Interferential method of measurement of surface microrelief altitude

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: this method is based on the use of coherent electromagnetic radiation. Under this technology optical nonlinearity of the surface with microrelief and reference specimen are created. Measurement of the surface microrelief is made by the analysis of the interferences obtained as a result of interaction between nonlinear optical surface reflected from the microrelief of the giant second harmonic and giant second harmonic reflected from the surface of the reference specimen. Unambiguity of the microrelief altitude measurement is ensured by the analysis of the interferences of the derived part of radiation and radiation reflected from the surface with microrelief. Optical nonlinearity of the surfaces with microrelief and reference specimen can be created by the method of chemical chemical etching of the surfaces or by their covering with metal nanoparticles or semiconductor particles.

EFFECT: improvement of the accuracy and unambiguity of the measurements of the microrelief altitude with sharp drop of altitudes.

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The invention relates to measuring equipment, namely, optical methods of measuring the height of microrelief surfaces of the interference method.

The prior art is well known technical solutions of a similar nature.

Thus the prior art method of determining the microrelief of an object and the optical properties of the surface layer, and the modulation of the interference microscope for the implementation of this method. The invention allows to increase the spatial resolution in the determination of geometrical parameters of the topography and distribution of the material optical constants, to expand the number of defined constants, including constants optical anisotropy, significantly increase the accuracy of determination of the material constants, as well as to extend the range of studied objects, see, for example, the description of the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2181498, G02B 21/00, 2002.

As a device for studies of microrelief surfaces containing a horizontal table mounted on the bed for laying and positioning of the measured object, a tool for information retrieval and the unit of analysis and presentation of information. For information reading device using optoelectronic head includes a laser light source and optically coupled to it through the object to be measured interest the General multielement photometric, the output of which is connected to the input of the electronic unit of the primary processing signal, the output of which is connected to the unit of analysis and presentation of information, which used the PC. Horizontal table is arranged to move in the horizontal coordinate plane (X, Y), equipped with actuators and sensors linear movements along the axes X and Y, the outputs of which are connected with the electronic unit of the primary signal processing, see, for example, the description of the application of the Russian Federation No. 97113784, G01B 1/00, 1999.

In addition, known is a method of differential-phase profilometry and/or profilograph described in the patent of Russian Federation №2179328, G02B 21/00, G01B 11/30, 2002. The method consists in the fact that the pre-scan light beam of the reference surface, and then along the same trajectories scan the analyzed surface. While sequentially scan the analyzed and reference surfaces of the two light beams divided into two paraxial beam. One of the beams move relative to another in terms of frequency and in space. Data on the phase difference of the reflected rays is adjusted on the basis of the phase difference of the reflected beams and integrated over the trajectory of the scan data for the reference surface. The device includes two acousto-optic deflector, two generator control signals for each of the CSOs acousto-optic deflector with a common reference frequency generator and the data processing unit. The invention improves the accuracy of imaging the sample surface and the accuracy of determination of profile parameters of the investigated surface, and also to enable the study of surfaces of objects of arbitrary shape.

The disadvantages of the measure of the height of the microrelief, built on the principle of the interferometer of any of the known types, should be attributed to the complexity of the compliance requirements for accuracy and unambiguity of the height measurements of the microrelief with sudden changes in gradient.

To solve this problem, as a rule, use a priori information or assumptions about the absence of sharp fluctuations of the microrelief.

The task to be solved by the invention, is to improve the accuracy and unambiguity of the height measurements of the microrelief with sudden changes in gradient based on the use of single-frequency laser interferometer.

Regardless of the type of input signal processing (estimation method, the phase difference in different interferometers), the output parameter is a harmonic function of the absolute phase:

where h is the height of the microrelief,

λ is the wavelength.

The connection between the absolute value of the phase and its estimation is given ambiguous function. In the absence of jumps the height of microrelief is and the required scan phase, since its appraised value varies from 0 to π. If the area of review, there are sharp increases in the height of the microrelief, such that measurement of the absolute phase corresponds to an integer number of intervals of uniqueness, you have the solution mixed assessment of the absolute phase and, accordingly, the height.

The ratio between the phase difference of the reference and reflected signals Δ and height of the microrelief ∆ H can be written in the form:

where α and β angles between the normal to the surface and the direction of illumination of the surface and observation of the micro-relief.

Divide the estimate errors of the absolute phase on normal and abnormal.

Using formula (2), we obtain the ratio between the variance of heightand the dispersion phase:

Obviously, the smaller the wavelength λ, the smaller the variance of the measurement errors of the height of the micro-relief.

However, it should be noted that the relationship between the absolute phase functions (and, respectively, between the height of the surface microrelief) and its estimate is given ambiguous function. This may be the cause of anomalous errors of estimating absolute phase and, accordingly, the height of the microrelief. This fact can be written as follows:

where i is an arbitrary integer.

The solution is unambiguous evaluation phase can be interpreted as the problem of estimating the number i in the last expression.

Interval unambiguous solution phase measurement depends on the parameters of the interferometric system, in particular on the operating frequency. Reducing the operating frequency (increasing wavelength), increase the interval unambiguous definition phase.

However, it should be noted that with increasing interval unambiguous determination of the absolute phase and, accordingly, the height of the microrelief degrade the accuracy of the estimated phase difference in the interferometer system. Thus, the interval unambiguous detection and accurate measurement of the height of the microrelief are in dispute, to decide which single frequency interferometer in the absence of a priori information is not possible.

Of the radio there is a method of solving such problems by using multi-frequency interferometers.

In this case, the long-wavelength interferometer solves the problem of increasing the area of ambiguity of the phase measurement, and the generator is less wavelength - the task of providing the required accuracy of its measurement.

In the present invention this task is solved on the basis of use as the "long-wave" generator of coherent radiation, zondi the respective laser as "short-wave" effect of generation of the reflected second harmonic (SHG), characteristic of the nonlinear optical surfaces [1, 2]. Such nonlinear optical surface for semiconductors and metals can be obtained by electrochemical etching of the material of the test surface to the level of education of nanoscale roughness level, and in General - coating the sample surface layer of particles of metal or semiconductor nano-level.

In this case, the error introduced in the measurement of the height of the microrelief, will not exceed the depth of etching or the sizes of these particles, i.e. the magnitude of the order of several units of nanometers (~2÷5·10-9m).

The phenomenon of generation of the reflected second harmonic (hereinafter - VG) is the emergence of electromagnetic radiation at twice the frequency of the reflection of laser radiation from the surface of the nonlinear medium.

In principle, the appearance of new spectral component (for example, harmonics, sum and difference frequencies) in the interaction of light with matter can be understood from the model nonlinear optical medium, which has a dielectric constant ε(E), depending on the strength of the electric field E of the light wave.

Then the electric displacement

D(E)=ε(E)E=1+4π(PL+PNL(E)

becomes nainan is th function of the field and contains as a summand of the nonlinear polarization P NL(E).

By analogy with linear polarization (dipole moment per unit volume) PL(1)E, where χ(1)by definition, the linear susceptibility of the substance, the nonlinear polarization PNL(E) can be represented as a series in powers of the fields with nonlinear vospriimchivosti n-th order χ(n)as the coefficients of this series:

You can see that the first term in the decomposition (1)is quadratically dependent on the field strength of the light wave, is a source of radiation at double frequency. Indeed, in the propagation plane monochromatic light wave E(r,t)=E0e-iωt+ikrin a nonlinear medium with nonlinear susceptibility of the second order χ(2)will be excited wave polarization (dipole moment) PNL(2ω)=χ(2)E02e-i2ωt+i2krat frequency 2ω, which is the source of light radiation VG [1, 2].

Of particular interest to the phenomenon of generation of the reflected SH is associated with a unique surface selectivity and sensitivity of this nonlinear optical process.

High sensitivity reflected VG to morphological surface properties associated with a strong polarization selection rules prohibiting the generation of s-polarized wave VG s-polarized wave NATICK is on a smooth homogeneous isotropic surface.

Polarization of light waves is called the s-polarization when the electric field vector of the wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence (the plane passing through the normal to the surface and the wave vector of the light wave). This polarization selection rule, called s,s-prohibition is violated for rough surfaces of metals and semiconductors.

Experimental investigations of violations of s,s-ban when generating VG to rough the surface of the silver has revealed the effect of the generation of reflected giant VG (SHG) [1, 2].

The term "giant" is used by physicists to emphasize that generated such a rough surface VG exceeds the intensity permitted VG on a smooth surface by several orders of magnitude. This amplification is associated with excitation in the beads of metal or semiconductor, located on the surface of the sample under the action of light pumping collective dipole oscillations of electrons. The electric field of the dipole excitations increases internal (in other words, the local field by orders of magnitude, causing a giant nonlinear optical effects.

The above experimental studies were conducted during the application of the roughness on the smooth surface of the silver with a characteristic size of the inhomogeneity of the order of 1 nm.

For h is usually used to determine the nature of the roughness, occur in such small quantities, together with the study of the generation of VG were obtained image surface in the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) before and after electrochemical etching. Analysis of surface images obtained using STM showed that the resulting roughness is a rare group of balls of silver with the characteristic sizes of 2-3 nm. These surface formations were the sources of the observed SHG [1, 2].

Figure 1 shows a typical optical layout of the experiment on the observation and study of the process of generation of the reflected VG. The basic names of the elements in a typical optical diagrams ibid. Eω,2ω- the electric field of the light wave at the frequency of the probe laser and the frequency of the second harmonic.

Such installations, their purpose, allow to study the radiation parameters VG generated by the surface layer of the investigated material, such as a spectrum intensity VG - dependence of the intensity on the frequency of the exciting light ω; azimuthal anisotropy intensity VG - dependence of the intensity on the angle φ of rotation of the sample relative to the normal to the surface; the polarization and phase of a wave VG; the radiation pattern of the reflected - wave dependence intensively the tee from the polar angle θand so, carry information about the structural, morphological and electronic properties of the surface or interface [1, 2].

Thus, making the surface nonlinear optical properties allows for the probing of her coherent laser radiation with frequency ω to obtain the generation of the reflected SHG.

Below is a description of graphic materials, in no way limiting all possible embodiments of the claimed invention.

Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the device for scanning micro-relief image. The following numbering of the blocks of the device, the name used in the text abbreviations:

1 - probe laser (PLN),

2 - point laser (PL) PLN

3.1 - 3.5 - optical lens (OL),

4 - narrow-band optical filter (UAF),

5 is a beam splitter (DM),

6 is a semi - transparent mirror (PZ),

7 - reference sample (EA),

8.1, 8.2 - photoresistive device (FRU and FRU) to register interference radiation at frequencies ω and 2ω, respectively,

9 - the surface microrelief (MCI),

10 - electronic computing device (EVA),

11 monitor the EVA (MMU),

12 - Electromechanical device (EMU),

13 - device scanning surface,

14 - optical polarizer (OP),

ω, 2ω - frequency radiation PLN and SHG, respectively,

α - angle is svedeniya microrelief,

β is the angle of the signal frequency ω,

γ is the angle signal of frequency 2ω.

When designing an optical circuit device is provided such relative positions of the optical elements of the scheme (A-A, P (14), α, β, γ, and others), which provide for maximum SHG intensity of microrelief and SHG reference sample.

Below is an example implementation of the invention is in no way limiting all options for its implementation.

To obtain the reference signal part polarized using OP(14) radiation RL (1) using the SD (5) through PZ (6) is directed to EA (7), the surface of which is covered with a metal or semiconductor particles of nanoscale level, size, and material are identical to those particles that are used to cover the surface.

Moving PL (2) along the surface microrelief, for example, on the principle of progressive scan on the basis of processing the interference patterns at the inputs FEU (8.1) and FAO (8.2) calculate the desired height of the microrelief bound to the defined coordinate EMU (16), and stores their values in the EVA (14). When the structure of the microrelief abrupt elevation changes in excess of the scope ambiguity of measurements at a frequency of SHG, the information is corrected based on the measurement of the interference circuit at the frequency of Sonder the laser irradiation, the scope of uniqueness which is twice the area of ambiguity at the SHG frequency.

Upon completion of the scanning of the surface microrelief on the screen MMU (15) in digital or graphic form can be displayed as a vertical section, and ravnovesie circuit microrelief, and when multiple scan - studied processes of change microrelief in time.

As photoregistered devices FRU (8.1) and FRU 2 (8.2) can be used photomultiplier tube (PMT) or charge-coupled devices (CCD).

The frequency selectivity of the PMT (8.2) at a frequency of SHG provides WAF (4), which can be used, for example, a diffraction optical filter.

Optical lens (3.1-3.5) and OP (14) features are not.

Particles of nanoscale level can be obtained, for example, by mechanical grinding of the matter from which they are created. Existing technologies create nanomoney structures today allow you to create nanoscale particles of a given size, as well as to cover the surface with a controlled value of the layers and the density of particles per unit surface area.

Thus, the proposed method of measuring the height of the surface microrelief can be implemented with the use of modern technologies, including the of technology, and existing electronic, optical and electro-mechanical equipment.

With respect to the optical methods of investigation of the microrelief on the basis of single-frequency interferometer proposed method has better accuracy due to the use of SHG, the source of which is artificially created optical nonlinearity of the surface of the investigated surface.

Sources

1. Aktsipetrov O.A. Nonlinear optics of surfaces of metals and semiconductors. Soros educational journal, volume 6, No. 12, 2000.

2. Aktsipetrov O.A. Giant nonlinear optical phenomena on the surface of metals. Soros educational journal, volume 7, No. 7, 2001.

1. The method of measuring the height of the surface microrelief of the interference method based on the use of coherent electromagnetic radiation, characterized in that create optical nonlinearity of surface microrelief and the reference sample, while measuring the height of the microrelief provide by analyzing the interference resulting from the interaction with nonlinear optical surface, reflected from the surface microrelief second harmonic and second harmonic reflected from the surface of the reference sample, and unambiguous measurement of the height of the microrelief provide a path analysis in which Referencia branched part of coherent electromagnetic radiation and coherent electromagnetic radiation, reflected from the surface microrelief.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the optical nonlinearity of surface microrelief and the reference sample are created by a method of chemical etching of the surface or coating particles of nanoscale level of metal, such as silver, or a semiconductor such as silicon.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as coherent electromagnetic radiation using laser radiation in the near infrared and visible optical wavelengths.



 

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