Method of obtaining biologically active sum of acids in complex extradiction processing of wood greens of siberian fir (abies sibirica)

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: air-dry crushed wood greens of fir is extracted twice with tret-butylmethyl ester. Extract is separated from needles and treated with 2% NaOH solution with further separation of organic and water layers. Water-alkali layer is acidified and formed organic phase representing sum of triterpene acids is separated. Organic layer is concentrated by extragent distillation, treates with hot water and volatile agents of fir oil are hydrodistilled at under pressure 0.1-0.3 atm and temperature not higher than 50°C. Vat residue is hydrolysed by boiling with water-alcohol alkali and neutral hydrolysate components are separated by solvent distillation at lowered pressure and temperature not higher than 80°C with further double extraction with methyl-tret-butyl ester, 2-3-time washing of obtained layer with water to neutral reaction and evaporation. Water-alcohol solution is acidified with 5-10% solution of hydrochloric acid to pH 2 and extracted with tret-butylmethyl ester. Extract is washed with water to neutral pH and ester is distilled under pressure 0.1-0.3 atm and temperature not higher than 80°C obtaining the product.

EFFECT: invention allows to realise said purpose.

7 ex, 6 tbl

 

The invention relates to methods of producing biologically active substances (BAS) extraction of renewable plant raw materials and subsequent chemical modification of the extractive. Specifically, to the processing of the wood green (DZ) of Siberian fir (Abies Sibirica) - tonnage waste of timber harvesting - complex extraction technology with obtaining new biologically active product (the amount of higher aliphatic, arylcarbamoyl and phenol carbonic acids) along with the previously known: fir oil, the amount of triterpene acids (the active ingredient ROSTO - and immunostimulant agricultural plants "Novosil" [RU 2108803]), fully hydrolyzed lipid fraction (active ingredient Pro-Supplement feed with/x birds [EN 2006138542]), the fraction of bioactive mono - and oligosahara, polysacharides and flavonoids (active ingredient Pro-Supplement feed with/x birds [EN 2007123376]).

Object of the invention is obtaining new biologically active substances from the Abies needles when complex processing.

The problem is solved in that the target product is the amount of biologically active substances obtained from the remainder of the hydrolysate formed as waste after extraction of fully hydrolyzed lipid fraction from the sum of the products of saponification faction Nate the social lipid aqueous-alcoholic alkali [EN 2006138542]. It is established that the received amount of acid is ROSTO - and immunostimulant agricultural plants with fungicidal activity.

The prototype of the proposed - method of obtaining biologically active substances from the wood green fir [EN 2006138542]. The prototype shredding air-dry DZ fir, processing its water-immiscible extractant - tert-butyl ether, separation of the organic extract from DZ fir, washing it with an aqueous solution of the alkaline agent, the separation of the aqueous-alkaline and organic layers, separation of the organic layer fraction of neutral lipids consistently distillation of the solvent and volatile components (pine oil) in vacuum at a residual pressure of 0.1-0.3 ATA and a temperature of 50-90°C, and water-base layer - the amount of triterpene acids by acidification followed by extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether and upriver extract. Further in the method prototype conduct partial or exhaustive hydrolysis of the fraction of neutral lipids by boiling with aqueous-alcoholic alkali and allocation neutral components of the hydrolysate is fully hydrolyzed lipid fraction is twofold extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether followed 2-3 times washing the resulting organic layer with water to neutral reaction and evaporation.

Boiling fraction is ahralnyh lipids with an aqueous-alcoholic alkali leads to extensive hydrolysis of esters of aliphatic, arylcarbamoyl and phenol carbonic acids and the release of them in the free state aliphatic, di - and triterpenoid alcohols, sterols, as well as acids and phenols. The product obtained by the method prototype, contains only the portion of these compounds that react with the alkali do not form water-soluble products of the salt or of a different nature. Indeed, the output of the fully hydrolyzed lipid fraction is 59% of the initial weight subjected to saponification fraction of neutral lipids. Thus, the disadvantage of the prototype is incomplete extraction of the hydrolysate saponified extractives DZ fir - loss in the waste substances of an acidic nature.

The target product of the present invention are biologically active compounds (the sum of the acid) is obtained from the residue of a hydrolysate fraction of neutral lipids after removing from it the fully hydrolyzed lipid fraction of the prototype [EN 2006138542]. For this balance (alkaline aqueous-alcoholic solution of acids and phenols) is acidified to pH 2, twice extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether, the combined organic extract is washed with water until neutral and distilled off the solvent in vacuum at a residual pressure of 0.1-0.3 ATA and a temperature of 50-90°C. Thus, the main difference from the prototype of which is to obtain an additional amount of acid in the amount of 35% by weight of the fraction subjected to the hydrolysis of neutral lipids. In the aggregate, in the present method using a simple technique and involved in extraction technology equipment obtained in addition to the well-known new product and installed its bioactivity than achieved beneficial utilization of the total amount of extractives derived from DZ fir extractant of organic nature.

The target product obtained in example 1, is a non-volatile green-brown buttery mass, containing, according to CMS, a mixture of higher aliphatic acids mixed with di - and triterpenoid compounds and other natural substances.

Target product to form emulsions of various concentrations in water with emulsifiers permitted for use in agriculture. The emulsion is easily dosed and convenient for presowing treatment of planting material by soaking and spraying plants at any stage of the growing season. Laboratory and advanced tests (see examples 2-7) showed that the target product is useful bioactivity and can be used as an active substance growth and immunomodulatory agents with fungicidal properties in crop production, providing in relation to the control of increasing the yield of crop seeds by 15-35%, total and marketable yield by 15-50%, the decline in the infestation by phytopathogenic microflora, i.e. useful biological activity comparable to the one used in practice by the Novosil preparation, the active ingredient in the natural triterpene acid from DZ fir.

Thus, the invention contributes to:

- improvement of the complexity, cost efficiency and environmental viability of the extraction processing technologies DZ fir through the allocation of new substance from the waste fully hydrolyzed lipid fraction (residue of a hydrolysate fraction of neutral lipids);

- diversification of uses in agriculture BAS received in the complex extraction processing technologies DZ fir, by establishing specific bioactivity of new products, formed by technologically simple processing (hydrolysis) extractive natural substances.

The method of obtaining the amount of acid and the effectiveness of its application is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1.

Air-dry crushed herbs fir (80 kg) bags made of sheeting are placed in the extractor, poured tert-butyl methyl ether (350 l) from the measuring device and infuse at room temperature for 8 hours. The extract is drained (220 l), poured fresh tert-butyl methyl ether (260 l) and re-infused for 8 hours. Merge the second portion of extra is that (260 l). The extracts are combined and treated with 2%aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (150 l) under stirring apparatus with a stirrer. The mixture is moved to a separating funnel-sump, waiting for the full bundle and separate the layers.

The organic extract portions loaded into a distillation apparatus and distilled tert-butyl methyl ether under vacuum of 0.1-0.3 ATA (liquid ring vacuum pump) and the temperature in the cube is not higher than 50°C. Receive the lipid fraction of the extract (4.8 kg), exempt from the extractant containing volatile components (fir oil).

Water-base layer in a separating funnel acidified with 5%hydrochloric acid to pH 2, separating the formed organic phase, the concentration (drying) which in a technical vacuum get the amount of triterpene acids (4.9 kg) in the form of gray-green vitreous mass after cooling.

Accumulate lipid fraction of the extract (48 kg), placed in a capacitive apparatus for hydrodistillation, add water (48 l)with stirring and heated to 50-80°C and within 1-3 hours distilled volatile components from water vapor in the vacuum of 0.1-0.3 ATA (liquid ring vacuum pump). Hydrodistillation separated into aqueous and organic (fir oil, 12 kg) layers, and from the cube poured hot partially gidralizovanny the lipid fraction of green-brown (31 kg).

Partly gidralizovanny the lipid fraction (31 kg) is dissolved in ethanol (39 l), add an aqueous solution of KOH (10 kg in 11 l of water) or NaOH (7.8 kg in 11 l of water)is heated with stirring apparatus with reflux condenser and boil (BP. ~78°C) for 2 hours, then the mass is concentrated by distillation of the water-alcohol mixture on a rotary evaporator under vacuum liquid ring pump at temperatures above 80°C, the residue is extracted twice tert-butylmethylamine ether (150 l), the combined extract is washed with water to pH 7-8 and concentrate full distillation of the azeotrope of water and ether in water-jet vacuum pump. Get 18,3 kg (yield 59%) fully hydrolyzed fraction of the consistence of thick honey yellow-brown or dark orange color.

The combined residue (aqueous-alcoholic layer after extraction and washing water) acidified with 5÷10%hydrochloric acid to pH 2 and extracted twice tert-butylmethylamine ether (75 l), the combined extract was washed with water (2×50 l), rasclaat and the organic phase is concentrated complete distillation of the azeotrope of water and ether in the liquid ring vacuum pump at a temperature not exceeding 80°C. Receive 10.9 kg (yield 35%) of the target product buttery consistency green-brown color.

CMS-analysis of the obtained product showed the presence of the following acids: tetradecanol, pentadecanol, hexadecanol, 14-methylhexadecanoic, heptadecanol, oleic, whether alevai (including isomers), linolenic (including isomers), a 14-octadecenol, stearic, nonadecanoic, eicosatrienoic, 5, 11, 14, 17-eicosatetraenoic, 11,14-eicosadienoic, 11-Aksenovo, eicosanol, levopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, heneicosanol, docosanol, tricosane, tetracosane, hexacosanol, octacosanol, triacontanol, dotriacontanol, tetratriacontane. The main ones are oleic (up to 25%) and linoleic (up to 20%, including isomers). The product contains a relatively high (in the amount of up to 10%) of the acid with 20 carbon atoms and from 0 to 4 double bonds, as well as limit acids with the number of carbon atoms from 23 to 34 (15%). Also, found a small amount (3%) neutral components: β-sitosterol, tocopherol and phytyl side-chain, as well as unidentified components (up to 5%), the spectra of which are missing in the database.

Testing the effectiveness of the target product, obtained in example 1, as BMI and immunostimulant with fungicidal properties held in conjunction with the wildebeest Sinners WITH RAAS in comparison with control, as well as standard - the Novosil preparation, the active ingredient which is selected from DZ fir the amount of triterpene acids [EN 2108803]. The target product was tested in the preparative form (examples 2-7 conditional name of the drug CLIPS - sour LIPI the s fir), including emulsifier and water, the concentration of the active substances of the test drug and Novosil" were equal. The influence of application of the test drug on laboratory germination (example 2), the yields of agricultural crops (examples 3, 4, 7) and the suppression of fungal diseases (examples 5, 6, 7).

Example 2.

Objects of research: pea varieties Novosibirsk grain direction, listochkov morphotypes with indeterminate type of growth of the stalk and wheat varieties of Rock.

Treatment option: soaking seeds in solutions of drugs (5 ml of 5%solution per liter of water), the exposure time is 15 minutes

Control is water.

Table 1.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on the germination of peas and wheat.
MedicationLaboratory germination
peaswheat
CLIPS135,3116.0
Novosil99,6108.3
Control 100100

Example 3.

Object of study: spring garlic (bogar).

Treatment option: soaking planting material in solutions of drugs (5 ml of 5%solution per liter of water), the exposure time to 15 minutes, landing - may 6) and spraying of plants in the phase of mass education and the rise of leaves.

Control is water.

Table 2.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on the productivity of spring garlic.
MedicationMarketable yield, % of controlTotal yield, % of control
CLIPS150115
Novosil200150
Control100100

Example 4.

The object of the study: potato varieties Escort.

Treatment options: pre-sowing soaking planting material and spraying. Control is water.

Table 3.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on the productivity of potato varieties Escort
MedicationMarketable yield, % controlTotal yield, % control
SoakingSprayingSoakingSpraying
CLIPS133133129121
Novosil117100114100
Control100100100100

Example 5.

The object of the study: potato varieties Escort, infected by the pathogenic fungus Phytoftora Infestans.

Treatment option: soaking.

Control (K-1) - infected tubers without processing.

Note: 0-1 - high stability, 1-1 .7 - average stability, above 2.0 - low resistance.

Table 4.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on the development Phytoftora Infestans on potato varieties Escort
MedicationThe development of Phytophthora
CLIPS0.8
Novosil2.65
K-12.0

Example 6.

The object of investigation: the wheat varieties Novosibirsk 20.

Leaf diseases were evaluated in the phase of earing plants (the period of display of shot hole).

Option processing: spraying plants at the tillering stage (the second decade of June). The consumption rate of 5%solutions of drugs is 100 ml/300 l of water/ha Results averaged over three parallel experiments.

Control is water.

Table 5.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on the defeat of wheat powdery mildew.
MedicationPowdery mildew, % lesion
CLIPS45
Novosil58
Control58

Example 7.

The object of the research: potato varieties Egretta (average resistant to late blight) and Alena (unstable to late blight).

Infectious background for research was created with the help of the local population Phytoftora Infestans. The account of the development of the disease was made on 3, 12, 24 and 42 days after treatment. At the end of the growing season accounted for the harvest of plots and from one Bush.

Option processing: spraying plants in the flowering phase of active (the first decade of July). The consumption rate of 5%aqueous solutions of drugs - 2 l/1000 l of water/ha Results averaged over three parallel experiments.

Control is water.

Table 6.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on infection of potato late blight
MedicationGrade Adrette, % lesionGrade Alena, % lesion
The days of accountingThe days of accounting
31224423122442
CLIPS103050 50206080100
Novosil10506070256080100
Control2560701003060100100

Table 7.
The influence of the drug CLIPS on the yield of potatoes infected with late blight (% of control).
Grade EgrettaGrade Alena
Medication104.8117.2
CLIPS104.1121.1
Novosil100100
Control

The method of obtaining biologically active substances from the extract of the wood green Siberian fir (Abies Sibirica), including two-time extraction of air-dried ground wood green fir tert-butylmethylamine ether, combine the extracts, wash the extract with 2%aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, the separation of the aqueous-alkaline and organic phases, the acidification of the aqueous-alkaline phase to pH 2 with allocation amount triterpene acids, distillation of the solvent from the organic phase, and the organic extract is evaporated tert-butyl methyl ether under vacuum of 0.1-0.3 ATA and a temperature not exceeding 50°C To produce lipid fraction, next, the resulting lipid fraction hydrolyzing water at a temperature of 50-80°C. and freed from volatile components by hydrodistillation at a residual pressure of 0.1-0.3 ATA, get partially gidralizovanny the lipid fraction, which is treated with an aqueous-alcoholic alkali boiling, concentrated by distillation of solvent under reduced pressure and a temperature not exceeding 80°C., extracted twice tert-butylmethylamine ether, the solution is concentrated and receive exhaustively gidralizovanny the lipid fraction, characterized in that the remainder of the hydrolysate (aqueous-alkaline phase from receiving the Oia comprehensive hydrolyzed lipid fraction) acidified with 5÷10%solution hydrochloric acid to pH 2 and extracted twice tert-butylmethylamine ether, the extract is washed with water and evaporated tert-butyl methyl ether under vacuum of 0.1-0.3 ATA and a temperature not exceeding 80°C To produce the amount of acids.



 

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3 tbl, 3 ex

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