Method of granulation in fluidised layer and granulator for its implementation (versions)

FIELD: production processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of substance granulation in fluidised layer and granulator for its implementation. Method consists in the following: by means of fluidising air fluidised layer of granules of granulated substance which is supplied to fluidised layer in the form of inoculating seeds is formed and substance or liquid for granules growing are continuously supplied to fluidised layer. Fluidising air flow is divided into many flows which are supplied to various zones of fluidised layer with different rate within limits from minimum in first zone, enough for maintaining fluidised layer, to maximum in second zone, required for formation of circular motion, actually, eddy motion of granules of granulated substance in fluidised layer and its maintaining around horizontal axis.

EFFECT: method of granulation in fluidised layer and granulator for its implementation (versions) is described.

10 cl, 6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method of granulation in the fluidized bed of a certain substance, such as, but not limited to, urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and other similar suitable for pelleting substances. The invention relates in particular to a method of granulation in the fluidized bed, in the exercise of which obtaining pellets of a certain substance is in the process of continuous growth (in volume and weight) of the seed grains, or particles, such granulated substances supplied to a fluidized bed simultaneously with the flow is in a liquid state of matter for growing granules.

Found in the rest of the description and in the claims the expression "bare grain specific granulated substance" means particles of the granulated material size of up to about 2.5 mm

In addition, in some cases, to simplify the subsequent description of the seed grains of the granulated substances are referred to as "bare grain" or simply as "grain".

The invention relates also to the granulator designed for carrying out the invention method.

It is known that when the granulation of a certain substance in the fluidized bed the growth rate in a fluidized bed of grains of the granulated substances the STV and the formation of granules occurs as a result of filing in substance layer for growing granules usually the granulated substance, is in a liquid state and possibly dissolved in an appropriate solvent. In the rest of the description and in the claims is intended to grow pellets substance is a liquid for growing granules.

It is known that for efficient granulation (receiving individual granules of specified size, shape and mass) in the fluidized bed it is necessary to provide good "wetting" of the grains and the resulting granules liquid for growing granules.

For good wetting of the grains liquid for growing granules must be submitted in a fluidized bed in the form of individual droplets as small as possible, which preferably should be less than the size of the wetted grains and these droplets growing in the fluidized bed of granules.

So, for example, by granulation of urea and a small liquid droplets for growing granules occurring in the fluidized bed evaporation of water contained in the liquid for growing granules (urea solution), allows to obtain granules of urea very high purity.

Usually the size of the liquid droplets to grow pellets are selected so that contained in the liquid for growing granules the solvent is completely evaporated in the fluidized bed.

Sometimes liquid for growing granules is taut in a fluidized bed in a spray form. In this case, the liquid for growing granules, obviously, is supposed to cover and wet the entire surface of all separately suspended in the fluidized bed of grains and granules.

For spraying liquid for growing granules currently use special nozzles through which the liquid together with the large volume of air (or other suitable gas) is served in a fluidized bed with a very high speed, for example, from 150 to 300 m/S.

After evaporation of the fully wetted by the liquid for growing granules growing grains and granules contained in the liquid for growing granules solvent is curing/sealing granules.

This method of granulation of urea is described, for example, in US 4353730.

Currently known methods of granulation in the fluidized bed for all its undoubted advantages possess certain disadvantages, namely, in particular, in the absence of control over the dimensions of the finished granules in a given interval of values and high operating costs. In fact, the dispersion liquid for growing granules large number of high velocity air is almost completely eliminates any possibility of adequate control of what is happening in the fluidized bed process of the growth of the granules.

Disabled the ity control the size of the resulting granules requires further classification and sorting, and reject those pellets that its size does not meet the established requirements (too large or too small), conducting recovery operations off-grade pellets to its original condition and return them in the periodic workflow.

The disadvantages of the known methods of granulation in the fluidized bed is also not optimal wetting of the seed grains and pellets intended for their growing substance, and also the undesirable formation of clots (coagulation), which negatively affects the overall result of the entire process of granulation.

The present invention was based on the objective to develop a method of granulation in the fluidized bed, which, thanks to their distinctive features would not have all of the above disadvantages of the known methods and, in particular, would ensure effective control of all stages of granulation, significantly reduce the formation of powder and lumps of grains and pellets and in addition, and equally importantly, to significantly improve the efficiency of the entire process of granulation.

This problem is solved by using the proposed invention, a method of pelleting substances in the fluidized bed, in the exercise of which by means of fluidizing air to form a fluidized bed of gr is zero granulated substances, served in a fluidized bed in the form of seed grains, and served continuously in a fluidized bed of substance for growing pellets and using at least part of the fluidizing air is formed in the fluidized bed circular, essentially vortex, the movement of the granules of the granulated substances, which are in constant and continuous control part fed into a fluidized bed of fluidizing air. The proposed method differs in that circular, essentially vortex, the movement of the granules takes place around the essentially horizontal axis, and the stream of fluidizing air is separated into multiple threads that are served in different zones of the fluidized bed with different flow rate in the range from the minimum in the first zone sufficient to maintain the fluidized bed, to a maximum in the second zone that are required to create in the fluidized bed and maintain around the horizontal axis of the circular, essentially vortex, the movement of the granules of the granulated substance.

The fluidizing air is preferably divided into a number of threads, which are served with different flow rate in different zones of the fluidized bed in the range from the minimum in the first zone, sufficient to maintain psevdoozhizhennogo layer, up to the maximum in the second zone, necessary to create a layer of circularly what about, essentially vortex, the movement of the granules of the granulated substances. The change of the flow rate of fluidizing air between these zones is stepped or essentially gradual and continuous character.

In a preferred embodiment of the method of the granules of the granulated substances move from one end of the fluidized bed, in which it has continuously served the seed grains of the granulated substance, to its opposite edge, at which the fluidized bed is continuously unload the finished granules, essentially on a spiral trajectory. Finished pellets are continuously discharged from the fluidized bed through its bottom under the action of gravity.

The invention also features a granulator for granulating in the fluidized bed, the body is essentially in the form of a parallelepiped with a perforated plate located between the two opposite side walls of the casing and the opposite short side walls, characterized in that its bottom has holes, the density distribution or step which increases from the long side wall of the housing in the direction of its opposite long side.

In the preferred embodiment, all the holes are of equal diameter or equal to the area of the orifice. The orifices in the bottom of the housing rasb what you parallel group, in each of which the corresponding holes evenly distributed with a certain step, different in different groups.

In another variant granulator for granulating in the fluidized bed, the body is essentially in the form of a parallelepiped with a perforated plate located between the two opposite side walls and opposite short side walls of the housing, characterized in that its bottom has evenly spaced holes with different diameter or different area of the bore, the diameter of which gradually increases as it approaches the long side wall of the housing, on which is mounted a dispenser for feeding the granulator substances for growing granules.

In one preferred options granulator has many made in the bottom of the case slots intended for discharge from the housing of the finished granules, and the feeder through cracks in a fluidized bed of air flow or other appropriate classification of gas.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the invention discussed below in more detail on the example of one of the options proposed in the invention method of granulation in the fluidized bed with reference to the accompanying description of the drawings that if the ü illustrate the invention, but do not limit its scope.

Figures 1 and 2 in longitudinal and cross sections schematically shows the machine (granulator), designed for carrying out the invention, a method of granulating.

Figure 3 and 3A in the form of a plan schematically shows performed on two possible options for the bottom of the granulator shown in figure 1 and 2.

Figure 4 in the form of a plan schematically on a larger scale performed another variant the bottom of the granulator, shown in figure 3 and 3A.

Figure 5 and 5A in the form in plan and in section, schematically shown made another variant the bottom of the granulator, shown in figure 3 and 3A.

On figb cross section shows the bottom of the granulator made by shown in figure 5 and 5A option.

Figure 6 cross section shown granulator, similar to the granulator shown in figure 2, and is designed for carrying out the invention, a method of granulating in accordance with another option.

7 schematically shows the complete one option the bottom of the granulator, shown in figure 3 and 3A.

Shown in figures 1, 2, 3 and 3A and the indicated position of the apparatus 1 intended for pelleting substances proposed in the invention method is hereinafter referred to as simply granulation.

Schematically pok is related to drawings the granulator 1 has an open top housing 2 in the form of a parallelepiped with a rectangular cross section.

Case 2 granulator has a bottom 3, made in the form of a grid or sheet with holes for the passage of gas, two opposite long side walls 4, 5 and two opposite short (front and rear) walls 6 and 7.

On the top edge of the front wall 6 there is shown schematically a conventional and therefore not described in detail, the device 9 designed for the continuous feed of the seed grains S1 granulated in the housing 2 of the granulator substances. In the rear wall 7 at a certain height from the bottom (grid) made 3 hole 8, through the lower edge of which is similar to Weir flows "merging" a continuous stream from the housing 2 is obtained (granular) product, as discussed more fully described below.

Under case 2 granulator is (conventional and therefore not shown in the drawings) equipment for compulsory delivery in case of air or other gas (fluidizing air)that form and supporting inside the housing 2 a fluidized bed of granulated substances.

One of the distinguishing features of the proposed invention granulator is the design of the bottom 3 of the housing 2, which is a grid 3, made of perforated sheet (3, 3A) with unevenly spaced holes 11 for filing in the case 2 of a certain number of origuser the air.

In the first preferred embodiment of the invention (Fig 3) all openings 11 of the lattice (bottom) have the same diameter and are arranged so that their density (or number of holes per square centimeter square bottom) gradually increases from the long wall of the housing 2, in particular from its front wall, in the direction opposite long wall, in particular the rear wall 5 of the housing. In another embodiment of the invention (figa) "uneven" distribution of holes is achieved by using different "step" between the holes 11, evenly spaced in having a certain width parallel sections 3A, 3b and 3C grating 3.

On the top edge of the long side wall of the housing 2 (shown in the drawings variant - wall 5) next to the zone 3C shown in figa grating 3 with the highest density of holes 11 is fixed normal (and therefore not shown in the drawings) by way of the dispenser 10 that is designed for continuous feeding into the housing 2 of the flow L of a certain substance for growing granules, for example, in the form of spray.

The dispenser 10 runs along the entire wall 5 at a certain height from the bottom (lattice) 3 depending on thickness formed in the housing 2 of the fluidized bed granulator, as discussed more fully discussed below. Distribute the ü 10 is thus that the resulting continuous flow of a liquid for growing granules is directed essentially parallel to the grating 3.

Below explains how the process of granulation proposed in the invention method is in the granulator described above and shown in figure 1-3A.

First, in the housing 2 of the granulator in the usual way to create a fluidized bed of seed grains S1 granulated substance, which is continuously fed into the granulator through located on the front wall 6 of the housing of the dispenser 9. For the formation of the fluidized bed into the housing 2 of the granulator through the bars 3 from the bottom in a certain number of continuously served the fluidizing air A. In continuous flow in the granulator seed grains S1 the thickness of the fluidized bed gradually increases and when its free surface reaches the level of the hole 8 formed in the housing 2 of the granules begin to "merge" from the housing, flowing a continuous stream similar to overflow through the lower edge of the hole.

Passing through holes in the bottom 3 the fluidizing air And is distributed in the fluidized bed "uneven" in accordance with "uneven" distribution is made in the bottom of the lattice) of the holes 11. It is obvious that a greater number of fluidizing air passes into the body of the granulator through a part of the bottom, is where the density of holes; in particular, it is shown on figa embodiment, a greater amount of fluidizing air passes into the body of the pellet through the next wall 5 section 3C of the bottom 3, and fewer through its located at the opposite wall 4 section 3A.

When granulating proposed in the invention method, the flow rate of fluidizing air, its speed, the diameter of the holes 11 and their density in different areas or zones of the grating 3 should provide a reliable and sustainable building and maintaining a fluidized bed in the locations of the zones of lower density. In other places offered in the invention of the grating 3, in which the holes are arranged with a higher density, particularly near the wall 5 of the housing 2 of the granulator, consumption and speed coming out of the holes fluidizing air more and growing in the fluidized bed granules are fond of air upward in the direction of the free surface of the fluidized bed. The speed of such movement of the pellets increases as it approaches the side wall 5 and reaches its maximum value at the surface of the wall.

By increasing the speed of the pellets, taken up by the flow passing through the holes of the bottom of the fluidizing air as it approaches the side wall of the housing of the granulator in the fluidized bed around ideal solution for the th, essentially horizontal shown in figures 1 and 2 example, the axis is a circular, essentially vortex, the circulation of the granules moving in a spiral in the direction from the front wall 6 of the housing 2 of the granulator to the back wall 7.

When granulating proposed in the invention by the method described above in the granulator, the bottom 3 of the housing 2 which is made in the form described above lattice, all fed into the granulator the fluidizing air is formed in the housing 2 of the fluidized bed granulator into multiple streams, the flow of which varies from a minimum sufficient to maintain the fluidized bed air in the first zone 3A, to the maximum remote from the first zone 3A zone 3C, resulting in the fluidized bed there is a steady circular, essentially vortex, the movement of the granules. It should be noted that in this case the change in the flow rate of fluidizing air from the first zone with a minimum consumption to located their distance from her area with the maximum air flow is gradual. And, on the contrary, in the variant shown in figure 3, the flow rate of fluidizing air from the adjacent side wall 4 zones with minimal expense to the adjacent side wall 5 areas with a maximum flow rate varies smoothly and gradually.

In the process of formation of the vortex under imousine up on a circular path in the flow of fluidizing air granules ufonauts, and the distance between them gradually increases, and in most cases, this occurs at the wall 5 of the housing 2 of the granulator or, in other words, in an area of high density of holes 11 of the grating 3 or in a zone with a higher flow rate supplied to a fluidized bed of fluidizing air.

In the upper part of the fluidized bed in the place where the process of thinning granules ends, and the temperature of the fluidizing air reaches its maximum value, the pellets are fed into the granulator in the form of a spray liquid for growing pellets. When the minimum thickness of the granules and, accordingly, a distance between adjacent granules in the upper part of the fluidized bed is uniform and optimal wetting of the granules in the liquid for growing pellets. This ensures uniform growth of the granules. In addition, where individual granules wetted with liquid for growing granules that form in the fluidized bed whirl pellet air is heated to the maximum temperature and provides a uniform and optimum evaporation of the solvent contained in the liquid for growing pellets. In the uniform wetting and effective evaporation of the solvent each individual granule is covered with uniform, with an optimal thickness "h the K" substance layer for growing granules.

After wetting liquid for growing individual granules granules along with other doing the circular motion of the granules move in the direction opposite wall 4 of the housing 2 of the granulator, successively pass through all zones of the fluidized bed formed by the air coming out of the holes in zones 3b, 3A of the bottom 3 with a gradually decreasing density of the holes 11. In these zones of the fluidized bed entrained granules up the air flow is gradually weakened, and its impact on the granules decreases from a maximum at the wall 5 of the housing 2 to zero. For this reason, the wall 4, the direction of movement of the granules varies, and the granules sink to the made in the form of a lattice to the bottom of the case 2 of the granulator.

When moving on a circular path in the direction of the bottom 3 of a pellet cross the lower layers of the fluidized bed and gradually cooled. Decreasing the temperature of the fluidized bed soaked in the liquid for growing granules surface of the individual granules gradually hardens, and volume and mass of moving in the direction of the wall 5 of the granules gradually increase. The wall 5 begins a new (described above), the growth cycle of the individual granules, gradually moving in the direction of the drain hole of the housing (on the spiral path formed in p is authorizenet layer "vortex").

In this embodiment of the invention a method of granulating allows you to get polydisperse granules, variations in sizes that are much smaller than the granules obtained by known methods of granulation.

This is due to the fact that when adjusting the duration of each cycle (wetting, drying, dehydration and solidification) and the number of growth cycles in the fluidized bed by a corresponding change in the flow rate of fluidizing air in different zones of the fluidized bed each individual granule granulated substance undergoes essentially the same growth process.

In addition, the proposed invention is a method of granulating significantly in comparison with the known ways to reduce the amount of powder formed during the granulation process. Due to this, you can significantly reduce or even eliminate the need to perform any operations related to disposal formed by granulating powder, and while obtaining pellets of a certain size, is almost ready for sale, dramatically reduce capital expenditures and to reduce operating costs and energy consumption.

Last but not the least important advantage of the proposed invention, a method of granulating associated with the formation and under what uranium in the fluidized bed growing pellets of the above-mentioned circular vortex motion using fluidizing air without any additional external energy sources, is reducing energy consumption and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire process of granulation.

In another embodiment of the invention (figure 4) to form in the fluidized bed of the vortex motion of the granules are encouraged to use the bottom 3 with evenly spaced holes 11 of different diameters. Thus, in particular, the diameter of the holes gradually increases as it approaches the wall 5 with the dispenser 10, which are holes with a maximum diameter, and therefore gradually decreases in the direction opposite wall 4, which respectively are holes with a minimum diameter. In this case, the flow rate of fluidizing air supplied to the fluidized bed of granules, is gradually changing as in the variant shown in figure 3, from a zone with a minimum flow rate to the zone with the maximum flow.

In yet another embodiment of the invention described above the formation and maintenance of circular vortex motion of the granules in the fluidized bed is not split over the flow of fluidizing air into many separate streams with different flow rate and a corresponding change in the flow direction of intake air in a fluidized bed.

(5, 5A) are encouraged to use the bottom 3 of the housing pellet mill is with evenly spaced holes 11 of the same diameter, inclined to a horizontal plane at a certain angle α, preferably at an angle of 30 to 60°, for example at an angle of 45°.

The angle of the holes is chosen so that the force applied to the granules resulting from air holes, was not only a vertical component, necessary to maintain the fluidized bed, but the horizontal component needed to form and maintain in the fluidized bed of the circular motion of the granules.

An alternative to this variant is a variant in which evenly spaced in the bottom 3 holes 11 have the same diameter and the vertical axis, and on the bottom 3 next to each hole 11 at a certain distance from the hole welded made of foil reflectors 20 (figb), inclined to the horizontal plane of the bottom 3 in the direction of the wall 5 of the housing 2 of the granulator at a certain angle α, preferably at an angle of 30 to 60°, for example at an angle of 45°.

In this embodiment, the fluidizing air coming out of the holes 11 in the fluidized bed, is directed in the same way as in the embodiment shown in figa, and also forms inside the fluidized bed of the circular movement of the granules. In another, shown in Fig.6, the preferred embodiment, the fluidizing air forms in the same fluidized bed granulated substances two vortex V1 and 2 opposite directions.

To do this, on the opposite long walls 4 and 5 of the housing 2 granulator establish two dispenser 10A, 10b for filing in the case of two streams L1 and L2 of the same liquid for growing granules, and in the bottom 3 of the housing act in two groups through evenly spaced holes 11, symmetrically relative to the Central plane M-M of the hull pellet mill. The individual parts are shown in Fig.6 granulator 1, which are structurally and functionally no different from similar parts of the granulator shown in other drawings are denoted by the same positions. Thus, in particular, the holes 11 in the bottom 3 can be performed similarly to the holes shown in figure 3-5B.

Under the same operating conditions in the fluidized bed formation in one case two opposite vortices allows twice to increase the productivity of the pellet when it is used for granulation of various substances proposed in the invention method.

In another embodiment, the invention features granulator 1, in which the feeder seed grains streams S1 and L1 and L2 of the liquid for growing granules in a fluidized bed are located on the same side wall 4, 5 of the housing 2 of the granulator.

Case 2 in this embodiment of the invention, the granulate is RA has a grid or perforated plate 3 (7) with holes located in two symmetrically opposite zones of the same version, shown in figure 4, and a few intended for unloading pellets slits 14 a certain size and width corresponding to the diameter of the obtained granules (or exceed it). Obviously, in this embodiment of the invention can use any of the shown in figure 3-3A and 5-5B circuits of performance and location of holes for the passage of air.

Reaching into the fluidized bed of a certain size granules poured from the housing 2 of the granulator through made in its bottom slit 14 under the action of its own weight, preferably towards the flow And fluidizing air or another fed into the fluidized bed classifying gas. It is obvious that in this embodiment there is no need to perform on the rear wall 7 of the housing granulator discharge openings 8.

It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the above variants of its implementation, in which you can make various changes and improvements without this scope of the invention defined by its formula.

1. The method of pelleting substances in the fluidized bed, in the exercise of which by means siraudeau air to form a fluidized bed of granules of the granulated substance, which is served in a fluidized bed in the form of seed grains, and served continuously in a fluidized bed of substance for growing pellets and using at least part siraudeau air form in the fluidized bed circular, essentially a swirling motion of the granules of the granulated substances, which are in constant and continuous control part fed into the fluidized bed siraudeau air, characterized in that a circular, essentially a swirling motion of the granules takes place around the essentially horizontal axis, and the stream siraudeau air is divided into many streams, which are served in different zones of the fluidized bed with different flow rate in the range from the minimum in the first zone sufficient to maintain the fluidized bed layer, up to the maximum in the second zone that are required to create in the fluidized bed and maintain around the horizontal axis of the circular, essentially vortex motion of the granules of the granulated substance.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the change in the flow rate siraudeau air between the first area with a minimum consumption and remote from a second area with the maximum flow is gradual.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the change in the flow rate siraudeau air between the first area with a minimum consumption and remote from a second area with the maximum flow is, what about the fact, gradual and continuous character.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the granules of the granulated substances move from one end of the fluidized bed, in which it has continuously served the seed grains of the granulated substance, to its opposite edge, at which the fluidized bed is continuously unload the finished granules, essentially, on a spiral trajectory.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the finished pellets are continuously discharged from the fluidized bed through its bottom under the action of gravity.

6. Granulator for granulating in the fluidized bed, having a housing (2), essentially in the form of a parallelepiped with a perforated plate (3)disposed between the two opposite side walls (4, 5) of the housing and the opposite short side walls (6, 7), characterized in that the bottom (3) has openings (11), the density distribution or step which increases from the long side wall (4) of the housing (2) in the direction of its opposite long side wall (5).

7. The granulator according to claim 6, characterized in that all the holes (11) are of equal diameter or equal to the area of the orifice.

8. The granulator according to claim 7, characterized in that the holes (11) in the bottom (3) are divided into parallel groups (3A, 3b, 3c), in each of which the corresponding holes (11) the soap is evenly divided with a certain step, different in different groups.

9. Granulator for granulating in the fluidized bed, having a housing (2), essentially in the form of a parallelepiped with a perforated plate (3)disposed between the two opposite side walls (4, 5) and the opposite short side walls (6, 7), characterized in that the plate (3) are uniformly distributed holes (11) with different diameter or different area of the bore, the diameter of which gradually increases as it approaches the long side wall (5) of the housing, on which is mounted a dispenser (10) for feed pellet mill substances for growing granules.

10. Granulator for granulating in the fluidized bed with a perforated plate (3) according to any one of p-9, characterized in that it has lots of made in the bottom of the case slots (14)for discharging from the housing (2) of the finished granules, and the feeder through the slit (14) in a fluidized bed of the stream (A) air.



 

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EFFECT: increased melting and permeating power of granules and reduced dust escape and specific power consumption in drying operation.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: methods of granulation of carbamide, for example in fluidized layer and fluidized-bed granulators.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming fluidized bed of seeding particles (S1) of agent to be granulated with essentially horizontal plane (P) and delivery of continuous flow (L) of fluid medium containing mother liquor at simultaneous forming of solid vortex (V) in fluidized bed with essentially horizontal axis, upper zone (Z1) where seeding particles are humidified and solvent contained in mother liquor is evaporated and lower zone (Z2) where mother liquor is hardened.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining granules in narrow range of granulometric composition.

16 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; chemical-pharmaceutical industry; devices of coating of loose materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for coating of different loose materials and may be used in chemical industry and chemical-pharmaceutical industry for protective coating of fragments of a loose material, for example, for encapsulation of granules of sodium percarbonate used as a bleaching component in a composition of cleansers for prevention of a contact of the active substance of sodium percarbonate with other components of the cleanser and increasing of the active substance storage duration. The coater contains a work chamber, injectors for feeding of liquid components, a dosing device of the loose material, branch pipes of feeding-withdrawal of the heat transfer agent and withdrawal of the end product. The body of the work chamber is made sectional and consists of a spring-loaded box with a gas-distributing grate and a retractable hood covering the box and not touching its walls. The work chamber has two work sections: a section of deposition of the liquid component and a drying section separated by a non-blind vertical septum and a butterfly gate. The vertical septum is mounted above the gas-distribution grate with a backlash, and the butterfly gate - under a gas-distribution grate. The shaft of rotation of the butterfly gate is located opposite to the septum. The gas-distribution grate is mounted with a capability of variation of an inclination angle. In the second version the body of the work chamber is made non-detachable, and the gas-distribution grate with a vibrator is independently fixed on the remote spring suspensions and is supplied with compactors. The invention ensures production of the uniform coating on each particle and the continuous withdrawal of the ready particles from the zone of heating at an equal residence time in it of each particle.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the uniform coating on each particle and the continuous withdrawal of the ready particles from the zone of heating at an equal residence time in it of each particle.

FIELD: production of powdery materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents an installation with a fluidized layer and with a complex spray drying and a method of production of the powdery materials dried with the help of a spray drying, whose properties can be varied purposively depending on the application. The installation contains a spraying column, a fluidized layer, a module of a spray drying, one or several of additional spraying or pulverizing nozzles for a liquid component located in a fluidized layer, a batching gear for a powder and a powder returning gear with a fan. The module of a spray drying includes a spraying system consisting of a heated doublet spraying nozzle in which a liquid) component and sputtering air are merged. The installation contains also a dynamic filter integrated in it used for clearing of the gas of from a part of a powder. The spraying column is located above the fluidized layer. The latter for giving direction of motion of the stream of a powder it is supplied with a perforation in Conidur base. The module of a spray drying is located in the spraying column above a fluidized layer. The doublet spraying nozzle is supplied with the coaxially located powder returning gear and an enveloping stream of hot air. The spraying system is made in the form of an integrated module. In the method of production of a powdery material at the first stage the following components are combined: a liquid component, a spraying gas, a powdery material and hot air. The formed powdery product falls on a fluidized later, is caught up, fluidized and transported further. At one or more stages of granulation it is pulverized with an additional liquid component, dried and transported with the fluidized layer to the powder batching gear, from which a part of the powdery material is returned in the process. The invention ensures fast removal of surface moisture, prevention of granules adhesion and production of particles of the given size.

EFFECT: the invention ensures fast removal of surface moisture, prevention of granules adhesion and production of particles of the given size.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluidized-bed manufacture of granulated calcium chloride from solution. Process comprises providing concentrated calcium chloride solution dehydration and crystallization thereof to form granules in fluidized-bed furnace by way of feeding solution into furnace in countercurrent to furnace gas produced by combustion of natural gas with air in combustor. Granules are then cooled and emission gas dust is trapped and returned into the solution concentration stage. According to invention, concentrated solution, prior to be fed into fluidized-bed furnace, is preheated by furnace gas by circulation of solution in the tank-pump-heater system. Finished product, prior to be cooled, is divided into two portion. One portion is sent to calcium chloride concentration stage and resulting mixture is circulated in the tank-pump-heater system, whereas the other portion is used to cool finished product.

EFFECT: increased productivity of calcium chloride granulation process and installation.

12 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; chemical-pharmaceutical industry; devices of coating of loose materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for coating of different loose materials and may be used in chemical industry and chemical-pharmaceutical industry for protective coating of fragments of a loose material, for example, for encapsulation of granules of sodium percarbonate used as a bleaching component in a composition of cleansers for prevention of a contact of the active substance of sodium percarbonate with other components of the cleanser and increasing of the active substance storage duration. The coater contains a work chamber, injectors for feeding of liquid components, a dosing device of the loose material, branch pipes of feeding-withdrawal of the heat transfer agent and withdrawal of the end product. The body of the work chamber is made sectional and consists of a spring-loaded box with a gas-distributing grate and a retractable hood covering the box and not touching its walls. The work chamber has two work sections: a section of deposition of the liquid component and a drying section separated by a non-blind vertical septum and a butterfly gate. The vertical septum is mounted above the gas-distribution grate with a backlash, and the butterfly gate - under a gas-distribution grate. The shaft of rotation of the butterfly gate is located opposite to the septum. The gas-distribution grate is mounted with a capability of variation of an inclination angle. In the second version the body of the work chamber is made non-detachable, and the gas-distribution grate with a vibrator is independently fixed on the remote spring suspensions and is supplied with compactors. The invention ensures production of the uniform coating on each particle and the continuous withdrawal of the ready particles from the zone of heating at an equal residence time in it of each particle.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the uniform coating on each particle and the continuous withdrawal of the ready particles from the zone of heating at an equal residence time in it of each particle.

FIELD: methods of granulation of carbamide, for example in fluidized layer and fluidized-bed granulators.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming fluidized bed of seeding particles (S1) of agent to be granulated with essentially horizontal plane (P) and delivery of continuous flow (L) of fluid medium containing mother liquor at simultaneous forming of solid vortex (V) in fluidized bed with essentially horizontal axis, upper zone (Z1) where seeding particles are humidified and solvent contained in mother liquor is evaporated and lower zone (Z2) where mother liquor is hardened.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining granules in narrow range of granulometric composition.

16 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: icing protection.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of substances preventing icing and accelerating thawing of snow and ice covers. Agent according to invention represents granules, each of which is made with internal sodium chloride nucleus and having external shell of calcium chloride, the latter additionally containing corrosion inhibitor so that composition of granules is as follows: 10-90% sodium chloride, 10-90% calcium chloride, and 0.5-20% corrosion inhibitor. Spraying of calcium chloride solution onto sodium chloride particles 0.5-5 mm in size is effected successively in direction of movement of sodium chloride particles along drying chamber at 130-150°C and 2-3 m/sec at the beginning to 170-190°C and 3-4 m/sec at the end.

EFFECT: increased melting and permeating power of granules and reduced dust escape and specific power consumption in drying operation.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; food industry; pharmaceutical industry; other industries; methods of deposition of coatings on the particles of the bulk materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of deposition of coatings on the particles of the bulk materials and may be used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical and other industries. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and the improved quality of the product. The method of deposition of coatings on the particles of the bulk materials provides for the coating melt atomization of a melt of cover by the gas heated above the fusion point of the coating material into the liquated layer of the particles of the bulk material. The bulk material preliminary is heated up to the temperature of 0.5-0.6 of the fusion points of the coating material by the flow of the fluidizing agent. At dosage of the melt the temperature in the liquefied layer of the bulk material makes no more than 0.6-0.8 of the temperature of the coating materials fusion points. After termination of the batching of the melt conduct the gradual reduction of the temperature of the layer of the material up to the temperature of the environment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency and the improved quality of the products.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.

SUBSTANCE: granulated calcium chloride is prepared in fluidized-bed vessel, wherein fluidized bed is created by flue gas flow at bed temperature 150-200°C, gas flow velocity in the bed 2.5-3.0 m/s, and hydraulic resistance in bed 500-700 kg/m2. Granules are sprayed with 46-50% calcium chloride solution, which was preliminarily concentrated by leaving gas heat and further concentrated by dissolving dust fractions.

EFFECT: achieved uniform granulometric composition, increased strength of granules, and reduced moisture content therein.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: granulating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises vertical cylindrical housing, gas-distributing grate, vertical gas-supplying branch pipe coaxially secured inside it, tangential gas-supplying branch pipe mounted in the top section of the housing, branch pipe for supplying of dispersed material, and branch pipe for discharging granules. The vertical gas-supplying branch pipe receives the nozzle for spraying pulp or melt. The top section of the housing receives the axial gas-discharging branch pipe provided with a conical funnel and deflector. The tangential gas-supplying branch pipe is connected with the branch pipe for supplying dispersed material. The plane of the exit section of the branch pipe for supplying dispersed material is perpendicular to the axis of the tangential gas-supplying branch pipe. The deflector is made of a rotation body defined by two coaxial conical surfaces, inner surface and outer surface. The device is provided with valve gates to control the process. The valve gates are mounted in the gas-supplying pipe lines.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: application contains the description of method of granulating in fluidised bed and obtaining the final granules of certain substance in the so called vertically growing granulating fluidised bed which is formed and maintained by the appropriate flow of fluidising air from which the final granules are poured into the collector under excess pressure and then unloaded from it.

EFFECT: simplification and cost reduction of maintenance of unloading final granules from collector; secure preparation and preservation of monodisperse final granules of specified size.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns granulation method in fluidised layer for various substances, such as carbamide, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and similar substances viable to granulation. Particularly invention concerns method of granulation in fluidised layer with temperature adjusted by hot air feed, and to granulation plant for implementation of the method. During granulation of a certain substance in fluidised layer at adjustable temperature, finished hot granules are selected from fluidised granulation layer and cooled down in fluidised cooling layer continuously formed and sustained by fluidising air flow. At least a part of fluidising air leaving cooling fluidised layer of finished granules is fed to fluidised granulation layer. Cooling and granulation fluidised layers are positioned in sequence against air flow passing through them. Granulation plant used in the described method includes self-carrying construction with partition serving as support for fluidised granulation layer. Under the partition a step away from it, a base-forming sheet serving as support for fluidised cooling layer is located. Fluidised granulation and cooling layers interface over a perforated, grid, mesh or other gas-permeable partition. Finished granules are poured from fluidised granulation layer into fluidised cooling layer over transition stack. Devices of fluidised air feed and distribution in internal cavity of self-carrying construction are located under base-forming sheet.

EFFECT: reduced total energy expenditure required to maintain fluidised layer temperature at specified level sufficient for optimal granulation process finish.

10 cl, 2 dwg

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