Installation for neutralisation and utilisation of rubble and/or asbestos ballast siftings

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Installation contains receiving reservoir for supply of polluted ballast siftings for processing, device for washing, connected with pipeline for detergent supply. Device for washing is made in form of closed tub, is equipped with worm, loading device and device for joined removal of ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution. Installation includes unit of vibration sieves for separation of polluted detergent solution from ballast siftings and for sieving it into fractions, precipitation tank of centrifugal type with nozzles for supply of polluted detergent solution, pipelines for separate removal from precipitation tank of separated oil products, detergent solution and sludge, belt filter-press for sludge dehydration, reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation, galvanic coagulator for removal of heavy metal salts and residual oil products from detergent solution. Galvanic coagulator is connected by pipelines to device for washing and pipeline with reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation.

EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular to the cleaning of the screening of crushed stone and/or asbestos ballast of railway tracks from oil pollution, heavy metals, and can be used in rail transport and in all industries, which are used, transported or stored crude oil and petroleum products.

As a result of spills during emergency situations, leaks from tanks during filling, transportation and sludge due to the malfunction of boilers and discharge devices tanks contaminate crushed stone and asbestos ballast of railway tracks.

A known way of cleaning the gravel track and installation for its implementation, in which the clearing rubble perform the installation of screening to separate the debris transported by the belt conveyor, and with the help of water. When it cleared after double cleaning mechanically and water jets crushed again contribute on track, purify contaminated water in the pits, and the precipitated mud is applied on the garbage for their joint transportation belt conveyor in cumulative carriage (see EN, NO. 2249643, EV 27/06, 2005).

This setting is ineffective for treatment of crushed stone and asbestos screening ballast of railway tracks from oil pollution AFL is stvie, that a large number of oil spills and fines remain associated with the processed material, and produce large amounts of waste III hazard class.

The closest technical solution is a device for cleaning the base material of the road surface from oil and petroleum products (see EN, NO. 2219304, IN 15/00, 2003).

The known device for cleaning from oil and oil products of the basis material of the road surface contains vehicle with mounted on it the site collect contaminated material, wash capacity for loading and washing of contaminated material, is equipped with nozzles for compressed air, cleaning solution and withdrawing the washed material, contaminated cleaning solution, oily emulsions, cleaning device and phase separation, equipped with nozzles to enter the contaminated cleaning solution, oily emulsion and removal of refined petroleum products, cleaning solution and slurry.

The disadvantages of the known devices for cleaning of the base material of the road surface from oil and oil products are limiting the size of the fraction leached material (no more than 3-5 mm), low efficiency of cleaning of the base material of the road surface from oil products by means of ozonation suspension in the wash chamber,the inability to remove salts of heavy metals, the necessity of heating the cleaning solution to a temperature of 40-55C and the associated fuel consumption.

The technical result that can be obtained from the use of the invention lies in the high degree of purification screening of ballast while making efficient separation of the phases, reducing hazardous waste generation and energy consumption for the process.

This technical result is achieved in the plant for disposal and recycling of crushed stone screenings and/or asbestos ballast according to the invention containing the receiving node and dosed feed contaminated dropout ballast for processing; United with a pipe for supplying washing solution the device for washing made in the form of a closed trough with a screw, boot device, and means for co removal rate and contaminated ballast cleaning solution; a device for the separation performed in a node of vibration sieves to reduce the dropout ballast into fractions, equipped with conveyors for removal of the obtained fractions at sites of accumulation; the section cleaning and preparation of the washing solution, which includes a device for the purification and separation of phases with nozzles for removal of mineral oil, cleaning solution and slurry, made in the form of a settling tank centrifugal type, in the upper part of which are from the La to feed contaminated washing solution; belt filter press for sludge dewatering; reactor for chemical neutralization sludge attached to the filter-press, and galvanic coagulator for removal of heavy metals and residual oil from the cleaning solution, connected by pipelines with a device for washing and reactor for chemical neutralization sludge.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of the section leaching of crushed stone screenings and/or asbestos ballast, figure 2 - scheme of section cleaning and preparation of the washing solution.

Figure 1 shows: 1 - receiving hopper, 2 - Transporter 3 boot device 4 device for washing - closed auger trough sink, 5 - pipe for supplying the cleaning solution, 6 - node vibration sieves, 7 - conveyors for discharging the purified fractions dropout ballast, 8 - pump, 9 - pipeline for removal of contaminated washing solution containing fractions dropout ballast size of less than 1 mm.

Figure 2 shows: 10 - sump centrifugal type, 11 - nozzle, 12 - the gathering centers, 13 - pipeline to drain surfaced petroleum products, 14 - pump, 15 - pipeline for withdrawal of sludge, 16 - pipeline for feeding the contaminated cleaning solution, 17 - galvanic coagulator, 18 - dosing pump for supplying technical detergent 19 - pipeline for removal of imennogo washing solution, 20 - a pipeline for discharge of sludge from electroplating coagulator, 21 - filter-press, the 22 - pipeline for removal of dewatered sludge from the filter press, 23 - reactor chemical neutralization sludge, 24 - screw conveyor for feeding a chemical reagent, 25 - hopper neutralized sludge, 26 - conveyor for loading neutralized slurry in hopper 27 - pipeline to return wastewater in the sump centrifugal type, 28 - electric panel.

Contaminated screenings of the ballast load grader in a hopper 1, further conveyor 2 is directed through a boot device 3 in a closed trough screw washer 4, capacity 15 m3screening of ballast per hour. In a closed trough screw washer 4 simultaneously with the dropping of ballast served by pipeline 5 purified cleaning solution with 4 volumes of wash solution 1 volume of dropping ballast or 60 m3in the hour. Mixing contaminated dropout ballast with detergent solution auger provides a continuous contact of the washing solution with contaminated by dropping ballast, which increases the degree of its purification and reduces processing time. In addition, the mechanical mixing provides a high degree of washing without additional heating of the cleaning solution before applying it on stage leaching, resulting in lower energy consumption for the process is.

The suspension obtained from screening of ballast and soiled cleaning solution from the closed trough screw wash 4 by means of the screw extruded into a node of vibration sieves 6, where the separation of dropping ballast into fractions, and the contaminated cleaning solution containing petroleum products and the fraction of dropouts ballast less than 1 mm, is fed into the section cleaning and preparation of the washing solution. Due to vibroseparacii large fractions the ratio of the volume of the washing solution to the volume screening of ballast increases and is 12/1. Salts of heavy metals are transferred into the cleaning solution, and petroleum products adsorbed on the surface of the microparticles.

Purified fractions dropout ballast 40 - 20 mm, 20 mm - 5 mm, 5 - 1 mm conveyors 7 are sent to the site of accumulation. From the sites of accumulation of the purified fraction is then shipped to the consumer.

Contaminated cleaning solution containing petroleum products and the fraction of dropouts ballast less than 1 mm, the pump 8 is pumped through the pipeline 9 and fed through the nozzle 11 of the tank 10 centrifugal type section of cleaning and preparation of washing solution (figure 2). In the sump 10 is a bundle of soiled cleaning solution from the pop-up petroleum contaminated cleaning solution and sludge. The volume of the sump centrifugal type is 120 m3. Due to being created in the sump system nozzles the rotation is Oia contaminated cleaning solution efficiency stratification it is increased by 4 times compared to conventional clarifiers. In the upper part of the tank 10 in the form of a film accumulate oil in the middle part - contaminated cleaning solution, near the bottom sludge.

Oil film going floating gathering centers 12 and removed through the pipe 13 in the capacity of sub-standard oil (not shown), further they are sent to a specialized company for recycling. Selected petroleum products can be used as an additive for boiler fuel.

The sludge accumulating and the signal of the capacitive sensor installed near the bottom of the tank 10, is pushed by the liquid column and the pipe 15 serves in the filter press 21 to dehydration. The rate of formation of sludge equal to about 5 m3/hour. The residual concentration of oil in the sludge after the stage of washing with a solution of TMS is not more than 1%. The residual concentration of salts of heavy metals is higher than the maximum permissible concentration.

The washing solution from the middle of the tank 10 by pump 14 through pipe 16 serves in galvanic coagulator 17 for removal of soluble salts of heavy metals. After each cleaning cycle dropout ballast up to 10-15% TMS adsorbed particles on the mechanical and withdrawn from the process, so by the dosing pump 18 in the purified solution was added TMS. Purified cleaning solution drains the pipeline 19 and napravlyayte pipeline 5 in a closed trough screw washer 4 (see figure 1).

Dewatered sludge after the filter 21 by line 22 is directed into the reactor 23 chemical neutralization, which is also served by pipeline 20 precipitate salts of heavy metals from electroplating coagulator 17. Wastewater from the device 21 for sludge dewatering pipeline 27 return into the sump centrifugal type.

In the reactor 23 chemical neutralization mixing of contaminated oil sludge and fed by conveyor 24 chemical reagent on the basis of the lime with the formation of a hydrophobic insoluble complexes that are not dangerous for the environment. Processed in the reactor 23 sludge through the conveyor 26 is fed into the hopper 25.

Installation for the disposal and recycling of crushed stone screenings and/or asbestos ballast containing the receiving node and dosed feed contaminated dropout ballast processing device for washing which is connected to the pipe for supplying the cleaning solution and equipped with a charging device, a cleaning section and preparation of the washing solution with a device for the purification and separation of phases with nozzles for removal of mineral oil, cleaning solution and slurry pumps for pumping liquids, characterized in that the device for washing made in the form of a closed trough and provided with a screw and collaboration tool from the ode dropout ballast and contaminated cleaning solution, device for the purification and separation of the phases is made in the form of a settling tank centrifugal type, in the upper part of which is located a nozzle for supplying the contaminated cleaning solution, when this installation is further provided with a device for the separation established between the device for washing and device for the purification and separation of the phases and is designed as a node of vibration sieves to reduce the dropout ballast into fractions, equipped with conveyors for removal of the obtained fractions at sites of accumulation, while the section clean and prepare the cleaning solution further includes a belt filter press for dewatering sludge reactor for chemical neutralization sludge attached to the filter press, and galvanic coagulator for removal of heavy metals and residual oil from the cleaning solution, connected by pipelines with a device for washing and reactor for chemical neutralization sludge.



 

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