Method of combined cultivation of feed crops

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of combined cultivation of feed crops includes chisel soil processing with formation of ridgy furrow bottom, simultaneous sowing of corn and accompanying culture in three lines with location of accompanying culture in border lines and of corn - in central line. Corn lines are located above furrow bottom risings - every second rising, and lines of accompanying culture - above each furrow bottom deepening.

EFFECT: claimed invention creates more favourable rate and conditions for development of plant root system, intensification of processes of growth and increase of leaf-stem mass of cultivated crops.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, particularly irrigated agriculture and crop production, and can be used for joint cultivation of fodder crops.

A method of processing soil for planting potatoes, including bulk and surface tillage, and the main tillage performed by deep ripping chisel, which, as is well known, is formed comb the bottom of the furrow (see SU 1464924 A1, IPC4AV 79/02, 15.03.1989).

Technical drawback of these methods is not enough effective use of chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow.

Also known Samarkand way of joint cultivation of fodder crops, according to which produce simultaneous planting corn and other crops, which we conventionally call attendant, ribbons in three lines, with plants concomitant cultures are placed in the two outer lines, and corn - Central (see EN 2031564 C1 IPC6AV 79/02, 27.03.1995).

The technical disadvantage of this method: not mentioned, and therefore does not account for the possibility of primary tillage (which may be chisel) in combination with irrigation, resulting in this promising method does not adequately provides feedback that results in losses of yield is I; this is unacceptable in the context of irrigation.

Technical goal: increase the efficiency of cultivation of fodder crops due to more fully realize the potential opportunities chisel tillage in combination with irrigation.

Effect: create a more favorable environment and conditions for development of the root system of plants, the intensification of the processes of increasing and increasing leafy mass of crops.

According to the invention, the method of joint cultivation of fodder crops includes chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, simultaneous sowing of maize and related culture in the extreme lines, and corn - Central; lines of corn are placed above the elevations of the bottom of the furrow through the same elevation, and the lines associated culture over each dredging furrows. As concomitant use of legumes culture, such as soybeans or soybean and Lupin.

Figure 1 shows chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow; figure 2 is a section through the treated soil with a soil bed in the process of forage crops; figure 3 - vegetation forage distribution of the root system relative to the estuarine bottom of the furrow.

The process of co-cultivation of fodder crops implementing the Ute as follows.

Main (autumn) tillage carried out as usual in the autumn by chisel gun 1 with inclined struts 2 (with 3 bits on the end of the rack, the rack is equipped with blades 4. In the chisel handle (deep tillage) soil is formed estuarine bottom grooves with grooves 5 (on the trail passes the bit 3) and elevations 6. Tillage and comb the bottom of the furrow are characterized by the following indicators: the depth of processing (on the trail passes the bit 3) N=38...42 cm; width between racks is determined M=35 or 40 cm (characteristic guns); the width of the recesses In=6...7 cm; the bevel angles of the ridges ≈45° (equal to the angles of the struts 2 and the angles of repose of the soil); the depth of dumps h=15 or 20 see the process of soil on the surface of the field set the mark pointing to the location of the crests (elevations) of the bottom of the furrow.

Joint planting of forage crops is carried out in the spring after pre-sowing harrowing and cultivation of the soil. As forage crops use of maize and associated legume culture, such as soybeans or soybean and Lupin. Sowing is carried out in two connected seeders, corn and grain, focusing on the issued stamp. The opener drills feature so that inter-row spacing (distance between soil bed 7) for corn was 2 m'=2M=70 or 80 cm, and for the Zopa is appropriate culture - M', but the distance between the soil bed of the associated culture and corn M'/2. As a consequence, the simultaneous planting of forage crops is carried out in three lines with the placement of the supporting culture in the extreme lines, and corn in Central. When this line of corn is placed over the ridges 6 of the bottom of the furrow through the same elevation, and the lines associated culture - above each recess 5 of the bottom of the furrow.

The cultivation of fodder crops were carried out in dry conditions for the poor in humus light-chestnut soils, but under irrigation (applied resource-saving drip irrigation). Along with the main chisel tillage for comparison in the next field was performed traditional otvoreno-lemeshow treatment (tillage) on the normal depth of 25...27 cm with the incorporation of fertilizers at this depth. The planting of forage crops on this field carried out in the same way - three from the same location and distances between the lines. But, of course, the location of the lines above the elevations and recesses of the bottom of the furrow is not conducted due to the lack of the latter after otvoreno-lemasney treatment, after which, as is well known, is formed soil "sole", impeding the development of plant roots. Comparative results of cultivation of fodder crops after two variants of the basic tillage and other RA the conditions summarized in table.

Before sowing, soil moisture (before irrigation) chisel after treatment was greater than that attributable to the improved moisture accumulation in the recesses of the bottom of the furrow and in the loosened soil. Under irrigation for both options, the moisture regime was supported by 70% of HB, but because of the ability of the soil after selevinia more reliably absorb and retain moisture irrigation rate and the total water use in the proposed variant were less. Under these conditions, the yield of green mass of feed (Kukuruza-legume) crops in the stage of milky-wax ripeness after chisel tillage was 15% more. Increasing yields while reducing water consumption due to the following factors:

1) accumulation and prolonged retention of moisture after selevinia and increase humidity in the recesses of the bottom of the furrow;

2) location related (legumes) culture 8 over these grooves, which stimulates the development of their root systems and above-ground plant parts;

3) because of the location of corn 9 above the elevations of the bottom of the furrow, its root system "forks", covering the crest, due to the high humidity and decrease in density) of the soil the roots penetrate and the crest of the grooves, i.e. the strong root system of the plant develops more intensively;

4) when chizelevanie soil dumps 4 close up fertilizer for optimal the ing depth (15 or 20 cm), that also stimulates the development of plants;

5) irrigation, the moisture is rolled into the depressions of the bottom of the furrow, carrying fertilizers;

6) these phenomena contribute to creating a more favorable environment and conditions for development of the root system of plants and intensification of the processes of increasing and increasing leafy mass of crops.

It should be added that Kiselevka accompanied by a collapse of the soil after ripping through bit 3 of the most deep and dense horizons. Consequently, the specific tractive resistance chisel tools compared with the same period otvoreno-LESNOGO plow 30...35% less, despite the greater depth of processing; proportionately reduced specific consumption of motor fuel in the tractor. Thus, the present invention provides not only increase the yield of cultivated forage crops, balanced nutrients, but also reduce their cost of cultivation.

1,36
Table
Comparative data on the cultivation of fodder crops
IndicatorsOtvoreno-lemessa treatment (control)Chisel processing (according to the but the invention)
The depth of tillage, cm25...2738...42
Soil moisture before sowing, mm (in layer 0...60 cm)68,280,3
The density of the addition of the soil before sowing, kg/cm3:
1) in the layer 20...30 cm;1,311,32
2) in the layer 30...40 cm1,351,32
The moisture regime, % HB7070
View irrigationdripdrip
Soil moisture before cleaning milky-wax ripeness, mm (in layer 0...60 cm)to 49.958,8
The density of the addition of the soil after harvest, kg/cm3:
1) in the layer 20...30 cm;1,35of 1.34
2) in the layer 30...40 cmof 1.34
Water use:
1) the number of irrigations per season;4646
2) irrigation rate, m3/ha;22002098
3) the total water consumption, m3/ha;35423439
4) non-irrigation period, hours2424
The yield of Kukuruza-bean green mass, t/ha46,853,9

1. The process of co-cultivation of fodder crops, including chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, simultaneous sowing of maize and related culture in three lines with the placement of the supporting culture in the extreme lines, and corn in Central, characterized in that the lines of corn are placed above the elevations of the bottom of the furrow through the same elevation, and the lines associated culture over each dredging furrows.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as soposto the overall use of legumes culture, for example soybeans or soybean and Lupin.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-planting preparation of seed material of early ripening, disease-resistant potato varieties. Sprouting of tuber seeds is carried out in moist nutrient medium. Preparation of soil is carried out by deep autumn ploughing, spring pre-planting tillage to the depth of 20-22 cm and formation of holes 9-10 cm deep according to the scheme 40 cm × 50 cm. Sprouted tubers with shoots, roots are planted together with nutrient medium sparsely. Planting of sprouted tubers is performed into holes with further filling up of 2-3 cm of soil. Planted sprouts are covered with light-permeable film in which above tuber location cross-shaped cuts with size 3 cm × 3 cm are made.

EFFECT: method allows to simplify potato growing and reduce expenditures.

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture and land recultivation. Method includes seeding of phytomeliorant plants, as such foddergrass mixtures containing not less than 60% of tetraploid rye-grass and polyploidy perennial cereals, such as timothy- grass and Bromus inermis. Norm of seeding is 20 - 24 kg/ha. High level of soil humidity up to 65-75% TMC and increased feeding mode are supported by carrying out fertilising watering. Herbage harvesting is performed at soil humidity not less than 65% TMC.

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1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method green fodder production includes seeding binary mixture of grass-legume crops and their mowing for fodder when being fully developed. The half-norm of binary mixture of winter crops shall be sown in autumn. During spring aftergrowing the half-norm of binary mixture of grass-legume spring crops of early sowing shall be interplanted. The mixed grass crop shall be mowed for fodder when being fully developed.

EFFECT: method enables to improve quality and quantity of fodder.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 dwg, 1 ex

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3 dwg

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9 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl

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3 tbl, 1 ex

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2 tbl, 3 ex

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1 ex

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4 tbl

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EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.

EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.

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3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.

EFFECT: increased yield of green mass and provision for applying of mineral fertilizer to different soil depth.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: growing of high-protein crops, in particular, red clover under clearly defined continental or similar conditions or in arid climatic zones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing red clover (trifolium pratense L.) and cover crop at optimal time in spring; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing stubble breaking to 0.06-0.08 m depth and ameliorating mellowing to 0.6-0.8 m depth; applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer to provide for 3-4 year life of plants; plowing soil while turning layers by means of bottom-moldboard plows to 0.25-0.27 m depth while fully embedding stubble remains; after deep ameliorating tillage combined with turning of root layer, providing irrigation at the end of September - beginning of October at irrigation rate of 700-900 m3/hectare for keeping pre-irrigation soil moisture threshold; closing moisture feeding in early spring by means of heavy harrows in two tracks transverse to center ridges during moldboard plowing and simultaneously leveling field relief; providing cultivation to 0.05-0.08 m depth for killing cold-resistant weeds by means of A-hoes; providing presowing and postsowing compaction for increasing soil density in seeding layer at 0-10 cm depth; performing interlace sowing in early spring (0.30 m) of cover crop (oats, less commonly barley) at seeding rate of (3.0-3.5)·106 pieces of seeds per 1 hectare (continuous sowing at seeding rate of (8.5-9.5)·106 pieces per hectare to 0.03-0.04 m depth on light soil and 0.02-0.03 m depth on heavy soil for producing of 450-500 plants per 1 m2 at full germination phase, 250-300 plants at spring growing phase of second year of life, 200-220 plants per 1 m2 at spring growing phase of third year of life; providing mineral feeding by applying rated norms of phosphorous-potash fertilizer for stock plowing for three years of utilization of herbage, and applying differentiated doses of nitrous fertilizer for further mowing. Application of up to 100 kg/hectare of nitrogen during growing period at maximal dose of 35 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 60 t/hectare of green mass, and application of 130 kg of nitrogen per hectare during growing period at maximal dose of 45 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 80 t/hectare of green mass. Yield of 40 t/hectare of green mass is provided at irrigation norm of 850 m3/hectare with minimal period between irrigation procedures of 14-16 days, with total irrigation norm making 3,200-3,400 m3/hectare. Clover is mown at flowering phase. Time between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures is reduced to 1-3 days. Last mowing procedure is performed 25-30 days before air temperature reaches 00C.

EFFECT: improved quality of feed and predetermined productivity.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, production of fogger in irrigated zones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves periodically mowing biomass; irrigating and applying mineral fertilizer in spring at initial grass growing stage and for feeding after each mowing operation; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing pre-plowing irrigation at norm of 300-400 m3/hectare and ameliorating mellowing to 0.4-0.6 m depth; plowing to 0.25-0.27 m depth with turning of soil layer; mellowing top layer by means of cultivators to 0.08-0.012 m depth; leveling microrelief of irrigated field by means of levelers; providing interlace sowing of leguminous crops, such as lucerne and clover, and meadow grass crops, such as meadow fescue and orchard grass, at seeding norm of 4.8·106, 5.4·106, 5.5·106 and 8.1·106 pieces of seed per hectare, respectively, with grass mixtures being composed of two or four crops; keeping seeding depth in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.06 m; maintaining mineral feeding mode by applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer at norm rated for plowing for stock sufficient for 3-4 year usage of herbage; applying nitrous fertilizer in differentiated doses for mowing; applying 60 kg/hectare of nitrous fertilizer at growing period at maximal dose for first mowing of 40 kg/hectare to provide for guaranteed yield of up to 50 t/hectare of green mass; 80 kg/hectare at maximal dose for first mowing of 60 kg/hectare to provide for herbage yield of up to 70 t/hectare of green mass, and 100 kg/hectare at maximal dose of 70 kg/hectare for first mowing to provide for guaranteed yield of grass mixture of up to 90 t/hectare; keeping irrigation mode within the range of 60-80% norm of moisture. Green mass yield of from 50 to 90 t/hectare is provided with total irrigation norm of 2,550-3,250 m3/hectare to 3,600-4,050 m3/hectare. Interval between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures at growing period is reduced to 2-3 days. Agronomical care involves harrowing of last years crop fields, after mowing of grass for green feed, and in autumn - slitting field of young crop field of second and third years of life of plants to 0.4-0.6 m depth.

EFFECT: increased effectiveness of utilization of irrigated lands, increased production of ecologically safe high-quality feeds, provision for keeping of soil fertility and improved economy of region.

10 cl, 12 dwg, 52 tbl

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