Method of rice cultivation
SUBSTANCE: method includes sowing rice seeds with their placement in soil at the depth 2.5-3 cm. After that fields are flooded with water for 3-5 days for seed soaking. Then water is drained for period of seed germination. After that re-flooding of fields with water is carried out.
EFFECT: method insures dense shoots and reduces decree of rice layering, which allows to increase rice yield and its harvesting.
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of rice cultivation, and can be used in the cultivation of rice.
Biological productivity of rice fields depends on many factors. The main factor is the density of seedlings of rice and water regime, as well as seeding depth at sowing and the associated degree of lodging of rice plants before harvest.
In the far East, the most widespread method of rice cultivation with a minimum placement of seeds at a depth of 0.5-1.0 cm and intermittent water regime.
In a similar fashion cultivated rice in the Kuban region, but the seeding depth is within 1-2 cm
There is a method of rice cultivation, including planting rice to a depth of 1-2 cm, if the sowing is carried out in the early stages, the seeding depth 4.5 cm After planting depth of 1-2 cm carried out the initial flooding. After naklevyvaniya grain water with checks dumped on the germination of rice. During the emergence of the rice 1-2 leaves checks again pour water layer 12-15 cm, which support up to complete destruction of weeds. Further, this layer of water to support the early dough stage of grain. After that, the water flow stops, and the remains of her dropping gradually, in order to harvest the field was drained. (Agronomy journal. The cultivation of rice is under intensive technology. M: Rosselchozizdat, 1987, p.18-24).
The disadvantages of this method is the low seed germinability and susceptibility of rice plants to lodging, which leads to a partial loss of the crop.
There is a method of cultivation of agricultural crops in rice irrigation systems, including the formation of new ridges by tube expansion generated in the previous year. Moreover, the formation of the ridges is performed with the orientation of their predominantly in the direction from East to West, and in the transverse direction after conducting Diablo rice crops cut slits in increments of no more than 50 meters After this box, fill it with water, the level of which is supported at the level of the top shelf of the ridges. Next, the rice cultivation is done according to the traditional scheme. The way to increase the yield by 20-25% compared with the traditional methods of rice cultivation (RF patent No. 2159528, AV 79/02, AS 7/00, publ. 2000.11.27).
Disadvantages - inefficient use of cultivated land between crests of empty space. Due to the fact that the original Bay solely at the height of the crest, there is a mass germination of weeds and required additional treatment for their destruction.
In addition, the rice plants in raised bed planting more prone to lodging, resulting in part of the harvest is lost (polegshey the rice nevoso is but to remove harvester).
Closest to the claimed method of rice cultivation, including planting seeds randomly way, the subsequent flooding of crops water 25-30 cm for 8-10 days until the seedlings are 5 cm, then the water dropped to 1-2 days. Then checks again flood the water layer of 20-25 cm for 7-9 days for killing weeds, then reduce the layer of water up to 5-10 cm before the mass tillering rice, hereinafter referred to as plant growth layer of water is increased to 20 cm (patent RF №2099934, A01G 16/00, A01 W/02, publ. 27.12.1997 year).
Disadvantages - low germinability of seeds due to the destruction of seeds fungal diseases, because seeds are not embedded in the soil, lay on its surface and mold fungi actively affect the seeds.
It is known that dampness is a good medium for the propagation of fungi and flooding of crops for a long time provokes the development of moulds, which, ultimately, leads to low seed germination and consequently lower yields.
In addition, maintaining the water layer in check for a long time reduces the access of oxygen to the germinating seeds, which also adversely affects plant development and subsequently cause lodging of rice during maturation and as a consequence to a partial loss of the crop.
The objective of the invention is the rice yield increase and decrease of losses of grain during the harvest.
The task is solved in that the generated method, including planting seeds at a depth of 2.5-3 cm, subsequent flooding for 3-5 days and repeated flooding in the stage of 2-3 leaves of rice seedlings.
The technical result is an improvement of conditions for soil moisture germinating seeds in order to increase their germination and increased resistance to lodging of rice before the harvest.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in contrast to known methods in the proposed method:
the depth of seed placement in the soil provide a depth of 2.5-3 cm;
- the duration of the initial Gulf of crops depending on sowing time (soil temperature at seeding depth) is reduced by 3-5 times compared with traditional technology, i.e. with 10-15 days to 3-5 days.
As a result, the germination and yield of plants at the surface occurs when constantly declining naturally soil moisture from 100 to 50% of field capacity.
The placement of seeds in the soil to a depth of 2.5-3 cm is the ideal to ensure seed to soil moisture.
The specified depth holds the germinating seed, it is not washed off during subsequent flooding, which contributes to greater seed germination and provides maximum seedling density. This forms a strong tillering node RA is the shadow, that increases the degree of resistance of rice plants to lodging and cleaning almost all going to the harvest, which in turn leads to an increase in grain yield.
For the guaranteed supply of sprouting seeds moisture, i.e. namachivanii rice seeds, carried out directly in the field by flooding checks for 3-5 days. Water in cheques fill in to cover it with soil.
Such flooding is not possible to develop mold fungi, provides access of oxygen from air, which allows to actively develop the plant and to build a strong tillering node.
The flooding water for 3-5 days provides the necessary soil moisture to obtain dense shoots without additional watering irrigation, which significantly reduces the cost of labour in the cultivation of rice.
Test method for Coastal research station rice showed good results on rice yield.
The table shows the accounting data of seedling density of rice cultivated claimed process in 2007
|The sowing date||The seedling density||The duration of the initial stop is to be placed, days|
|may 22||% of control||of 147.4||163,2||173,7||176,3||100|
|may 26||% of control||138,6||134,1||145,5||134,1||100|
|may 30,||% of control||157,4||129,8||131,9||119,1||100|
|*) the figures in parentheses are the duration of the initial Gulf planting rice with the placement of seeds at a depth of 0.5-1.0 cm, days.|
Data analysis the table shows that if we take the density of seed control option for 100%, it is obvious that the germination of the seeds at planting rice in the claimed method, depending on the sowing date on 20-76% higher.
This allowed us to harvest rice 10.8-13,6 kg/ha more than the yield of rice grown in the traditional way. So the yield of rice by the claimed method 40.6-52,3 the/ha depending on the sowing date, and the traditional way 29,8-38,7 kg/ha
Thus, the claimed method of rice cultivation, tested in practice, confirms the possibility of solving problems - increased rice yield and reducing the loss of grain during the harvest.
The method is as follows.
After pre-treatment soil (provoking the germination of weed seeds and their destruction by mechanical means) carry out sowing of rice seeders NWS-3,6 with a depth of 2.5-3 see After sowing checks pour water for 3-5 days for soil moisture required for the swelling of the seeds. Then the water is dumped on the germination of seeds with the release of plants on the surface, which is carried out when soil moisture is below field capacity. At the stage of emergence of 2-3 leaves in plants crops again pour water to a depth of 10-12 cm water Level maintained until stage dough stage of grain. Before cleaning the water is completely discharged, allow to dry out the soil and then carry out the harvest.
The advantage of the proposed method is to reduce the cost of production of agricultural work - there is no need for time-consuming extra moisturizing irrigation.
In addition, this method of rice cultivation, which reduces the possibility of destruction of plant fungal diseases.
The method alone is Denmark rice, including planting seeds, flooding with subsequent discharge of water on seed germination and re-flooding, characterized in that the seeding is performed with the placement of seeds in the soil to a depth of 2.5-3 cm, and flooding of checks carried out on 3-5 days for seeds by soaking.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preplanting treatment of seeds with a plant growth regulator. In order to enhance capacity of survival of rice, aqueous solution of Melaphen at strength of 1·10-6-1·10-9 g/l is applied as a plant growth regulator.
EFFECT: efficient increase of viability and germinating ability of the seeds, enhancement of survival capacity of rice, increase in productivity and positive impact upon technological characteristics of the products.
SUBSTANCE: this method suggests constant 10-12 cm water level during whole growing period up to rice harvesting. Herewith calurea treatment of rice is performed during the 5-6 leafs stage. This invention allows increasing waterweed (Hydrodictyon utricnlatum Pooth.) control efficiency in rice plantings during tillering stage (3-7 leafs).
EFFECT: increase of waterweed control efficiency in rice plantings.
SUBSTANCE: method ensures the facilities for active biomass growth of alga water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L) Lagerh) over the water surface. Shallow work is carried out in the lea, in spring crop remains are embedded, nitrogenous fertilisers are added with the dosage 20-30 kg/ha, and then constant water sheet is made, that is kept in the period from May till August. For example, urea is added in the soil as nitrogenous fertilisers.
EFFECT: decreased level of rice fields infestation with the main weeds of boggy and gramineous type, and also with red-grained rice.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: plant growing, in particular, rice disease controlling process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating rice young crops at milky-wax ripeness phase with carbamide mixture in dose of 20-30 kg/hectare, pherazime SC fungicide in dose of 0.6 kg/hectare, and luvaram containing growth promoter in dose of 22 ml/hectare at mixture flow rate of 100 l/hectare.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of piricularia pitting rice disease at late development stages and during milky-wax ripeness stage when plant's vegetative and generative organs are simultaneously stricken by disease.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, rice cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves returning water filtered into waterway back into checks by means of water lifts which are positioned in retaining structures additionally provided on parts of waterways; returning drainage and waste water into irrigation and distribution network through additional open feeding channels. Method allows drainage and waste water volume to be effectively utilized and conditions for mixing and diluting of drainage and waste water with pure irrigation water to be improved.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in utilizing of water from rice irrigation systems and improved conditions for utilization of fertilizers in rice cultivation.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular rice cropping.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes soil treatment, fertilization, seeding and irrigation regime, plant treatment in tillering period with mixture of herbicide and growth controlling agent. Treatment id carried out using mixture of bazagran M as herbicide in amount of 3 l/hectare and emystim as growth controlling agent in amount of 0.5-5 ml/hectare against the background on N60-120P90K60.
EFFECT: decreased adverse herbicide action; increased rice yield.
4 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, rice cultivation method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves tillage of soil; providing presowing application of mineral fertilizers; treating rice seeds with growth promoter used in an amount of 1-30 ml/t; sowing and irrigating. Method allows dose of nitrous fertilizer applied during presowing period to be reduced by 30% without reducing rice yield.
EFFECT: reduced production costs and decreased influence of agronomical chemicals upon environment owing to reduced technogenic loading thereof.
6 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, controlling of weedage in rice growing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing rice crop to obtain young crops through wetting of soil in checks and provoking germination of weeds (barnyard grass); treating weed sprouts having no more than 3-4 leaves with binary bacteriological mixture of two kinds of herbicides used in doses of 0.9-4.0 l/hectare, respectively, at flow rate of up to 500 l/hectare; creating constant water track in check of 5-7 cm depth 48 hours after treatment of weeds.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of weeds, such as barnyard grass, and increased rice yield.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: in claimed method sowing of spring and winter crops is carried out separately with patch 18-22 cm wide between with the distance between patches of one crop 23-27 cm or in each patch with mixture of crops seeds. Sowing is carried out by sowing and cultivating machine of "С3С-2.1П" or "Ob'-4" type. During harvesting straw is scattered about or stalks are left after combing.
EFFECT: application of claimed invention will allow to reduce expenditures on soil preparation and sowing, using lower standard quantity of seed per hectare, increase grain crop productivity and resistance of growing crops to layering, accelerate crop ripening, reduce contamination of crops with weeds.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of combined cultivation of feed crops includes chisel soil processing with formation of ridgy furrow bottom, simultaneous sowing of corn and accompanying culture in three lines with location of accompanying culture in border lines and of corn - in central line. Corn lines are located above furrow bottom risings - every second rising, and lines of accompanying culture - above each furrow bottom deepening.
EFFECT: claimed invention creates more favourable rate and conditions for development of plant root system, intensification of processes of growth and increase of leaf-stem mass of cultivated crops.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-planting preparation of seed material of early ripening, disease-resistant potato varieties. Sprouting of tuber seeds is carried out in moist nutrient medium. Preparation of soil is carried out by deep autumn ploughing, spring pre-planting tillage to the depth of 20-22 cm and formation of holes 9-10 cm deep according to the scheme 40 cm × 50 cm. Sprouted tubers with shoots, roots are planted together with nutrient medium sparsely. Planting of sprouted tubers is performed into holes with further filling up of 2-3 cm of soil. Planted sprouts are covered with light-permeable film in which above tuber location cross-shaped cuts with size 3 cm × 3 cm are made.
EFFECT: method allows to simplify potato growing and reduce expenditures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture and land recultivation. Method includes seeding of phytomeliorant plants, as such foddergrass mixtures containing not less than 60% of tetraploid rye-grass and polyploidy perennial cereals, such as timothy- grass and Bromus inermis. Norm of seeding is 20 - 24 kg/ha. High level of soil humidity up to 65-75% TMC and increased feeding mode are supported by carrying out fertilising watering. Herbage harvesting is performed at soil humidity not less than 65% TMC.
EFFECT: method allows to obtain feed production of high zootechnical quality, standard-pure as to content of heavy metals on polluted agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method green fodder production includes seeding binary mixture of grass-legume crops and their mowing for fodder when being fully developed. The half-norm of binary mixture of winter crops shall be sown in autumn. During spring aftergrowing the half-norm of binary mixture of grass-legume spring crops of early sowing shall be interplanted. The mixed grass crop shall be mowed for fodder when being fully developed.
EFFECT: method enables to improve quality and quantity of fodder.
SUBSTANCE: cultivation method comprises soil preparation, row planting, attendance and harvesting operations. Rapeseeds shall be sown in the row middles of rye while simultaneous wide-row planting. After overwinting the inter-low tillage is implemented including rye crushing and covering.
EFFECT: method enables to increase efficiency of rape cultivation and crop capacity as well as secure stable output yield on the land under cultivation.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes forecrop harvesting, forecrop primary tillage, organic manuring and fertiliser dressing. Basic soil processing is performed, early spring casing harrowing is carried out, upper layer is cultivated from 0.06 to 0.08 m deep, soil herbicides are applied, seedbed is subject to preplanting cultivation up to 0.04-0.06 m deep. Seeding is performed at the temperature of upper soil layer ranging from +14 to 16°C. Soil is rammed before and after seeding, seeds being processed with insecticides. Row ripping, vegetative irrigation, foliage spraying, preharvesting crop desiccation is performed. To obtain predicted crop yield of group of average early ripening grain sorghum variety being 7 tons/ha, wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 300 to 350 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N140P100K50 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 7 to 12% N, 15-20% P, 3-5% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 50-58% N, 20-30% P, 20-25% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 30-43% N, 50-65% P, 70-77% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 8 tons/hectare sorghum seeds are sown with germination number ranging from 350 to 450 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N160P120K70 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 17-22% N, 25-30% P, 13-15% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 45-50% N, 35-45% P, 30-35% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 28-38% N, 25-40% P, 50-57% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 9 tons/hectare wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 400-500 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. Nutrition macro-elements N180P140K90 are dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 27-32% N, 35-45% P, 15-23% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 40-45% N, 45-50% P, 35-45% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 23-33% N, 5-20% P, 40-42% K. Irrigation schedule of 70-80-70% HB is maintained until "paniculation" stage being 70% HB in the layer 0-0.4 m, during the rest period of vegetation up to beginning of grain formation HB is kept 80-70% in the layer 0-0,7 m.
EFFECT: method ensures to obtain harvest of grain sorghum seeds with substantially decreased fertiliser quantity.
SUBSTANCE: method involves boardless strip soil loosening. Flat loosening of even strips is done at a depth of 0.28-0.3 m, and odd strips - at a depth of 0.1-0.12 m. On moderately weed infested and moderately packed soil, strips are made with width of 0.3-0.4 m. On heavily weed infested and packed soil, even strips are made with width of 0.4 m, and odd strips with width of 0.6 m.
EFFECT: such a technique allows for reducing power input on autumn soil preparation and increases snow water intake of the soil.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is performed by 110+30 cm seeding pattern. Potato tubers are laid on soil surface pre-processed by disc tools. At the same time soil is raised at sites adjoining tuber zone by screw-type plough bottoms and laid over the potato tubers. Due to plow bottoms set to face each other, a bed with width equal to double width of mouldboard grip is formed in one passage.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of potato cultivation in beds in insufficient moistening conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves precedent removal followed by cutting narrow slits. Slits are cut at 0.35-0.40 m pitch to 0.35-0.45 m depth and 0.016-0.020 m width. Triangle-profile groove is made in alignment line of each narrow slit to the depth of 0.50-0.75 of arable layer with 0.15-0.20 m width in top part. Stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants are removed from field surface into triangle-profile grooves. Lime at 10-30 tons per hectare rate is applied in a strip over each groove on stubby remnants surface. 40-60% solution of natural bischofite mineral of the formula MgCl26H2O at 600-1200 litres per hectare rate is applied by fine dispersion on surface. Organic fertilisers are applied in late autumn period at 40-60 tons per hectare rate. In early spring period soil cultivation is performed, mineral fertilisers are applied, and seedlings are planted to open ground. Soil cultivation involves ploughing with full layer overturn, terrain leveling, pre-planting cultivation. 30-40% phosphor and potassium fertilisers are applied on surface. Cultivation machine includes frame, bearing wheel, suspension bracket and work tools. Groups of work tools are positioned in sequence on the frame along the machine course and with disposition sideways. Each tool group has slit-cutting strut, mouldboard for triangle-profile groove disclosure, and slanted cutter for shifting stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants into the groove.
EFFECT: secured crops of high-quality cauliflower owing to technology and structure.
9 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.