent transportation to a temporary dump the hopper, and a second bulldozer small capacity Sands are fed into the hopper (Leshkov V.G. Development of placer deposits. - M.: Nedra, 1985. S-203).
The disadvantages of this method are inefficient work when developing salonisti placers, a significant reduction in performance as mining and processing equipment due to the need to remove boulders.
The objective of the invention is to improve the performance of mining equipment in the development salonisti placer mineral deposits by cleaning boulders in a specially prepared space.
This is achieved by the fact that in method development salonisti placer mineral deposits primary transportation Sands produced in specially prepared or developed space is traversed to raft along the bottom edge of the mining ledge trench, and secondary transportation of sand is to the processing equipment is produced from the slope of the mining ledge, and the angle of repose of the mining ledge perform with the possibility of sustainable accommodation Sands and unstable for boulders, and the continuation of the mining ledge perform in a concave arc with a smooth transition into the trench.
The essence of the proposed method of mining on the alluvial salonisti fields is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a diagram of the layer-by-layer primary moving Sands bulldozer to the slope of the mining ledge; figure 2 is a view in plan of figure 1; figure 3 - diagram of the secondary movement of sand scraper Assembly; figure 4 is a view in plan Fig 3;
where: 1 - the trench; 2 - sand; 3 - slope mining bench; 4 - bulldozer; 5 - boulders; 6 - block scraper installation; 7 - scraper installation.
After Stripping along one side of the mining block are the production, which will form the mined-out area, the depth of excavation is equal to the power of the Sands, then in the lower part of working are trench 1. The technical solution of this method lies in the layering of the movement and dumping of sand 2 with slope 3 of the mining ledge bulldozer 4 and segregation of the latter according to the size of the slope is 3. Boulders 5, having a large particle size and Octanate roll in a special trench 1, and the Sands are trapped on the slope 3 of the mining ledge. Moreover, if the slope 3 of the mining ledge to make steep, Sands 2 and boulders 5 will be the rays is Atisa the slope 3 in trench 1, therefore this method will be lost. If the slope 3 of the mining ledge to make flat the Sands 4 and boulders 5 will stay on it and the effect will be similar. With this in mind, the angle of the slope 3 of the mining ledge perform with the possibility of sustainable accommodation Sands 2 and unstable for boulders 5. Trench 1, adjacent to the mining ledge, perform in a concave arc with a plateau at the bottom, since this form of the slope provides more kinetic energy setiausaha boulders 5 and deposition at a distance from the lower edge adjacent to the mining ledge of the trench. The latter provides easy access for testing the lower horizons placers. After storing a certain amount of sand 2 on the slope 3 of the mining ledge at the bottom of the slope 3 is fixed to the block 6, and on top of this ledge set scraper installation 7. Then make schreberiana Sands 2 at the reception area of the cable scraper 7 and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment. As the Sands mining 2 mining block scraper installation 7 moves along the slope 3.
The essential features that distinguish the way of mining on the alluvial deposits from the nearest prototype, allow to obtain the following technical result:
- significant increase in production is capacity production (and processing) equipment when developing salonisti placer deposits;
- conducting mined on salonisti rocks with large production unit and thereby the exception of the placement of the flushing equipment within career fields.
1. Method development salonisti alluvial deposits of minerals, including Stripping, excavation and transportation of sand dozer and scraper unit for processing equipment, wherein the primary transportation Sands produced in specially prepared or developed space with completed trench in the raft along the bottom edge of the mining ledge with the formation of the slope, and secondary transportation of sand processing equipment produced with the slope of the mining ledge.
2. Method development salonisti placer mineral deposits according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle of repose of the mining ledge perform with the possibility of sustainable accommodation Sands and unstable for boulders.
3. Method development salonisti placer mineral deposits according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the continuation of the mining ledge perform in a concave arc with a smooth transition into the trench.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to open development of mineral placers, particularly to mining and concentration of gold containing placers in winter. The procedure consists in exposing works, in sand excavating and in sand transporting to a basin, in flushing and in dump piling. Also, in winter primary excavation and sand transporting are performed with preliminary piling sand on ice of the basin, while the secondary excavation and flushing are carried out in a warm season.
EFFECT: increased degree of disintegration of hard flushed clayish sand and reduced losses of valuable component.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of mineral deposits, particularly clay placers, and can be implemented in mining industry. The method consists in striking developed placers, in their layer-specific excavation with parallel trenches leaving between-trenches massifs, in concentrating and in piling. Also between the first trench and the circuit of developed deposit an additional ditch is made, wherein water is supplied; when a successive trench is entered, each preceding trench is successively filled with water. When the last trench is driven, deposit is flooded; between trenches massifs are debugged by means of a drag or dredger; notably, debugging is performed from the first trench to the last one.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of clay placers development by means of increased degree of disintegration and extraction of valuable component at reduced technological losses.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of deposits, particularly, gravel deposits, and can be implemented in mining industry. The method consists in stripping sand, in excavating and transporting sand to a hopper of a washing installation, in concentrating and in piling. Prior to transporting sand into the hopper of the washing installation, sand is piled in a trench laid in the center of the gravel deposit along the length of a production block at the depth below the level of the soil of the sand bed; the trench is filled with water. Also sands are piled in the trench below the water level, and their successive excavation is performed by the underwater method.
EFFECT: increased degree of disintegration of hard washed clayish sand and reduced process losses of valuable component with reduced cost for sand transporting.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of connate gravel deposits of solid minerals, particularly beach deposits of shelf. The method of development of connate water-flooded placers consists in preliminary concentration of useful component of sands in a lower part of the placer by means of excitation of elastic vibration and in successive stopped excavation. A tubular casing is introduced into the placer; the height of the casing exceeds the distance from the surface to the raft of the placer, excitation of elastic vibration in placer sands is performed by means of their transmission from surface via the tubular casing. Further a compressive force onto contacting surface, covering volume of empty material, is exerted from the side of interior surface of the casing. Then lower part of placer is hydraulically excavated by means of supply of washing water through nozzles arranged at walls of the tubular casing; pulp is withdrawn through soil draw-off apertures made at walls of the tubular casing between nozzles. Also after completion of excavation of lower part of the placer, pressure onto the surface, covering volume of empty material contacting with interior surface of the casing, is dropped to zero. When the cavity of the casing has been filled to a level corresponding to a ground level, the casing is pulled off.
EFFECT: increased selective extraction.
SUBSTANCE: hydro-transporting pressurised system with elements of cavitation consists of pipe with bends and of connected between them narrowing and expansion elements. The system is equipped with complex of jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation and with a rigidly fixed vortex. The narrowing element and expansion element are connected non-rigidly and pressure tight. The system of jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation consists of an upper and lower nozzles directed so as to provide air supply along the motion of the main direction of hydro-flow in the zone of the expansion element. Also the system of jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation is installed between the narrowing and expansion elements. The interior diameter of the end of the expansion element coupled with the narrowing element through seal rings is bigger, than the interior diameter of the narrowing element end. The crevice of the upper nozzle is installed so as to direct air supply to the wall of the expansion element, while the crevice of the lower nozzle is installed to direct air supply to the central part of the main direction of hydro-flow motion. Vortexes are arranged inside the narrowing and expansion elements and are made in form of right triangles.
EFFECT: intensification of process of sand-clay rock destruction by means of aero-hydrodynamic cavitation with pressurised hydro-transporting to systems of deep processing.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be implemented at development of underflow gravel deposits located in canyon like river valleys in the North. All works are carried out in winter time. Preliminary an ice dike is built by layer-by-layer silvering upstream of the developed site in the river valley to stop water flow; this dike dams a stream canal with its weight; further after irrigation and ice removal of the site the underflow sediments forming the gravel deposit are developed according to procedure including their preliminary freezing with atmosphere cold, then layer-by-layer mechanical cutting off and raising on boards of the valley. To accelerate freezing of underflow sediments with atmosphere cold there is foreseen driving of trenches of required parameters.
EFFECT: increased year yield of mined mass; prolongation of working season; facilitating river and valley cleanness, also facilitating free access of fish to spawning area.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining valuable minerals from strong and high-ductile sandy and clay rocks during open mining of gold-bearing placers. The hydro-transportation pressure system with cavitation elements comprises a pipe with curves, and pipe narrowing and widening elements, rigidly joined together. The hydro-transportation pressure system has a jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation system and rigidly fixed swirlers. The jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation system comprises a system of jet nozzles, which are directed, with provision for supplying air in the direction of the main movement of the hydro-stream, in the zone of the widening element, and fitted between the narrowing element and the widening element with insertion of jet nozzles in the wall of the widening element, with provision for air-tightness. Round diverters are fitted in front of the jet nozzles. The swirlers are fitted inside the narrowing element and the widening element, and are in form of right-angled triangles, the acute angles of which in the narrowing element, are oriented in the main direction of movement of the hydro-stream, and opposite the main direction of movement of the hydro-stream in the widening element.
EFFECT: intensification of the process of guided destruction of sandy and clay rocks using jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation with pressure hydro-transportation to high-level processing systems.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining minerals from high-strength and high-plasticity sand and clay rocks during surface mining of gold-bearing placers. The hydro-transportation pressure system with mechanical cavitation has a narrowing element and an element for expanding the mechanical cavitator, with rigidly fixed swirlers. The movable reflecting element has an opening with curved edges. The swirlers are in form of right-angled triangles, the acute angles of which, in the narrowing element, are aligned in the direction of motion of the hydro-stream, and in the expansion element - against the direction of motion of the hydro-stream. The movable reflecting element is fitted on an axis with provision for periodic partial covering of the narrowest opening of the mechanical cavitator on both sides and is connected to the actuator of its rotation in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: intensification of the process of directed crushing of sand and clay rocks using mechanical cavitation with application of hydro-transportation to high-level processing system.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to excavation of mineral deposits, and particularly to gravel deposits, and can be used in the mining industry. The method involves pre-formation of a basin, formation of a dry zone on the productive stratum and basin in the stripped area, fitting interconnected, mining, transport and dump systems into the basin. Formation of the basin in the stripped area is done after piling up sand in it, with further extraction of the latter using a subsurface technique. The minimum distance from the basin to the heap of sand, as well as the depth of the basin, is determined from the maximum degree of weakening of the latter and technological parameters of the mining equipment.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of excavating high-clayey alluvial deposits.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used in dredging of thawed placers. Method includes removal of dead ground from dredging site, digging of drainage trench, pre-dredging of sand layer, removal of boulders, flooding and dredging of sands. Pre-dredging is performed over the uncovered area through sand blading by backhoe excavator, which draws transverse juds in travelling trench.
EFFECT: improved dredger performance, reduced loss of mineral in the soil, and lower unit costs of dredging of hard-dredging placers.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.
EFFECT: higher productiveness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for open-cut steeply dipping or inclined deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating pit up to design depth reaching by sliced benches; moving the benches as ore deposit is developed; cutting ore and debris; loading thereof on conveyance means to move ore to ground surface, wherein as pit is deepened conveyer systems are used; on reaching the design pit depth deposit is divided into slices and the slices are developed with minimal ore losses in triangular zones with negligible interaction in peripheral face by developed slot raise technology usage; reinforcing slopes with anchors and metal mesh at deep horizons where berm cleaning is difficult; performing slice cutting though the full ore body thickness at design pit bottom and conveying the cut ore to surface by steeply inclined conveyers and combined transportation means. In the case of ore development in slices having lesser thickness below pit bottom steeply dipping and vertical side part are built, concrete wall and metal mesh adapted to hold wedge-like lumps in the presence of potential caving, wherein in this case mining equipment is used and ore cut from underground layer is crushed in crushing mills located on main loading and transportation horizons and delivered to ground surface by conveyer or skip shaft. Mined-out space is filled with rock refuse at terminal stage.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of mineral extraction, reduced cost of deposit development.
8 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, as well as hydraulic, road, agriculture and other building, particularly to perform open cast mining and other woks by rock loosening.
SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining information concerning main and structural-and-strength rock properties on the base of estimation of data of primary and post-authorization prospecting, as well as production prospecting; detailed rock zoning to separate production blocks and unit blocks characterized by uniform rock at borders thereof; writing computer program; automatically loosing rock of each unit block by most effective method, namely by mechanical, pneumatic, blast drilling or physical one performed with the use of all-purpose mobile rig tools. Above rig includes computer system, device provided with one, two or three replaceable teeth, with plate-like metal pins and with hydraulic cylinders. The rig also has device adapted to create holes in unit block and wedge out thereof, drilling device and charging device, laser charge initiation system, local shelter with damping means, device for rock cutting by applying pressurized air and impacts to rock and auxiliary excavation device.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock preparation for further cutting and loading and for solid mineral field development as a whole.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop watered placer deposits and technological mineral deposits under permanent negative temperatures of ambient air.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing preparation and production works, mineral processing and refuse stacking operations. To implement above method dam is built around mining equipment and deposit to be developed prior to air temperature reduction to negative value; installing sled-mounted hangar having transparent heat insulated roof over the dam and performing all above mentioned works and operations inside the hangar.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of production and processing equipment.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for co-developing salt and platinum deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves detecting presence of platinum in non-soluble salt residue salt during salt deposit development; performing geological mapping of salt-bearing cavity and determining sand distribution in stratum above salt layer; drilling wells and bore pits and taking samples to determine platinum content; contouring sand deposits bearing platinum with concentration suitable for industrial development; cleaning surface; blocking out and excavating platinum-bearing sand; directing above sand to gravity separation plant; tying thereof with water in gravity separation plant to separate platinum therefrom.
EFFECT: increased complexity of deposit development.
FIELD: methods of surface mining, particularly for following natural stone treatment by covering or impregnating thereof with liquid or other flowable substances on surface.
SUBSTANCE: method involves gunning salt pit surface with waterproofing agent; covering salt pile surface with clay-and-salt mud layer in dry and hot season after salt pile hardening in at least 1.0-1.5 months after pile filling with salt. The clay-and-salt mud is sylvinite ore-dressing waste obtained from chemical factory. The clay-and-salt mud layer has 10-20 mm thickness and is formed by gunning salt pile surface with above mud material. The clay-and-salt mud is supplied into pneumatic pump receiver, wherein solid/liquid phase ratio is 1:2 - 1:3.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of salt pile waterproofing.
FIELD: agricultural; devices for treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of clarification of water at the industrial development of the placer deposits with utilization of the wastes of the timber loggings and extraction of the finely dispersed gold from the water runoffs of the gold mining. In the bed of the diversion channel they form the firebreak out of the filtering material containing the wood sawdust mass subjected to the preliminary sorting at the vibration installation and having the ratio of the fractions from 1 to 5 mm up to the fraction from 5 up to 15 mm as 1:3 and packaged in the netted forms made out of the wire skeleton. After the water clarification the wood sawdust mass is subjected to dehydration by pressing and to drying and incineration for extraction of the fine fractions of gold. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits of both mineral resources of high density (gold, platinum, etc), and valued minerals of low density.
SUBSTANCE: method for softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits includes driving a water-feeding trench, driving a water-collecting trench in 80-100 meters along direction of fall of deposit bed in parallel to water-feeding trench, depth of water-collecting trench providing for difference of bottom levels in trenches 1,5-3 meters, filling water-feeding trench with water and recharging it to maintain constant water level by means of gate and spillway with raised spillway gate, building walling dam 1-1,5 meters high, limiting the part of deposit being processed in plan, with spillway, after that outputs of filtration flow into water-collecting trench are constructed which are fixed by wetting of upper slope for height of 1-2 meters, then spillway gate is lowered onto spillway spine, and that part of deposit is flooded with water for depth of 0,8-1,3 meters and this level is maintained for initial softening of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits, after that dredger plant is assembled, consisting of suck-in line with suction device, dredger itself and force sludge duct. At the end of force sludge duct, vortex generator is mounted together with hydrodynamic cavitator, due to which during launch of operation of dredger plant argillaceous sands of gravel deposits along the way from face and suction device of dredger to hydrodynamic cavitator are subjected to second stage of softening and disintegration, and in hydrodynamic cavitator - to third-stage final disintegration, and then are dispatched to dressing plant.
EFFECT: increased productiveness and extraction efficiency during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits due to efficient softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits and release of valued components during hydro-transportation of sands to dressing equipment.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex incorporates a trestle with a tumbling bucket, a tumbling module with a chute located inside the closed loop of trench for disintegrated rock accumulation. The chute is directed along the rock inflow. The tumbling bucket installation provides for possibility of linear and angular displacement in the vertical plane; the bucket has slots and L-shaped rippers.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: said complex is provided with a supported trestle and an ultrasonic and mechanical tumbling module. Rotatable ultrasonic radiation module is connected to movable carriage rim by means of a hub and sliding supports. The movable carriage is provided with a drive for moving it along the trestle cross beam and a drive for turning the ultrasonic radiation module around the movable carriage yoke axis. The rotatable ultrasonic radiation module has drives for moving the ultrasonic sources in the vertical plane, a dual drive for moving the ultrasonic sources in horizontal plane, sensors to determine the rock physical and mechanical state, and communication links with functional module of disintegration process automatic control system.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.