Thermal siphon

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for heat transfer and can be used for ensuring operation of mechanical devices submerged into liquid medium. Thermal siphon contains housing, the working volume of lower chamber of which is filled with liquid, cone by means of which the lower chamber with steam line for transporting steam is partitioned, steam generator in lower chamber and condenser in upper chamber. Condenser is cooled surface of upper chamber of thermal siphon, some part of lower chamber is intended for air accumulation and other gaseous impurities originally contained in thermal siphon. Valve for releasing some air to the outside is installed in lower chamber.

EFFECT: invention allows improving heat transfer effectiveness in thermal siphon from heated part to cooled section by intensifying heat transfer during condensation in conditions of high air content of the system.

1 dwg


The invention relates to heat exchange devices and can be used as a heat transfer device to provide mechanical devices, immersed in a liquid, such as oil circuit breakers at low ambient temperatures. Existing heating device that uses a standard tubular heaters heater, are not reliable enough and can lead to fire low-oil circuit breakers series TDC.

There are various types of thermosyphons and heat pipes, however, almost all of them to work effectively require pumping of air and maintain high integrity, resulting in reduced reliability of the devices and their high cost [Reference exchangers. M, Energoatomizdat, 1987, Dan P., Rey D. Heat pipes. Meters, Energy, 1979, 272 S., I.L. Pioro, Antonenko, VA, Pioro PS Efficient heat exchangers with two-phase thermosyphons. Kyiv. Naukova Dumka, 1991, 246 S.]. The presence of even a small admixture of air in the inner part of thermosyphons leads to a sharp decrease of heat transfer coefficient during condensation of the working fluid.

Of considerable interest are devices that would provide a reliable supply of heat by any content of air in the system.

It is known a device in which IP is result special plate for the formation of vapor cavities in the condensation zone, eliminating the influence of penetrating from the outside air [A.S. No. 1764199, 1990.03.16, 5 NC 7/20]. However, the proposed design does not prevent the influence of the gases dissolved in the liquid, and has a number of design constraints.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is the device shipped with the system for cooling electronic equipment, the distinctive feature of which is the presence of the guide cone or cavity for collecting or direction of the pair [RF patent №2066518, 1993.04.05, 6 NC 7/20].

The disadvantage of this device is the lack of areas for accumulation of non-condensable impurities, which significantly affects the intensity of condensation.

The present invention is the problem of increasing the efficiency of heat transfer in thermosyphon from the heated portion to the cooled area through intensification of heat transfer during condensation in conditions of high air content in the system.

The task is solved by the fact that in the known device of thermosyphon, comprising a housing, a working volume of the lower chamber which is filled with fluid, a funnel, which is blocked by the lower chamber, with the steam pipe for conveying steam, the steam in the lower chamber and the condenser in the upper chamber, the condenser is cooled surface of the upper chamber t is Rosita, the lower part of the chamber reserved for the accumulation of air and other gaseous impurities originally contained in thermosyphon, while in the lower chamber has a valve for dropping part of the air to the outside (the drawing). thermosyphon without a funnel with tubing for the movement of the pair can work properly only if the system is rolled back, the air and the liquid is thoroughly degassed. Otherwise, the admixture of foreign gas dramatically reduces the intensity of the condensation process and the result is not ensured transfer the required heat flux. The presence of a funnel with tubing for the movement of the pair leads to the fact that pure steam arising from the boiling liquid on the heater, accumulates in the funnel and flows through the steam in the condensation zone, pushing staying there the air in the lower chamber. Using the valve located in the chamber, allows for a certain pressure to throw in chamber the air in the atmosphere, resulting in improved characteristics of thermosyphon and the reduction of pressure in the system. As the working fluid used isopropyl alcohol solution in water, which provides nezamerzayka working fluid at low temperatures.

The device consists of an upper chamber 1 having the shape of a vertical cylinder with Crisco is 2, the lower chamber 6, which is partitioned by a funnel 7 with small holes on the sides for flow of liquid and steam line 3, valve 4 and the heater 5, the drawing. The cylinder is inserted into the slot of the oil switch series TDC.

The device operates as follows.

The drawing shows the device in operation. At the initial moment of the lower chamber of thermosyphon fluid-filled. The fill level is determined from a calculation that in the device the air is forced into the lower chamber. When the power load is heated fluid in the lower chamber. In boiling liquid vapor is collected in the funnel, enters the steam and forth, displacing the air that extends from the upper chamber. The process is accompanied by the increase of pressure in the system, resulting in a volume of air originally contained in thermosyphon decreases. The steam line 3 and the cover of the cylinder 2 is arranged so that the jet of steam is directed to the cooled cylinder walls where condensation of the steam. The result of forcing air from the inner surface of the cylinder, the intensity of the condensation process is increased, and the pressure in the system decreases. A large part of the air from the upper chamber accumulates at the bottom. If the stage of the start system load gradually increase to values larger than nominal, then the pressure in the system reaches a certain value, in which the work is installed in the lower chamber of the valve and the part of the air will come out of thermosyphon. Working pressure decreases, the intensity of condensation increases. The reduction in operating pressure in the system will lead to a decrease in losses of the working fluid, which will increase the time of operation of thermosyphon without refueling.

The use of the proposed device allows to significantly increase the efficiency of heat transfer in thermosyphon from the heated portion to the cooled area, thus increasing the operating time of thermosyphon without refueling.

Calculations and experimental studies [Kabov O.A., Chinnov E.A. Vapor-gas mixture condensation in a two-chamber vertical thermosyphon. Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer. 2002, Vol.9, pp.57-67] showed that the considered design of thermosyphon provides heat input capacity of 2 kW for low-oil switch series TDC when the height of the capacitor 830 mm and an external diameter of 50 mm is used as the working fluid of water with 40% by weight by the addition of isopropyl alcohol.

thermosyphon, comprising a housing, a working volume of the lower chamber which is filled with fluid, a funnel, which is blocked by the lower chamber with the steam line for transporting steam, the steam in the lower chamber and the condenser in the upper chamber, characterized in that the condenser is cooled surface of the upper chamber of thermosyphon, frequent the lower chambers reserved for the accumulation of air and other gaseous impurities, originally contained in thermosyphon, while in the lower chamber has a valve for dropping part of the air to the outside.


Same patents:

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: this heat pipe is intended mainly for freezing of soil. Pipe includes tight housing filled up with heat carrier and having evaporation and condensation zones, and transport zone, as well as thermoelectric elements, cold surfaces of which have thermal contact to external surface of housing wall in condensation zone, and hot surfaces - to heaters. Peculiar feature of pipe is that housing is provided with external surface of wall having rectangular shape (60) in cross section in condensation zone at the internal cross section in that zone, which does not change as to housing length. Thermoelectric converters (6) are installed on all four sides of external surface of housing wall, and heaters are made in the form of finned plates (8) so that they form cavity (9) enclosing the housing, and free internal volume of the above cavity is filled with low heat-conducting material with low saturation coefficient.

EFFECT: increasing heat transfer ability of heat pipe.

Steam boiler // 2373455

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention is meant for steam generation and can be used in steam boiler design. Steam boiler includes drum, furnace, steam collector, and superheater. Furnace longitudinal axis is offset downwards relative to longitudinal axis of cylindrical drum. Furnace is made in the form of hollow cylinder closed with covers on both sides, and in upper arch of which rectangular through channels are provided at some distance from each other in longitudinal and cross directions. In the above channels there inserted are heat transfer devices installed so that longitudinal axis of each of them is located in radius line of furnace and passes through centre of circle of the latter. Heat transfer devices are made in the form of heat pipes, each of which has rectangular hollow duct whereto covers are welded from above and from bellow, and inside each heat tube there is liquid filling up 1/4 of the volume, which has been supplied through the hole made in upper cover, which is closed with a plug. Lower parts of heat pipes, being heating and evaporation zones, protrude to furnace volume. Upper parts of heat pipes, being condensation zones, are located in the form of a fan in upper part of cylindrical drum and have cooling ribs.

EFFECT: invention provides more complete and faster use of generated heat, its supply to the whole volume of water and its uniform heating, increasing boiler capacity, life time.

7 dwg

FIELD: engine and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: heat-pipe jet engine relates to power engineering and can be used to recover secondary and natural thermal resources, particularly to convert thermal power into mechanical power. Proposed engine comprises housing coated with wick from inside and plugged by a bush, evaporator chamber in contact with hot medium, closure with inlet hole, condensation chamber incorporating rod with valve and staying in contact with cold medium. Portion of the housing outer surface is coated with bellows in the area of condensation chamber. Lower end face wall edges are jointed to the edge of inner board of circular reservoir with its outer board edge being rigidly jointed to the bellows lower edge. Reservoir outer board center is connected to working member. Spaces between bellows and housing, as well as condensation chamber vapor space are intercommunicated via branch pipes passing the openings of the bush, wick and housing.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other branches of industries using the catalytic gas-phase processes. The reactor contains the casing 1, means of initial components input 2, means of end-product output 3, catalyst area 4, heat inlet and takeoff unit designed as array of heat pipes 6, passing through the catalyst area 4. The part of every heat pipe is separated from the rest of internal heat pipe volume with membrane designed of the gas conducting material. The heat pipe volume separated with membrane can be connected with vacuum pump.

EFFECT: invention allows prevention of hydrogen diffusion along the heat pipes and provides the effective heat transfer from heat pipes to catalyst.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for heat exchange and can be used in different industry branches. A heat exchanger comprises a lower casing part with the fittings for supplying and removing the heating medium and an upper casing part with the fittings for supplying and removing the medium being heated, upper and lower parts of the heat pipes fixed in the upper and lower pipe plates respectively with a common heat pipe chamber being formed between the plates. The heat exchanger is equipped with a pressure-and-vacuum gage and a gate set prior to it. The common heat pipe chamber is communicated to the gate connected to the vacuum air suction system. The heat pipes are of U-like shape.

EFFECT: control of pressure in the heat pipes, elimination of dryout in the evaporator and protection from the media mixing.

1 dwg

FIELD: aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to creation and operation of elements of thermostatting systems, and namely telecommunication satellite instruments. Method involves determination of heat tube temperature differential values between evaporation and condensation sections thereof within the range of changing operating temperatures of those sections. At that, to evaporation section there supplied is one and the same required heat power for various amounts of excessive heat carrier wherewith the inner cavity of heat tube housing is filled. In that cavity there made is a wick in the form of longitudinal grooves on the housing inner surface. Temperature differential values between the above heat tube evaporation and condensation sections at maximum operating temperature of evaporation section and for the specified amounts of filled excessive heat carrier are determined at minimum allowable operating temperature of condensation section. At that, amounts of filled excessive heat carrier meet the certain condition expressing the dependence of those amounts on heat carrier densities at maximum and minimum allowable operating temperatures of evaporation and condensation sections.

EFFECT: reliable determination of temperature differentials at heat tube ground test between evaporation and condensation sections thereof, as well as maximum allowable amount of filled excessive heat carrier at which there provided are the above temperature differentials in all heat tube orbital operating conditions.

2 dwg

Heat exchanger // 2351864

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for utilisation and accumulation of heat of smoke fumes, compressed air of compressor plants or other highly potential sources of heat supply. Heat exchanger comprises body, in which coolant pipe is installed, and thermal ribbed tubes. One end of thermal tubes is installed inside coolant pipe as inclined to generatrices of cylindrical surface of coolant pipe along helical line, and the other one is installed in body. Ribs are arranged on that part of thermal tubes installed in body. Thermal ribbed tubes are vacuumised and filled with water portions.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat transfer and simplified design.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; heating.

SUBSTANCE: utiliser of waste gases heat contains thermal pipes that are made with annular cross sections and through central channels, which are connected with gas supply nozzle. Evaporation sections of pipes are installed in flue duct, and condensation sections of pipes are installed in water supply system. Outlets of central channels of thermal pipes communicate with flue duct bottom part, with which multicyclone element inlets also communicate, which are equipped with vortex generators, and their outlets are connected to nozzles, which are installed in flue duct between thermal pipes, perforated partition that overlaps intertubular space sides with nozzle top ends, and its openings are coaxial to openings of nozzles, at that partition is installed in plane that is inclined at an angle to horizon to provide direction of flows of gas from nozzles purified in cyclone elements in direction to outlet nozzle of flue duct with approximately identical velocities.

EFFECT: efficient purification of gases from hard aerosol particles and avoidance of dust deposition in flue duct.

1 dwg

Radiator device // 2333621

FIELD: electronics.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to electronics and specifically to heat transfer and can be used in aircraft-borne equipment for increasing efficiency of heat transfer and protection from electromagnetic interference. The radiator device is in contact with a heat-loaded element and has several lamellar thermal plates, each of which has a heat absorption part, in contact with the surface of the heat loaded element, and a heat releasing surface, which is a continuation of the heat absorption part. The thermal plates are arranged in piles, in which the heat absorption part of the plates forms the centre of the pile of the thermal plates. The device also has a pair of squeezing blocks between the heat absorption parts of the pile of thermal plates and squeezing the heat absorption part of the plates. The heat releasing part of the plates is such that, after forming the plates, a structure is formed, in which the heat releasing parts of the plate are parallel to each other, and the heat absorption parts form a closed space on all sides, in which the heat loaded element is put. The plates have a current conducting coating. The radiator device has a ventilator, fitted such that, air streams pass through parallel thermal plates. Besides that, the radiator device is in electrical contact with the contact area of a printed circuit board, forming a single earthing contour.

EFFECT: design of a highly efficient heat transfer radiator and protection from electromagnetic interferences.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: lowering of total thermal resistance due to using of wrap-around heat-transfer tube as thermal loop, which tube features local positioning of capillary structure in evaporator, is achieved by the fact, that the device consists of heat-transfer tube performed as loop containing flat evaporator with capillary structure, and cooling fan. Flat evaporator has steam and liquid frontal cameras communicating with each other by means of parallel tube bundle acting as condenser connected with external finning. Tube bundle can be connected with evaporator cameras directly or by means of tube collectors. Due to using of flat-shaped evaporator and increase of uniformity of radiator ribs heating by condenser performed according to collector scheme.

EFFECT: decrease in device mass and lowering of noise level due to lowering of required speed of air flow and rotation frequency of cooling fan.

11 cl, 5 dwg

Microcooling device // 2247912

FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly heat exchange apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: device to remove heat from heat-generation component includes coolant stored in liquid coolant storage part, heat absorbing part including at least one the first microchannel and installed near heat-generation component. Heat absorbing part communicates with storage part. Liquid coolant partly fills microchannel due to surface tension force and evaporates into above microchannel with gaseous coolant generation during absorbing heat from heat generation component. Device has coolant condensing part including at least one the second microchannel connected to above coolant storage part separately from the first microchannel, gaseous coolant movement part located near heat-absorbing part and condensing part and used for gaseous coolant movement from the first microchannel to the second one. Device has case in which at least heat-absorbing part is placed and heat-insulation part adjoining heat absorbing part to prevent heat absorbed by above part from migration to another device parts.

EFFECT: reduced size, increased refrigeration capacity, prevention of gravity and equipment position influence on device operation.

22 cl, 4 dwg

Heat pipe // 2254533

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pipe comprises vertical housing with evaporation and condensation zones and partially filled with heat-transfer agent and coaxial hollow insert in the evaporation zone which defines a ring space with the housing and is provided with outer fining. An additional hollow cylindrical insert of variable radius made of a non-heat-conducting material is interposed between the condensation zone and coaxial hollow insert. The outer side of the additional insert and inner side of the housing of the heat pipe define a closed space.

EFFECT: reduced metal consumption.

1 dwg

Heat exchanger // 2255284

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing separated into chambers of evaporation and condensation with a baffle provided with heat pipes which are arranged in both of the chambers. The zones of evaporation of the pipes are positioned inside the evaporation chamber, and zones of the condensation of the pipes are positioned inside the condensation chamber. The heat pipes inside the evaporation chamber are made of wound pipes of oval cross-section. The zones of condensation of heat pipes are also made of wound pipes of oval cross-section .

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 6 dwg

Heat pipe // 2256862

FIELD: heating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.

EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.

1 dwg

Thermosiphon // 2261405

FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.

SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.

SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.

14 dwg, 18 cl

FIELD: applicable for heat abstraction in various media.

SUBSTANCE: the heat transferring device has a sealed pipe with condensation and evaporation zones filled up with a heat-transfer agent with pockets provided on the inner surface, the pockets used for inhibition of draining condensate are located in the evaporation zone and made annular or formed by the sections of the helical surface adjoining the pipe inner wall with its lower edge at an acute angle, which are separated from one another by radial partitions, the annular pocket is formed by the side surface of the truncated cone, adjoining the inner wall of the mentioned pipe with the larger base. Besides, at least some of the pockets located one above other are positioned at such a distance that a capillary effect occurs between the surfaces facing one the other.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat transfer due to the increase of the pipe surface wettable by the heat-transfer agent, as well as simplified structure an facilitated actuation of the device.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemical and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises housing, means for supplying initial components and discharging finished product, unit for heating and cooling made of a number of heat pipes, additional catalyzer applied on the heat pipes and/or housing and made of a coating. The heat pipes are staggered in the space of the housing. The total area of the surface of the heat pipes in the catalytic zone should provide heating and cooling the catalytic zone.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electric mechanical engineering, possible use for cooling electric generators and electric engines.

SUBSTANCE: in proposed system for cooling electric machines, containing compressed air source with force pipeline, splitting vortex pipe, having as a result of energy division to hollows - hot one and cold one, thermal pipe made inside the hollow shaft of electric machine, as a special feature, along axis of hollow shaft a tubular channel is made for passage of cold flow from splitting vortex pipe, and space, formed by external surface of tubular channel and internal surface of hollow shaft is thermal pipe, condensation area of which - external surface of tubular channel, and evaporation area - internal surface of hollow shaft.

EFFECT: efficient and even cooling of electric machine, simplified construction, increased manufacturability.

2 dwg

FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.

EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.

7 dwg