Method of combined cultivation of feed crops
SUBSTANCE: method of combined cultivation of feed crops includes chisel soil processing with formation of ridgy furrow bottom, simultaneous sowing of corn and accompanying culture in three lines with location of accompanying culture in border lines and of corn - in central line. Corn lines are located above furrow bottom risings - every second rising, and lines of accompanying culture - above each furrow bottom deepening.
EFFECT: claimed invention creates more favourable rate and conditions for development of plant root system, intensification of processes of growth and increase of leaf-stem mass of cultivated crops.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention relates to agriculture, particularly irrigated agriculture and crop production, and can be used for joint cultivation of fodder crops.
A method of processing soil for planting potatoes, including bulk and surface tillage, and the main tillage performed by deep ripping chisel, which, as is well known, is formed comb the bottom of the furrow (see SU 1464924 A1, IPC4AV 79/02, 15.03.1989).
Technical drawback of these methods is not enough effective use of chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow.
Also known Samarkand way of joint cultivation of fodder crops, according to which produce simultaneous planting corn and other crops, which we conventionally call attendant, ribbons in three lines, with plants concomitant cultures are placed in the two outer lines, and corn - Central (see EN 2031564 C1 IPC6AV 79/02, 27.03.1995).
The technical disadvantage of this method: not mentioned, and therefore does not account for the possibility of primary tillage (which may be chisel) in combination with irrigation, resulting in this promising method does not adequately provides feedback that results in losses of yield is I; this is unacceptable in the context of irrigation.
Technical goal: increase the efficiency of cultivation of fodder crops due to more fully realize the potential opportunities chisel tillage in combination with irrigation.
Effect: create a more favorable environment and conditions for development of the root system of plants, the intensification of the processes of increasing and increasing leafy mass of crops.
According to the invention, the method of joint cultivation of fodder crops includes chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, simultaneous sowing of maize and related culture in the extreme lines, and corn - Central; lines of corn are placed above the elevations of the bottom of the furrow through the same elevation, and the lines associated culture over each dredging furrows. As concomitant use of legumes culture, such as soybeans or soybean and Lupin.
Figure 1 shows chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow; figure 2 is a section through the treated soil with a soil bed in the process of forage crops; figure 3 - vegetation forage distribution of the root system relative to the estuarine bottom of the furrow.
The process of co-cultivation of fodder crops implementing the Ute as follows.
Main (autumn) tillage carried out as usual in the autumn by chisel gun 1 with inclined struts 2 (with 3 bits on the end of the rack, the rack is equipped with blades 4. In the chisel handle (deep tillage) soil is formed estuarine bottom grooves with grooves 5 (on the trail passes the bit 3) and elevations 6. Tillage and comb the bottom of the furrow are characterized by the following indicators: the depth of processing (on the trail passes the bit 3) N=38...42 cm; width between racks is determined M=35 or 40 cm (characteristic guns); the width of the recesses In=6...7 cm; the bevel angles of the ridges ≈45° (equal to the angles of the struts 2 and the angles of repose of the soil); the depth of dumps h=15 or 20 see the process of soil on the surface of the field set the mark pointing to the location of the crests (elevations) of the bottom of the furrow.
Joint planting of forage crops is carried out in the spring after pre-sowing harrowing and cultivation of the soil. As forage crops use of maize and associated legume culture, such as soybeans or soybean and Lupin. Sowing is carried out in two connected seeders, corn and grain, focusing on the issued stamp. The opener drills feature so that inter-row spacing (distance between soil bed 7) for corn was 2 m'=2M=70 or 80 cm, and for the Zopa is appropriate culture - M', but the distance between the soil bed of the associated culture and corn M'/2. As a consequence, the simultaneous planting of forage crops is carried out in three lines with the placement of the supporting culture in the extreme lines, and corn in Central. When this line of corn is placed over the ridges 6 of the bottom of the furrow through the same elevation, and the lines associated culture - above each recess 5 of the bottom of the furrow.
The cultivation of fodder crops were carried out in dry conditions for the poor in humus light-chestnut soils, but under irrigation (applied resource-saving drip irrigation). Along with the main chisel tillage for comparison in the next field was performed traditional otvoreno-lemeshow treatment (tillage) on the normal depth of 25...27 cm with the incorporation of fertilizers at this depth. The planting of forage crops on this field carried out in the same way - three from the same location and distances between the lines. But, of course, the location of the lines above the elevations and recesses of the bottom of the furrow is not conducted due to the lack of the latter after otvoreno-lemasney treatment, after which, as is well known, is formed soil "sole", impeding the development of plant roots. Comparative results of cultivation of fodder crops after two variants of the basic tillage and other RA the conditions summarized in table.
Before sowing, soil moisture (before irrigation) chisel after treatment was greater than that attributable to the improved moisture accumulation in the recesses of the bottom of the furrow and in the loosened soil. Under irrigation for both options, the moisture regime was supported by 70% of HB, but because of the ability of the soil after selevinia more reliably absorb and retain moisture irrigation rate and the total water use in the proposed variant were less. Under these conditions, the yield of green mass of feed (Kukuruza-legume) crops in the stage of milky-wax ripeness after chisel tillage was 15% more. Increasing yields while reducing water consumption due to the following factors:
1) accumulation and prolonged retention of moisture after selevinia and increase humidity in the recesses of the bottom of the furrow;
2) location related (legumes) culture 8 over these grooves, which stimulates the development of their root systems and above-ground plant parts;
3) because of the location of corn 9 above the elevations of the bottom of the furrow, its root system "forks", covering the crest, due to the high humidity and decrease in density) of the soil the roots penetrate and the crest of the grooves, i.e. the strong root system of the plant develops more intensively;
4) when chizelevanie soil dumps 4 close up fertilizer for optimal the ing depth (15 or 20 cm), that also stimulates the development of plants;
5) irrigation, the moisture is rolled into the depressions of the bottom of the furrow, carrying fertilizers;
6) these phenomena contribute to creating a more favorable environment and conditions for development of the root system of plants and intensification of the processes of increasing and increasing leafy mass of crops.
It should be added that Kiselevka accompanied by a collapse of the soil after ripping through bit 3 of the most deep and dense horizons. Consequently, the specific tractive resistance chisel tools compared with the same period otvoreno-LESNOGO plow 30...35% less, despite the greater depth of processing; proportionately reduced specific consumption of motor fuel in the tractor. Thus, the present invention provides not only increase the yield of cultivated forage crops, balanced nutrients, but also reduce their cost of cultivation.
Comparative data on the cultivation of fodder crops
|Indicators||Otvoreno-lemessa treatment (control)||Chisel processing (according to the but the invention)|
|The depth of tillage, cm||25...27||38...42|
|Soil moisture before sowing, mm (in layer 0...60 cm)||68,2||80,3|
|The density of the addition of the soil before sowing, kg/cm3:|
|1) in the layer 20...30 cm;||1,31||1,32|
|2) in the layer 30...40 cm||1,35||1,32|
|The moisture regime, % HB||70||70|
|Soil moisture before cleaning milky-wax ripeness, mm (in layer 0...60 cm)||to 49.9||58,8|
|The density of the addition of the soil after harvest, kg/cm3:|
|1) in the layer 20...30 cm;||1,35||of 1.34|
|2) in the layer 30...40 cm||of 1.34|
|1) the number of irrigations per season;||46||46|
|2) irrigation rate, m3/ha;||2200||2098|
|3) the total water consumption, m3/ha;||3542||3439|
|4) non-irrigation period, hours||24||24|
|The yield of Kukuruza-bean green mass, t/ha||46,8||53,9|
1. The process of co-cultivation of fodder crops, including chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, simultaneous sowing of maize and related culture in three lines with the placement of the supporting culture in the extreme lines, and corn in Central, characterized in that the lines of corn are placed above the elevations of the bottom of the furrow through the same elevation, and the lines associated culture over each dredging furrows.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as soposto the overall use of legumes culture, for example soybeans or soybean and Lupin.
SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-planting preparation of seed material of early ripening, disease-resistant potato varieties. Sprouting of tuber seeds is carried out in moist nutrient medium. Preparation of soil is carried out by deep autumn ploughing, spring pre-planting tillage to the depth of 20-22 cm and formation of holes 9-10 cm deep according to the scheme 40 cm × 50 cm. Sprouted tubers with shoots, roots are planted together with nutrient medium sparsely. Planting of sprouted tubers is performed into holes with further filling up of 2-3 cm of soil. Planted sprouts are covered with light-permeable film in which above tuber location cross-shaped cuts with size 3 cm × 3 cm are made.
EFFECT: method allows to simplify potato growing and reduce expenditures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture and land recultivation. Method includes seeding of phytomeliorant plants, as such foddergrass mixtures containing not less than 60% of tetraploid rye-grass and polyploidy perennial cereals, such as timothy- grass and Bromus inermis. Norm of seeding is 20 - 24 kg/ha. High level of soil humidity up to 65-75% TMC and increased feeding mode are supported by carrying out fertilising watering. Herbage harvesting is performed at soil humidity not less than 65% TMC.
EFFECT: method allows to obtain feed production of high zootechnical quality, standard-pure as to content of heavy metals on polluted agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method green fodder production includes seeding binary mixture of grass-legume crops and their mowing for fodder when being fully developed. The half-norm of binary mixture of winter crops shall be sown in autumn. During spring aftergrowing the half-norm of binary mixture of grass-legume spring crops of early sowing shall be interplanted. The mixed grass crop shall be mowed for fodder when being fully developed.
EFFECT: method enables to improve quality and quantity of fodder.
SUBSTANCE: cultivation method comprises soil preparation, row planting, attendance and harvesting operations. Rapeseeds shall be sown in the row middles of rye while simultaneous wide-row planting. After overwinting the inter-low tillage is implemented including rye crushing and covering.
EFFECT: method enables to increase efficiency of rape cultivation and crop capacity as well as secure stable output yield on the land under cultivation.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes forecrop harvesting, forecrop primary tillage, organic manuring and fertiliser dressing. Basic soil processing is performed, early spring casing harrowing is carried out, upper layer is cultivated from 0.06 to 0.08 m deep, soil herbicides are applied, seedbed is subject to preplanting cultivation up to 0.04-0.06 m deep. Seeding is performed at the temperature of upper soil layer ranging from +14 to 16°C. Soil is rammed before and after seeding, seeds being processed with insecticides. Row ripping, vegetative irrigation, foliage spraying, preharvesting crop desiccation is performed. To obtain predicted crop yield of group of average early ripening grain sorghum variety being 7 tons/ha, wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 300 to 350 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N140P100K50 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 7 to 12% N, 15-20% P, 3-5% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 50-58% N, 20-30% P, 20-25% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 30-43% N, 50-65% P, 70-77% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 8 tons/hectare sorghum seeds are sown with germination number ranging from 350 to 450 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N160P120K70 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 17-22% N, 25-30% P, 13-15% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 45-50% N, 35-45% P, 30-35% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 28-38% N, 25-40% P, 50-57% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 9 tons/hectare wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 400-500 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. Nutrition macro-elements N180P140K90 are dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 27-32% N, 35-45% P, 15-23% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 40-45% N, 45-50% P, 35-45% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 23-33% N, 5-20% P, 40-42% K. Irrigation schedule of 70-80-70% HB is maintained until "paniculation" stage being 70% HB in the layer 0-0.4 m, during the rest period of vegetation up to beginning of grain formation HB is kept 80-70% in the layer 0-0,7 m.
EFFECT: method ensures to obtain harvest of grain sorghum seeds with substantially decreased fertiliser quantity.
SUBSTANCE: method involves boardless strip soil loosening. Flat loosening of even strips is done at a depth of 0.28-0.3 m, and odd strips - at a depth of 0.1-0.12 m. On moderately weed infested and moderately packed soil, strips are made with width of 0.3-0.4 m. On heavily weed infested and packed soil, even strips are made with width of 0.4 m, and odd strips with width of 0.6 m.
EFFECT: such a technique allows for reducing power input on autumn soil preparation and increases snow water intake of the soil.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is performed by 110+30 cm seeding pattern. Potato tubers are laid on soil surface pre-processed by disc tools. At the same time soil is raised at sites adjoining tuber zone by screw-type plough bottoms and laid over the potato tubers. Due to plow bottoms set to face each other, a bed with width equal to double width of mouldboard grip is formed in one passage.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of potato cultivation in beds in insufficient moistening conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves precedent removal followed by cutting narrow slits. Slits are cut at 0.35-0.40 m pitch to 0.35-0.45 m depth and 0.016-0.020 m width. Triangle-profile groove is made in alignment line of each narrow slit to the depth of 0.50-0.75 of arable layer with 0.15-0.20 m width in top part. Stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants are removed from field surface into triangle-profile grooves. Lime at 10-30 tons per hectare rate is applied in a strip over each groove on stubby remnants surface. 40-60% solution of natural bischofite mineral of the formula MgCl26H2O at 600-1200 litres per hectare rate is applied by fine dispersion on surface. Organic fertilisers are applied in late autumn period at 40-60 tons per hectare rate. In early spring period soil cultivation is performed, mineral fertilisers are applied, and seedlings are planted to open ground. Soil cultivation involves ploughing with full layer overturn, terrain leveling, pre-planting cultivation. 30-40% phosphor and potassium fertilisers are applied on surface. Cultivation machine includes frame, bearing wheel, suspension bracket and work tools. Groups of work tools are positioned in sequence on the frame along the machine course and with disposition sideways. Each tool group has slit-cutting strut, mouldboard for triangle-profile groove disclosure, and slanted cutter for shifting stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants into the groove.
EFFECT: secured crops of high-quality cauliflower owing to technology and structure.
9 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: soils purification method from heavy metals presupposes growing of phyto - ameliorants on contaminated soils with their consecutive removal. Carthamus is used as an ameliorating plant. Seeds of carthamus are sowed into the contaminated soil in the amount of 20-22 kg/ha, adult plants are kept until end of blowing and beginning of lower leaves dying-off, thereafter phyto-ameliorant is totally removed from the soil.
EFFECT: total consumption of ions of heavy metals.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method presupposes reclamation leveling, introduction of chemical substance including humic acids and microorganisms, tillage and seeding. Organic -mineral fertiliser is used as a chemical substance. It contains peat with adjusted to the disrupted soils microorganisms, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and nitrogenous, mineral salts, and balance of peat hydraulitic decomposition with hydric dioxide and ammonia containing humic acids. Organic-mineral fertiliser is introduced before tillage in the amount of 10-50 t/ha.
EFFECT: increased amount of accumulated plant - available organic matter, moving forms of fertiliser elements, increased microbiological and ferment activity, growth and development of plants, enriching disrupted during coal mining soils with organic matter.
2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating soil by forming ridges after germination of weedage and providing subsequent cultivation procedures by breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ridges; providing presowing soil treatment by embedding germinated weedage, stubble and other plant remains axially of ridges and simultaneously introducing microbiological humus-forming preparation; 20-40 days after introducing of humus-forming preparation (according to first version), breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ones and simultaneously sowing late crops; according to second version, providing sowing of farm crops simultaneously with embedding of germinated weedage and introducing of humus-forming preparation. Methods allow total of active soil temperatures during presowing period to be increased owing to composting effect.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of weedage control and improved soil fertility.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration method used for creating of fertile layer on low-humus sandy soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lime and organic fertilizer into humus-depleted soil, said organic fertilizer being introduced in the form of ground plant remains and/or other forms in an amount of up to 40% the volume of ridges by distributing said fertilizer in furrows between ridges; forming ridges in the course of presowing treatment; applying layer of colmatant providing total volume of at least 20% the volume of pores of formed fertile layer; forming ridges with following breaking of formerly created ridges; embedding organic fertilizer and simultaneously applying biologically active preparation; 30-40 days later, reapplying organic fertilizer; reforming ridges and simultaneously irrigating ground organic with biologically active preparation; sowing seeds of cultured crops.
EFFECT: reduced time for creating on humus-depleted sandy soil of fertile layer adapted for immediate agricultural application, reduced wind and water erosion and provision for forming of recreational zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protection of wheat crops from complex of pests with reduced application of insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming entomofauna of crop agrocenosis by accumulating pests on restricted territory for creating attracting strips of spring wheat of two sowing periods with break-off time between said periods of five to seven days around winter wheat strips; providing feed stock conveyor system for complex of pests; applying insecticides only on basic winter wheat strips and attracting strips of spring wheat strips, with basic spring wheat strips being excluded from treatment process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.
EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrow by means of soil cutting tool; feeding water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow. Uniform distribution of fertilizer applied to compound intersected relief is provided by forming web of height smaller than plowing depth by 0.4-0.7 time before supplying of water or liquid fertilizer into open furrow. Apparatus has frame with plow bodies equipped with tine having share and moldboard and fixed on frame. Web forming device mounted on frame behind outer plow body is made in the form of rotor with vertical shaft of rotation and blades for moving soil from ridges of adjacent plowed strips. Apparatus has drive. Rotor drive is kinematically connected and aligned with frame carrier wheel.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of liquid fertilizer applied into soil and equalized plant mass over the entire area of irrigated soil, increased soil fertility and improved ecology control by preventing environment from contamination.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: increased yield of green mass and provision for applying of mineral fertilizer to different soil depth.
3 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: growing of high-protein crops, in particular, red clover under clearly defined continental or similar conditions or in arid climatic zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing red clover (trifolium pratense L.) and cover crop at optimal time in spring; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing stubble breaking to 0.06-0.08 m depth and ameliorating mellowing to 0.6-0.8 m depth; applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer to provide for 3-4 year life of plants; plowing soil while turning layers by means of bottom-moldboard plows to 0.25-0.27 m depth while fully embedding stubble remains; after deep ameliorating tillage combined with turning of root layer, providing irrigation at the end of September - beginning of October at irrigation rate of 700-900 m3/hectare for keeping pre-irrigation soil moisture threshold; closing moisture feeding in early spring by means of heavy harrows in two tracks transverse to center ridges during moldboard plowing and simultaneously leveling field relief; providing cultivation to 0.05-0.08 m depth for killing cold-resistant weeds by means of A-hoes; providing presowing and postsowing compaction for increasing soil density in seeding layer at 0-10 cm depth; performing interlace sowing in early spring (0.30 m) of cover crop (oats, less commonly barley) at seeding rate of (3.0-3.5)·106 pieces of seeds per 1 hectare (continuous sowing at seeding rate of (8.5-9.5)·106 pieces per hectare to 0.03-0.04 m depth on light soil and 0.02-0.03 m depth on heavy soil for producing of 450-500 plants per 1 m2 at full germination phase, 250-300 plants at spring growing phase of second year of life, 200-220 plants per 1 m2 at spring growing phase of third year of life; providing mineral feeding by applying rated norms of phosphorous-potash fertilizer for stock plowing for three years of utilization of herbage, and applying differentiated doses of nitrous fertilizer for further mowing. Application of up to 100 kg/hectare of nitrogen during growing period at maximal dose of 35 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 60 t/hectare of green mass, and application of 130 kg of nitrogen per hectare during growing period at maximal dose of 45 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 80 t/hectare of green mass. Yield of 40 t/hectare of green mass is provided at irrigation norm of 850 m3/hectare with minimal period between irrigation procedures of 14-16 days, with total irrigation norm making 3,200-3,400 m3/hectare. Clover is mown at flowering phase. Time between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures is reduced to 1-3 days. Last mowing procedure is performed 25-30 days before air temperature reaches 00C.
EFFECT: improved quality of feed and predetermined productivity.
12 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, production of fogger in irrigated zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves periodically mowing biomass; irrigating and applying mineral fertilizer in spring at initial grass growing stage and for feeding after each mowing operation; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing pre-plowing irrigation at norm of 300-400 m3/hectare and ameliorating mellowing to 0.4-0.6 m depth; plowing to 0.25-0.27 m depth with turning of soil layer; mellowing top layer by means of cultivators to 0.08-0.012 m depth; leveling microrelief of irrigated field by means of levelers; providing interlace sowing of leguminous crops, such as lucerne and clover, and meadow grass crops, such as meadow fescue and orchard grass, at seeding norm of 4.8·106, 5.4·106, 5.5·106 and 8.1·106 pieces of seed per hectare, respectively, with grass mixtures being composed of two or four crops; keeping seeding depth in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.06 m; maintaining mineral feeding mode by applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer at norm rated for plowing for stock sufficient for 3-4 year usage of herbage; applying nitrous fertilizer in differentiated doses for mowing; applying 60 kg/hectare of nitrous fertilizer at growing period at maximal dose for first mowing of 40 kg/hectare to provide for guaranteed yield of up to 50 t/hectare of green mass; 80 kg/hectare at maximal dose for first mowing of 60 kg/hectare to provide for herbage yield of up to 70 t/hectare of green mass, and 100 kg/hectare at maximal dose of 70 kg/hectare for first mowing to provide for guaranteed yield of grass mixture of up to 90 t/hectare; keeping irrigation mode within the range of 60-80% norm of moisture. Green mass yield of from 50 to 90 t/hectare is provided with total irrigation norm of 2,550-3,250 m3/hectare to 3,600-4,050 m3/hectare. Interval between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures at growing period is reduced to 2-3 days. Agronomical care involves harrowing of last years crop fields, after mowing of grass for green feed, and in autumn - slitting field of young crop field of second and third years of life of plants to 0.4-0.6 m depth.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of utilization of irrigated lands, increased production of ecologically safe high-quality feeds, provision for keeping of soil fertility and improved economy of region.
10 cl, 12 dwg, 52 tbl