Method of emulsion polymerisation rubber stabilisation

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: N (4-anilinophenyl)amide of alkenylsuccinic acid of general formula , where n=6-18 is used as a stabiliser of phenylenediamine type. The stabiliser is introduced into latex in amount 0.1-1.5 weight fractions per 100 weight fractions of rubber as aqueous alkaline liquor. While using the stabiliser of low content of ballast substance less than 3% and high content of fragments of phenylenediamine type, is suitable to be introduced into latex.

EFFECT: maintained effective stabilisation and eliminated odour nuisance.

4 tbl, 12 ex

 

The invention relates to the stabilization of unsaturated elastomers, in particular rubber emulsion polymerization.

Known method of stabilizing unsaturated elastomers by introducing them at the stage of obtaining rubber or vulcanizates N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine-1,4 (diafana FF) (Chemical additives to polymers. The Handbook. - M.: Chemistry, 1984, p.28). Deafen FF is used in dosages of 0.5-1% rubber. The disadvantages of this method are related to poor solubility of diafine FF in polymers and difficulties of introducing it into the rubber emulsion polymerization, as a result this method is not used in industry to stabilize rubber emulsion polymerization and latex.

There is also known a method of stabilization of rubbers and rubbers using as an antioxidant N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-n-phenylenediamine (diafana AF) by entering it into the rubber at the stage of selection of rubber or rubber mixture during its preparation on rollers or rubber mixer (Handbook of reinsta. - M.: Chemistry, 1971, s). Deafen AF is used in dosages of 0.5-1.5%, usually in combination with other antioxidants. The disadvantages of this method are its high volatility and high solubility of the resulting oxidant in acidic aqueous solutions, as a consequence, its application to the stabilization of rubbers, emulsi is authorized polymerization is limited when coagulation it is largely washed out from the rubber and into the waste water.

There is also known a method of stabilization of synthetic polymers by introducing them to the product of the interaction of a copolymer of maleic anhydride with ethylene or α-olefins or styrene, or octadecanol, or methylviologen ether with compounds containing both hydrazide or amine group and grouping spatially constrained phenol or space-constrained Amin and other groups responsible for the stabilizing effect (US No. 4863999, MKI T08F 8/30, 05.09.1989). The disadvantage of this method is the poor compatibility of the obtained antioxidants with most mass rubbers, such as butadiene-styrene, polybutadiene, polyisoprene.

There is also known a method of stabilizing, according to which an antioxidant, which is a product of interaction epoxidizing linseed oil with an aromatic amine, such as naphtylamine, aniline, toluidine, anisidine injected into a natural or synthetic rubber (..Badran, A.F.Youman, e.a. High - M.W. material as antioxidant and antiradiations agent. Elastomerics, V.122, no. 2. p.26-33, 1990). The antioxidant is introduced into the rubber compound in the amount of 2-3 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber. The disadvantages of this method are that the antioxidant to be used in large enough quantities 2-3 wt.%); in the synthesis of antioxidant parallel reactions intermolecular crosslinking, leading to trudnoperevarivaema increasing molecular weight and poor technological properties of the obtained product; it is also difficult introduction of the obtained product in the latex rubber emulsion polymerization because of the difficulties of preparing stable emulsions.

The closest is the method of stabilization of rubbers by using as an antioxidant product interaction malaysiaand tall oil containing resin and fatty acids in a weight ratio of 1-2:1, respectively, with a mass fraction of bound maleic anhydride from 10 to 30%, n-aminodiphenylamine when the mass ratio maledizione tall oil: n-aminodiphenylamine 100:18-54 supplied in quantities of 1.5 to 5.0 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber in the form of an aqueous-alkaline solution (RU # 2130031, IPC 6 SA 6/14, 236/10, 236/12, SL 5/20, 25.12.1996). The disadvantages of this method are the following:

1. The content in the product fragments phenylenediamine, responsible for stabilizing the action is 15-30%, which necessitates the use of a stabilizer in a high enough dosage to effectively protect rubber from aging: typically 1.5 to 5.0 wt.% on the rubber.

2. Maledizione tall oil may contain up to 20% neutral what's substances, who are the "ballast" - a product that did not protect the elastomer from aging.

3. The disadvantage is an unpleasant odor containing tall oil products.

The task of the invention is to develop a method of stabilizing rubber emulsion polymerization, does not require high dosages of the stabilizer, but still retaining its effectiveness on the same level as the known methods.

The technical result consists in the use of antioxidant with a high content of fragments phenylenediamine type, with a low content of ballast substances and impurities, and does not cause odors them stable rubber emulsion polymerization.

The technical result is achieved by the method of stabilization of rubbers emulsion polymerization provides an introduction to latex stabilizer phenylenediamine type N(4-anilinophenol)amide alkenylamine acid of General formula:

where n=6-18,

in an amount of 0.1 to 1.5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber in the form of an aqueous-alkaline solution.

Used according to the claimed method stabilizer, N - (4-anilinophenol)amide alkenylamine acid is characterized by the content of the basic substance is not less than 97%, it contains a small number of "ballast" in the Yessei. Also, the content of the stabilizer phenylendiamine fragment responsible for the stabilizing effect varies depending on the length of the hydrocarbon radical from 35,5 49.0%, and thus significantly higher than in the known method. Because of this stabilizer is used in small doses: 0.1 to 1.5% rubber (best of 0.2-0.6%, depending on the type of rubber). In addition, stabilized according to the claimed method rubber emulsion polymerization does not have an unpleasant odor.

Table 1 presents data about the properties of rubber Nitrilase-26M, stabilized by various antioxidants (examples 1, 2).

Table 2 presents data on the properties of rubber Nitrilase 18M, stabilized by different antioxidants (examples 3-8).

Table 3 presents data on the properties of rubber BNX-AN and its vulcanizates, stabilized by various antioxidants (examples 9-10).

Table 4 presents data on the properties of rubber SKS-ARKM-27 and its vulcanizates, stabilized by various antioxidants (examples 11-12).

For the introduction of an antioxidant in the rubber from it is prepared 15-25%water-base emulsion. The emulsion is mixed with the latex in all respects. It does not reduce aggregate stability of the latex. When selecting the rubber of l is Tex antioxidant remains in the rubber and not washed away with the waste water. The selection can be done in various ways: 1) use for coagulation of a mixture of electrolytes: salt (sodium chloride)+acid, 2) the use of salt-free coagulant (Quaternary ammonium base, a protein) in combination with acid, 3) use as coagulants salts of polyvalent metals (calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, aluminum sulfate).

In accordance with this method may be carried out to stabilize any rubber emulsion polymerization; for example, butadiene-nitrile, butadiene-styrene (methylstyrene), polybutadiene, as well as commodity latexes.

During implementation of the invention used the following test methods:

Physico-mechanical properties of rubbers and vulcanizates was evaluated by the following methods:

Rubber nitrile butadiene;

Nitrilase - TU 38.40.350-99

BNX-TU 38.30313-98

Rubber butadiene-styrene;

SCS-ARKM-27-TU 38.303-03-020-2001

Synthesis of stabilizer is carried out in accordance with the following General method:

In a reactor equipped with a stirrer, jacketed for coolant, download alchemistry anhydride or a mixture alchemistry anhydrides and n-aminodiphenylamine when the molar ratio of the components is 1:1. The process is conducted under stirring at a temperature of 65-75°C. for 1.5 hours. The product has the appearance of a dark, viscous, oily the liquid. For the introduction of the stabilizer in the rubber from it is prepared of 20±5%concentration aqueous alkaline emulsion with a pH of 9-11.

Synthesis of stabilizer may also be carried out in a solvent. In this case, after preparation of the emulsion, the solvent is distilled from it.

The invention is illustrated by examples of specific performance.

Example 1.

The coagulation apparatus, equipped with a mechanical stirrer and a jacket for heating, serves 5 kg of the latex of butadiene-nitrile rubber Nitrilase-26M (rubber production JSC "Voronezhsintezkauchuk", mass fraction of bound Acrylonitrile in the rubber - 27,5%). The dry matter content in the latex to 18.5%, a pH of 10.3. Include a mixer and serve him 14.0 g of 20%aqueous-alkaline solution of N - (4-anilinophenol)amide dodecanesian acid (dosage stabilizer of 0.3 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber). The mixture is stirred for 10 min, heated to 50°C., poured 1250 g of sodium chloride solution in water (concentration of 24%), resulting flocculate poured a 0.3%solution of sulfuric acid to pH 3.0. Released crumb rubber is separated from the serum, three times washed with softened water, wring out moisture on the worm Assembly (moisture content of 7.2%) and dried in an air dryer at a temperature of 80-100°C. the volatile content in the rubber of 0.25%).

To test the stabilizing properties of the product, rubber machining is to provide testing under conditions of accelerated aging:

1. Heat treatment in an air thermostat, t=150°C, time : 60 min Estimate the solubility of the rubber before and after aging.

2. Rubber is prepared rubber compound, mixture vulcanized and vulcanizer is subjected to thermal ageing in air thermostat (t=100°C, the ageing time - 120 hours). Conduct a comparative evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of the vulcanizate before and after aging. The results are given in table 1.

Example 2 (prototype)

All operations carried out analogously to example 1. The stabilizer uses the product of the interaction malaysiaand tall oil with n-aminodiphenylamine (mass ratio malaysiaand tall oil and n-aminodiphenylamine 100:20) in an amount of 1% rubber. The rubber vulcanizer obtained on its basis, analyze analogously to example 1. The properties of the rubber vulcanizate are shown in table 1.

Examples 3-7

All operations is carried out in accordance with example 1. Use latex rubber Nitrilase-18 (the content of the linked Acrylonitrile - 18,6%). As the stabilizer, use N(4-anilinophenol)amide alkenylamine acid with different hydrocarbon radicals, and vary the dosage of stabilizer is from 0.1 to 1.5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber. The results are given in table 2.

Example 8 (prototype)

All operations is carried out in accordance with examples 3-8. At the same time as antioxidant use the product of the interaction malaysiaand tall oil with n-aminodiphenylamine with a ratio of 100:20. The results are given in table 2.

Thus, example 1-2, it follows that stabilized the claimed method the antioxidant effectively protects butadiene-nitrile rubbers and vulcanizates based on them from aging, not giving this a known method.

Example 9

Analogously to example 1, a latex rubber BNX-ANN (the content of the linked Acrylonitrile - 29%) injected emulsion N(4-anilinophenol)amide alkenylamine acid (a mixture of amides with n=12 and n=14 in the ratio of 70:30) at the rate of 0.35 parts by weight of stabilizer per 100 parts by weight of rubber. The mixture is stirred for 10 min, heated to 55°C and served in it a solution of calcium chloride. The resulting crumb rubber is separated from the serum, washed with softened water, press on the worm Assembly and dried in an air dryer. The rubber vulcanizer on its basis are tested on aging. The test results are shown in table 3.

Example 10 (prototype)

Analogously to example 10 get rubber stabilized in a known manner, using the product of the interaction malaysiaand tall oil with n-aminodiphenylamine (aspect] is the solution components 100:20). The test results of rubber and its vulcanizate are shown in table 3, from which it follows that declared stable by the way the rubber is not inferior to the properties of the rubber, stabilized in a known manner. Thus the dosage of stabilizer in the first embodiment are almost three times less.

Examples 11 and 12

Get samples of oil-filled styrene butadiene rubber SKS-ARKM-27, stable known and stated ways. To do this in latex rubber with a dry matter content of 21.2% of the injected emulsion by known and declared the ways in dosages respectively to 1.7 and 0.4 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber. In the known method uses the product of the interaction malaysiaand tall oil with n-aminodiphenylamine mass ratio of 100:20, in the proposed method alkanolamide succinic acid with n=12 - 14 (ratio 70:30). The latex is heated to 60°C, serves sodium chloride, the resulting flocculate enter the oil-filler MO-6 in the amount of 16.5 wt.% (the oil content in the finished rubber), acidified with sulfuric acid to a pH of 3.2. Crumb rubber is separated, washed with water, wring out, dry up. The rubber vulcanizer analyze methods of accelerated aging. The results are shown in table 4.

The method of stabilization of rubbers emulsion polymerization by introducing a stabilizer phenylendiamine type, N(4-anilinophenol) amide alkenylamine acid of General formula:

where n=6-18,
served in the latex in an amount of 0.1 to 1.5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber in the form of an aqueous-alkaline solution.



 

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32 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl, 7 ex

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5 cl, 2 tbl

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4 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

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3 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex

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4 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

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3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

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10 cl, 6 ex

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