Gravity-assisted heat pipe

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: this heat pipe is intended mainly for freezing of soil. Pipe includes tight housing filled up with heat carrier and having evaporation and condensation zones, and transport zone, as well as thermoelectric elements, cold surfaces of which have thermal contact to external surface of housing wall in condensation zone, and hot surfaces - to heaters. Peculiar feature of pipe is that housing is provided with external surface of wall having rectangular shape (60) in cross section in condensation zone at the internal cross section in that zone, which does not change as to housing length. Thermoelectric converters (6) are installed on all four sides of external surface of housing wall, and heaters are made in the form of finned plates (8) so that they form cavity (9) enclosing the housing, and free internal volume of the above cavity is filled with low heat-conducting material with low saturation coefficient.

EFFECT: increasing heat transfer ability of heat pipe.

 

The invention relates to heat engineering, namely to heat transfer devices, and relates to the constructive execution of the gravitational heat pipe designed for freezing of the soil.

A known design of heat pipes that use thermoelectric converters (see, for example, USSR author's certificate No. 389364, publ. 05.07.1973 [1]; USSR author's certificate No. 826189, publ. 30.04.1981 [2]; the patent of Russian Federation №2035673, publ. 20.05.1995 [3].

Pipe copyright testimony [1] is the case with capillary-porous filler on its inner surface, divided into compartments with zones of evaporation and condensation. The compartments are separated from each other by partitions in the form of batteries, thermoelectric elements, hot surface which faces the evaporation zone, and cold - in the direction of the condensation zone.

Pipe copyright testimony [2] has a body with zones of evaporation, transport and condensation and mounted on bearings inside the perforated sleeve with a screw thread on the outer surface. Rotation of this sleeve is a forced feed of the liquid phase coolant from the condensation zone to the evaporation zone.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe closest to the heat pipe according to the patent [3]. This pipe is sealed, the zones of evaporation, transport and condensation, made with the possibility of refilling the coolant, and the body in the condensation zone has a variable cross-section constriction. The tube also contains thermoelectric converters, cold surface in contact with the opposite outer sides of the casing wall in the condensation zone, and hot surface - mounted radiators.

Have the narrowing of the hull in the condensation zone leads to an increase in hydraulic resistance to the movement of steam from the evaporation zone to the surface condensation and therefore adversely affects heat transfer capability of the pipe. In addition, there is heat transfer from the radiator to the case in the condensation zone, which is the higher, the greater temperature pressure provide applied thermoelectric converters. This heat transfer is enhanced by the availability of external surfaces of the casing wall between the surfaces that contact thermoelectric converters. The moisture contained in the outside air, cooling radiators, has in this design the ability to condense on the body in the condensation zone and other cold items, which also leads to lower heat transfer capability of the heat pipe.

The present invention is directed to DOS iunie technical result consisting in increasing the heat transfer capability of the heat pipe. Below in the description of the essence of the present invention and the description of particular cases of its implementation will be named and other types achieved technical result.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe, as specified closest to it is known by the patent [3], comprises a sealed enclosure with the evaporation zone, transport zone and a condensation zone, made with the possibility of refilling the coolant, and thermoelectric elements, cold surfaces which have thermal contact with the outer surface of the casing wall in the condensation zone, and hot surfaces - with radiators.

To achieve the mentioned technical result of the proposed gravitational heat pipe unlike most similar known case is made with the outer surface of the wall having a cross-section in the condensation zone of rectangular shape, with a constant along the length of the housing inner cross-section in the area of thermoelectric converters installed on all four sides of the outer surface of the casing wall, and the radiators are made in the form of finned plates. The latter form covers the body cavity, the free internal volume of which is filled nizkoteploprovodnye m is a material with a low coefficient of water absorption.

The rectangular shape of the outer wall of the casing in the zone of condensation in the absence of the contraction of the internal cross-section in combination with the placement of thermoelectric converters on all four sides walls provide more intensive cooling in the condensation zone without increasing the hydraulic resistance to the movement of steam. At the same time hull shape and placement of thermoelectric converters create the possibility of performing radiators with the formation of this closed cavity. This, in turn, in combination with the cavity filling material with these properties prevents heat transfer from the radiator to the case in the condensation zone and the access to it and other cold items moisture contained in ambient air. Ultimately described a set of interrelated factors contribute to the increase in heat transfer capability of the proposed pipe.

Preferably this embodiment of the proposed heat pipe, in which case in the condensation zone is a square tube, the flat faces of the outer surface which has thermoelectric converters. This thermoelectric transducers located on each face of the outer surface of the hull offset along the length of the housing relative to termoelektro the static converters, installed on adjacent faces, and opposite thermoelectric transducers mounted on the opposite face. Finned plate radiator pressed to thermoelectric converters and together with them, to the outer surface of the casing wall.

The pressing can be carried out, for example, bolted, the bolts which pass between thermoelectric transducers mounted on opposite sides of the wall surface of the housing. The bolts are made from a material with high thermal resistance.

The specified square pipe in the condensation zone can be performed with partitions between the opposing faces. This will keep the flat shape of the outer surface faces and low contact thermal resistance between the structural elements at the required gripping effort.

The casing in the zone of condensation can also be carried out in the form of a circular tube, enclosed in a cast connected with it by a square pipe, with the formation between the two pipes angular gaps. The last filled or plugged with a waterproof material with good thermal conductivity. Pressing of the finned plate radiator to thermoelectric converters in this case can be performed by means of bolts or screws from a material with the high thermal resistance, passing through holes in these plates and the screw holes in the wall of the square tube made within the specified angular gaps.

This embodiment prevents deformation of the casing in the zone of thermoelectric converters and heat transfer from the radiator to the housing by clamping bolts and waterproof material with high thermal conductivity prevents penetration into the corner clearances moisture and condensation on cold interior surfaces, while improving the heat dissipation from round the tube.

Around the finned plate radiator can be installed with impermeable sides of the casing in the upper part of which is placed a fan. In this case, the fins on the finned plate radiator is oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing. For this orientation of the fins and fan provides better heat dissipation from the radiator.

In all the above cases, thermoelectric converters can have thermal contact with the outer surface of the wall of the housing directly or via the heat-conducting elements. The latter is made of material with good thermal conductivity, for example in the form of parallelepipeds from an alloy based on aluminum or copper based. The presence of the heat transfer elements can increase the distance between the cold CDF is the condition of the condensation zone and hot radiators and thereby reduce parasitic nitecki warmth on the body.

The present invention is illustrated in the drawings figure 1-7.

Figure 1 presents a General view of the gravity heat pipe with electrothermal converters arranged on a rectangular outer surface of the casing wall.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section a-a of the condensation zone 1.

Figure 3 presents the cross-section b-B of the condensation zone 1.

Figure 4 given cross-section b-B of the condensation zone 1 with case hardened partitions.

Figure 5 shows a cross section b-B of the condensation zone 1 when running casing in the form of a circular tube, enclosed in a cast connected with it by a square pipe.

Figure 6 presents the gravitational heat pipe with forced cooling finned plate radiator.

7 shows a cross section b-b of the condensation zone 6.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe (1) comprises a sealed housing 1, in the working or ready to work condition filled with the heat carrier 2 and has an area of 3 evaporation, transport zone 4 and zone 5 of condensation. Signs "+" in figure 1 is conventionally shown the presence of thermoelectric converters. The coolant in the heat pipe is in the saturation state, in which a large part of the enclosure volume occupied by steam, and small - condensate in the de liquid. For filling the casing 1 has the tubulation (not shown).

In zone 5 condensation (figure 2, 3) on the sides of the hull, having a form of a square tube 60, the set of thermoelectric converters 6, connected to a power source (not shown). Thermoelectric converters his cold surface through heat transfer elements 7 in the form of a parallelepiped made of an alloy based on aluminum or copper-based pressed against the outer surface of the wall of the casing 1, and their hot surfaces in contact with the finned plates 8 radiators. Their edges in this case are oriented perpendicular to the axis of the housing in the condensation zone. You may also not shown in the drawings, the placement of thermoelectric converters directly on the outer surface of the shell.

On each face of the square tube 60 has one row of thermoelectric converters 6. They are located at some distance from one another so that thermoelectric transducers mounted on the adjacent faces of the outer surface of the housing are offset relative to each other along the length of the body (cf. the location of the groups of transducers 6, mounted on the wall of the housing, parallel figure 2 frontal plane, and converters 6, installed on the sides is x the walls of the casing and shown in figure 2 in section). Thermoelectric transducers mounted on opposite sides of the square tube, are located opposite each other. These thermoelectric transducers clamped ribbed plate 8 radiators. Elements for pressing, at the same time serving to compress thermoelectric transducers to the surface of the body (through heat transfer elements or directly), can represent, for example, bolts 10 and nuts 50, passing in the gap between thermoelectric transducers (figure 3). The bolts can hold, for example, by brackets 11 mounted on those flat faces the outer surface of the square pipe, parallel to which pass the bolts (3, figure 2). The bolt 10 is made of material having high thermal resistance. As is known, the equivalent of bolting connections are helical and hairpin (see Afraide. Machine parts. The reference dictionary. Ed. "Engineering", Moscow, 1992, s [4]).

Finned plate 8 radiators form a cavity 9 (figure 3), covering the case in the condensation zone. Free internal volume of this cavity is filled nizkoteploprovodnye material with a low coefficient of water absorption.

To improve the shape of the walls of the square tube in the zone of condensation when exposed to the efforts of clamping termoelektro the mini converters with 6 heat transfer elements 7 (or directly thermoelectric converters, if the heat transfer elements are not used) to the wall of the square tube 60, inside the housing between the opposite sides of the square can be installed partitions 12 (figure 4). This provides a lower contact thermal resistance of heat transfer from thermoelectric Converter to the chassis, allowing you to get small temperature differences in the contacts of the aforementioned elements.

The same purpose is shown in figure 5 the implementation of the housing 1 in the condensation zone in the form of a circular tube 70, enclosed in a cast connected with it by a square pipe 13, with the formation between the two pipes angular gaps 15. Such a case may be made of aluminum alloy by extrusion. Corner clearances 15 filled or plugged with a waterproof material with good thermal conductivity.

Clamped ribbed plate 8 radiators to thermoelectric converters 6 (and with them directly or through heat transfer elements 7 to the surface of the body) in this case is performed by means of bolts 14 or screws from a material with high thermal resistance, passing through holes in these plates and the screw holes in the wall of the square tube made within the specified angular gaps 15.

When running casing in the condensation zone, shown is figure 5, in the transport zone and the evaporation zone case is a continuation only round tube. If the case in the condensation zone is reinforced by transverse bulkheads, in the transport zone and the evaporation zone to leave them not.

When running casing in the condensation zone, shown in figure 4, when he strengthened the walls, in the transport zone and the evaporation zone partitions are missing.

If necessary, increase the heat with radiators in all the above cases around the finned plates 8 can be installed impenetrable from the sides of the casing 16 (6), in the upper part of which is placed the fan 17. In this case, the fins on the finned plates 8 radiators are oriented along the axis of the housing in the condensation zone (7).

The proposed gravity pipe works as follows. When applying for thermoelectric converters 6 DC voltage from the power source on their flat surfaces arise the temperature difference and the flow of heat. Under the influence of these factors, the temperature of the wall of the casing in the zone 5 of condensation decreases, which is accompanied by condensation of the steam coolant and decreasing pressure in the condensation zone. Lowering the pressure in the casing pipe leads to boiling of the condensate in zone 3 of the evaporation. The resulting vapor rises in the condensation zone, the liquid phase Talanov the El flows into the evaporation zone under the action of gravity, and the cycle repeats. The warmth of the soil, in which the immersed part of the body, corresponding to the evaporation zone 2, steam is transferred to the zone 5 of the condensation in the form of latent heat of evaporation, then transferred thermoelectric elements 6 from the casing wall to the finned plates 8 radiators and removed with their edges in the environment, such as in the air. In the presence of casing 16 and the fan 17 this removal is more intense.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe compared to the closest known pipe has a higher heat transfer capability and thus can be used in a wider range of ambient temperatures and to provide a lower temperature of the cooled object.

Modern thermoelectric converters based on the Peltier effect, for example two-stage, allow to obtain the temperature difference between the hot and cold surfaces to 70°C and can work, since the ambient temperature of minus 45°C. Therefore, the proposed pipe with such transducers can be used both in winter and in summer, to strengthen the foundations and supports of various structures, as well as to prevent deformation of embankments of roads and Railways and other facilities built on permafrost.

And the sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 389364, publ. 05.07.1973.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 826189, publ. 30.04.1981.

3. The patent of Russian Federation №2035673, publ. 20.05.1995.

4. Afraide. Machine parts. The reference dictionary. Ed. "Engineering", Moscow, 1992.

1. Gravitational heat pipe containing a sealed enclosure with zones of evaporation, condensation and transport area, made with the possibility of filling it with coolant, and thermoelectric elements, cold surfaces which have thermal contact with the outer surface of the casing wall in the condensation zone, and hot surfaces - with radiators, characterized in that the casing is made with the outer surface of the wall having a cross-section in the condensation zone of a rectangular shape when not varying along the length of the body internal cross-section in this zone, thermoelectric converters installed on all four sides of the outer surface of the casing wall, and the radiators are made in the form of finned plates so that they form a covering body cavity, the free internal volume of which is filled nizkoteploprovodnye material with a low coefficient of water absorption.

2. Heat pipe according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing in the condensation zone is made in the form of a square tube, the flat outer faces the first surface of which has thermoelectric converters, this thermoelectric transducers located on each face of the outer surface of the hull offset along the length of the housing relative to thermoelectric transducers mounted on adjacent faces, and opposite thermoelectric transducers mounted on the opposite face, the finned plate radiator pressed to thermoelectric converters.

3. Heat pipe according to claim 2, characterized in that the square tube in the condensation zone is made with partitions between its opposite faces.

4. Heat pipe according to claim 2, characterized in that the pressing of finned plates made with bolted, the bolts which pass between thermoelectric transducers mounted on opposite faces, and the bolts are made from a material with high thermal resistance.

5. Heat pipe according to claim 4, characterized in that the square tube in the condensation zone is made with partitions between its opposite faces.

6. Gravitational heat pipe according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing in the condensation zone is made in the form of a circular tube, enclosed in a cast connected with it by a square pipe with the formation between the two pipes angular gaps, the latter filled or plugged with that is PAC waterproof material with high thermal conductivity.

7. Heat pipe according to claim 6, characterized in that the pressing of the finned plate radiator is made by means of bolts or screws from a material with high thermal resistance, passing through holes in these plates and the screw holes in the wall of the square tube made within the specified angular gaps.

8. Heat pipe according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that thermoelectric converters have direct thermal contact with the outer surface of the casing wall.

9. Heat pipe according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that thermoelectric converters have thermal contact with the outer surface of the wall of the casing through the heat-conducting elements.

10. Heat pipe according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that around the finned plate radiator is a tight on the sides of the casing in the upper part of which is placed the fan, while the ribs on the finned plate radiator is oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the shell in the zone of condensation.

11. Heat pipe of claim 10, wherein thermoelectric converters have direct thermal contact with the outer surface of the casing wall.

12. Heat pipe of claim 10, wherein thermoelectric converters have thermal contact with the outer surface of the wall is key housing through the heat-conducting elements.



 

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5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electric mechanical engineering, possible use for cooling electric generators and electric engines.

SUBSTANCE: in proposed system for cooling electric machines, containing compressed air source with force pipeline, splitting vortex pipe, having as a result of energy division to hollows - hot one and cold one, thermal pipe made inside the hollow shaft of electric machine, as a special feature, along axis of hollow shaft a tubular channel is made for passage of cold flow from splitting vortex pipe, and space, formed by external surface of tubular channel and internal surface of hollow shaft is thermal pipe, condensation area of which - external surface of tubular channel, and evaporation area - internal surface of hollow shaft.

EFFECT: efficient and even cooling of electric machine, simplified construction, increased manufacturability.

2 dwg

FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.

EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.

7 dwg

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