Method of manufacturing printing forms for offset printing

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of manufacturing printing forms for offset printing. Method of manufacturing printing forms for offset printing is realised by changing properties wettability of areas of work surface of printing forms, transformation of properties being realised due to change of chemical composition of work surface influencing on chosen areas by flux of accelerated particles. As substance of work layer applied is two- or poly- atomic inorganic material based on carbon with addition of aluminium atoms 0.01-20-at.% with thickness 1-1000 nm, which is covered on bottom layer with applied on it layer of aluminium or alloys on its base or on bottom layer from aluminium or based on it alloys.

EFFECT: invention allows to simplify and accelerate manufacturing process, increase of resolving capacity and endurance of providing multiple application of forms.

6 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to a process of making printing plates for offset printing by changing the wettability properties of the printing form in areas that are required to create the required image.

From the description to European application EP 262475 B1 [1] well-known printing machine, provided with a printed form, on which subject the print image can be displayed using the corresponding hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. To ensure switching between hydrophilic, respectively, hydrophobic, a condition in separate zones on the printed form provided ferroelectric material, which can locally polarize, respectively, be depolarized. Thus, hydrophilization, respectively prehydrolysis, the printing form is carried out using the mechanism of polarization, (depolarization), which means to perform inside the printing machine. However, the disadvantage of this method is that the effect is based on having a large radius of action of the electrostatic forces of attraction and in accordance with this resolution subject to printing images with limited long range electrostatic forces of attraction.

From the description of the U.S. patent US 3678852 [2] known printing plate, which is covered with the amorphous semiconductor is m Amorphous state of the semiconductor can be changed by means of a laser beam from a disordered amorphous state to a more ordered crystalline state by heating. In the crystalline state of the semiconductor surface is more rough, so changing the state of the semiconductor surface causes the liquid in the area of the rough surface is better kept than in the smooth amorphous zones. Resolution of the printing plate made according to this method, limited to the minimum size of the area of crystallization when heated by a laser beam, and in addition, wettability alteration on the processed laser beam areas insufficiently radical.

There is also known a method of making an offset printing plate by direct laser writing on the pre-chuvstvennyh plate plates with a copy layer of the composition on the basis of ordinationand, which is carried out by CO2a laser with a wavelength of 1.06 μm by the method of linear scan when the power of the recording beam 5 W and a linear speed of 1.5 m/s, followed by exposure of the copying layer within 3-5 min metal halide lamps with the subsequent manifestation of copies, its hydrophilization, reprisal and the coating forms a protective solution (Copyright certificate the construction of the USSR SU 1419921, CL VS 1/10, [3]). The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the technological process and relatively low resolution.

A known method of making an offset printing plate by forming printing and spacing elements to the outer plate of a polyester base with a metallic coating (EN 2079413 [4]). When forming the printing elements carried out by sublimation metallized coating to polyester substrates in areas of exposure by a laser beam wavelength of 1.06 μm, so that the remaining parts of metallized coatings serve as spacing elements. Gap elements printed forms processed 5...10%aqueous solution of sodium acid meta-9-water with a pH of 10...13.

In this process, use powerful lasers with a wavelength of 1.06 or 10.6 μm, for example, yttrium aluminium garnet or CO2. Laser radiation is modulated in accordance with control commands from the computing machine. As the plates using a film with polyester base with a thickness of 0.05 to 0.30 mm...and sprayed on her metallized coatings, such as titanium, stainless steel, aluminum of a thickness of from 0.25 to 1.50 μm. The disadvantage of this method is the limitation in resolution caused by the necessity of heating the exposed areas for Vashon and metallized coatings which inevitably leads to "bleed" zone size sublimation compared with the size of the beam. In addition, due to the fact that as the plates using a film with polyester base with a thickness of 0.05 to 0.30 mm...and sprayed on her metallized coating, the wear resistance of this form is relatively small. Moreover exposed working surface of the tool needs further treatment with aqueous solutions.

A known method of making an offset printing plate by forming printing and spacing of the elements on the plate the plate (JP 11309951 [5]) is applied To the substrate an intermediate layer of metal, e.g. copper, and above it a layer of amorphous diamond-like film. With the help of powerful laser radiation required areas of amorphous diamond-like film are removed, and thereby, the specified image (pattern, text) to be printed. As in the previous cases, the use of heat is inevitably accompanied by the "blurring" of the dimensions of the exposed area relative to the size of the beam. After that, the intermediate metal layer is removed by the known methods of liquid and etching the layer of amorphous diamond-like film is deposited on a substrate. The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the technological process, consisting implement the best liquid etching toxic fluids, require additional resources for their neutralization and disposal. In addition, chemicals and etching processes create problems associated with providing a standard of requirements of ecological safety of the corresponding production.

The inventive method of making printing plates for offset printing is aimed at simplification of the manufacturing process, to increase their wear resistance, as well as more environmentally friendly production.

This result is achieved in that the method comprises applying to the substrate coated with the auxiliary layer of aluminium or alloys based on it or on a substrate of aluminium or alloys based on the working layer thickness of 1-1000 nm two - or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms is from 0.01 to 20 at.% and creating it to be the image is printed by complete removal of the required sections of the working layer on the white space areas of a printed image by irradiation in vacuum through a mask accelerated ions or atoms of oxygen or hydrogen or nitrogen or inert gases.

This result is achieved by the fact that for irradiation using two or polyatomic mixture, consisting of various combinations of ions or atoms of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and inert gases.

This result is achieved at the that for irradiation of a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen.

This result is achieved by the fact that for irradiation using ions or atoms of oxygen with the addition of ions or nitrogen atoms.

This result is achieved by the fact that for the irradiation of a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen by adding ions or nitrogen atoms.

This result is achieved by the fact that for the irradiation of a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen by adding ions or nitrogen atoms and/or ions or atoms of inert gases.

This result is achieved that the material of the active layer further added magnesium in an amount of from 0.01 to 15 at.%.

Drawing on a substrate of any suitable material of the auxiliary layer of aluminium or alloys based on, or use as a substrate of aluminium or alloys based on it, as well as drawing on top of them working layer thickness of 1-1000 nm of two or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms is from 0.01 to 20 at.% and creating it to be the image is printed by complete removal of the required sections of the working layer on a whitespace areas subject to printing an image by irradiation in vacuum through a mask accelerated ions and the atoms and oxygen or hydrogen or nitrogen or inert gases greatly simplifies and accelerates the production process forms with simultaneous resolution enhancement. Indeed, the process of the working surface (active layer) of the workpiece to achieve the changes of surface properties occurs in one stage, is processed at the same time the entire surface of the workpiece due to the use as a means of flow effects of accelerated particles (with wavelengths of less than 1 nm), which provides the possibility of achieving high-resolution (~ 5 µm and better).

This feature of the proposed method for the manufacture of printed forms is that the thus obtained after irradiation with accelerated particles printed forms ready to use without symptoms or any additional processing (manifestations, etching, disposal of products of etching and so on).

Use as a working layer of the printing form two or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon with the addition of aluminum atoms in an amount of 0.01-20 at. %and a thickness of 1 to 1000 nm is necessary in order to ensure the wettability parameters required for the formation of printed elements required to print the images. In addition, the use of this material as a working layer of printed forms, thanks to its high hardness and wear resistance allows you to provide multiple use of printed forms.

The TLD is or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon may be used such substances as carbon with the addition of 0.01 to 20 at.% aluminium atoms, and also carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms in the above concentration range, and with the addition of 0.01-15 at.% atoms of magnesium.

If the content of the aluminum atoms is less than 0.01%, its effect on the wear resistance of printed forms (active layer) is missing. The increase in the concentration of aluminum atoms leads to a significant (more than 5 times) to increase the wear resistance of printed forms.

If the content of the aluminum atoms in the working layer exceeds ~ 20 at.%, the material of the active layer inevitably leads to the formation of precipitates of aluminum, which leads to the formation of the gap elements when printing images (i.e., artifacts in the printed image), even if these areas are not exposed to accelerated ions or atoms.

Additional doping material of the active layer with magnesium in an amount of 0.01-15 at.% results the growth of its concentration to increase the wear resistance of printed forms about 50%. At concentrations of magnesium less than 0.01% of its influence on the wear resistance of printed forms is missing. When additional alloying with magnesium to large concentrations of ~ 15% in the working layer material inevitably leads to the formation of precipitates, which leads to the formation of the gap elements when printing images (i.e., artifacts in the printed image) even if this is the areas not exposed to accelerated ions or atoms.

Use as an auxiliary layer of a layer of aluminium or alloys based on, or use as the substrate material of aluminium or alloys based on it when applying the working layer of the two or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon is needed to complete the removal by irradiation with accelerated ions or atoms of the required sections of the working layer, obrazuemye areas of the auxiliary layer or the substrate was allowed to create the printed image whitespace elements.

If the printing form is made of aluminium or alloys based on it and put on it as the working surface of the working layer of the inorganic material-based carbon with the addition of aluminum, it is possible to simplify the technology and to refrain from causing additional auxiliary layer.

In some cases it is appropriate blank printing plate making, using as substrate cheaper than aluminium or alloys based materials. In this case, the substrate must be applied as an auxiliary layer of aluminium or alloys based on it and already on it as a working surface - coating material based on carbon-doped aluminum.

Experiments have shown that the most suitable is to produce a working layer of a thickness of 1-1000 nm. If you perform a coating thickness of less than 1 nm, the coating is difficult to make solid. With increasing thickness of the working layer from ~ 1 nm and increasing the time of manufacture of the printing plate increases as the time for complete removal of the material of the working layer during its irradiation. Simultaneously with the increase in the thickness of the working layer increases the durability of the printing form. Therefore, depending on the nature of the tasks solved with the help of manufactured printed forms, you need to choose an optimal thickness of the working layer. If you perform a coating thickness of more than 1000 nm, it does not improve the properties of the molds, and leads only to their appreciation, as well as a very large increase in exposure time required for complete removal of the working layer on a whitespace areas of the printed image.

As determined experimentally, as the accelerated particles, providing efficient removal of inorganic material based on carbon with the addition of atoms of aluminum and editing related properties wettability of the material of the working surface of the workpiece, can be used accelerated ions or atoms of oxygen or hydrogen or nitrogen or inert gases. The use of some of these accelerated ions or atoms is derived from the combination of factors that determine characterology when executing orders using the proposed method: priority need platemaking in the shortest possible time, priority need platemaking with minimal cost.

The rate of production of printing forms is determined by the time required for complete removal of the material layer on a whitespace areas of the printed image. This option is best based on the results, in descending order of performance, the following elements: oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium.

The use of ions or atoms of the other type is possible, but impractical, since in this case the process of removing material of the active layer in the desired areas is less effective, in addition, in this case decreases the lifetime of the masks that are useful for multiple forming the desired image on the printed forms. In private sales, it is advisable to use threads accelerated particles containing particles of several varieties (i.e. not only the ions or atoms of oxygen or hydrogen or nitrogen or inert gases), and mixtures thereof.

For example, if you use a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen, for example 99% hydrogen ions (protons) and 1% of oxygen ions, in this case due to the small mass of the proton speed physical sputtering mask that defines the image on the printed form upon irradiation significantly reduced, which ensures its longer life, i.e. Ira printed forms, which can be fabricated using a single mask. At the same time, reactive etching material based on carbon when it is irradiated by protons (i.e. the formation of volatile compounds of carbon atoms with oxygen atoms) provides a relatively high efficiency of removal of material based on carbon. The addition of oxygen atoms increases the efficiency of removal of material based on carbon due to two factors. First, the efficiency of energy transfer to the carbon atoms the oxygen ions is higher than that of protons of the same energy, due to the proximity of the masses, and therefore the greater the speed of the physical sputtering on one act of interaction. In addition, in this case, the oxygen network efficiency gains reactive etching. So adding 1% of oxygen ions in the beam gives the gain in speed of removal of material based on carbon by more than 10-15%. However, a noticeable increase of oxygen concentration in the beam impractical reasons of safety.

If you use ions or atoms of oxygen with the addition of ions or nitrogen atoms, the increase in nitrogen content in bunches of leads, on the one hand, to a reduction in the removal rate of the material of the active layer due to a decrease in the efficiency of the mechanism of the reactive etching (compared to oxygen), but at this age the AET efficiency transmission carbon atoms and, accordingly, the physical sputtering due to the smaller difference in the masses. The latter allows to partially compensate for the loss in speed due to a decrease in the efficiency of the reactive etching. While the addition of nitrogen can increase the life of masks that can be made from materials with large masses due to a less efficient transmission, and because nitrogen is much less effective reactive etching. Therefore, its use can significantly affect the resource masks, which can significantly affect the cost of manufacture of printed forms (depending on the materials used in the mask).

In private sales, it is advisable to produce a working layer of two or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon are added in addition to atoms of aluminum, 0.01-20 at.% more and magnesium atoms in an amount of from 0.01 to 15 at.%. This allows you to save the required parameters of durability and wettability of printed forms, printed parts, but it allows to increase the rate of complete removal of the working layer on space stations. This result is fully implemented in those cases where the aggregate technical circumstances platemaking (including material masks, the desired speed of printing the ORM and the like), it is necessary to use accelerated ions or atoms of hydrogen or helium or a mixture, where these elements dominiruut this case, the presence of magnesium in the material of the active layer can increase the material removal rate of the working layer by up to ~ 15-20%due to more efficient energy transfer and, accordingly, higher speed physical sputtering, the material of the active layer due to a small difference in the mass of the accelerated particles and the sprayed substance.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by examples of its implementation and drawings. 1 schematically shows the sequence of operations when implementing the proposed method in the manufacture of a substrate of aluminium or alloys based on it. Figure 2 schematically shows the sequence of operations when implementing the proposed method in the manufacture of the substrate of various materials with the application of a secondary (underlying) layer of aluminium or alloys based on it.

Example 1. In General, the method of manufacturing offset form as follows. On a substrate 1 (see figure 1), which can be made of aluminium or alloys based on it with sufficient thickness, providing the required strength characteristics, is applied by vacuum deposition working layer 2 of various two - or polyhydric substances carbon-based thickness ~ 1-1000 nm. As such mainly m which can be used for the deposition of carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms is from 0.01 to 20 at.%, and in particular cases - and magnesium atoms. The resulting billet is placed in a working chamber containing a source of accelerated particles, and creates a vacuum of ~ 10-1-10-5PA. As the accelerated particles can be used ions or atoms of oxygen or hydrogen or nitrogen or inert gases or mixtures thereof. The workpiece is irradiated with the flow 3 of accelerated particles with the desired (pre-defined) value of energy through the template (mask) 4. Template (mask) can be placed directly on the workpiece, i.e. to be in contact with the upper layer of the irradiated substance, or to be at some distance from him. Under the influence of a stream 3 of the accelerated particles is the complete removal of the material layer on the exposed sections 5 through physical sputtering and/or reactive etching. Thus, in the working layer is required to print the picture that has properties different than the surrounding matrix, not exposed to accelerated particles.

The desired range of values of the energy, intensity, irradiation time, etc. required for the process is determined experimentally.

During the experimental determination of the energy of accelerated particles, necessary for optimal process, conduct a few preliminary exp is rimental. For this purpose, the prepared workpiece with a working layer from a material of the desired thickness is irradiated through a pattern with a stream of accelerated particles with different energies and determine the exposure time required for complete removal of the material of the active layer. Thus the control of the completeness of the removal of the working layer can be carried out by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or secondary ion mass spectroscopy. To this end, put a layer of substrate material of the active layer of a specified thickness and provide exposure to fixed-dose, after which examine the surface composition of the irradiated material. Then the dose increase, and again examine the composition of the surface, until its complete removal. Irradiation of prepared blanks may be implemented using one or more templates with the through-hole.

Example 2. A method of manufacturing offset form can be carried out as follows. On a substrate 1 (see Fig 2.), which may be made of any metal, plastic, polyester, etc. with sufficient thickness, providing the required strength characteristics, is applied by vacuum deposition of the auxiliary layer 6 made of aluminium or alloys based on it, and on top of it working layer 2 of the inorganic two - or polyhydric material based on carbon thickness ~ 1-1000 is m As such mainly can be used in thin-film coatings based on carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms is from 0.01 to 20 at.%, and in particular cases - and magnesium atoms. The resulting billet is placed in a working chamber containing a source of accelerated particles, and creates a vacuum of ~ 10-1-10-5PA. As the accelerated particles can be used ions or oxygen atoms, or hydrogen, or nitrogen, or inert gases, or mixtures thereof. The workpiece is irradiated with the flow 3 of accelerated particles with the desired (pre-defined) value of energy through the template (mask) 4. Template (mask) can be placed directly on the workpiece, i.e. to be in contact with the upper layer of the irradiated substance, or to be at some distance from him. Under the influence of a stream 3 of the accelerated particles is the complete removal of the material of the active layer (the working surface) on the exposed sections 5 through physical sputtering and/or reactive etching, i.e. in the working layer is a certain figure, which has properties different than the surrounding matrix (material layer), not exposed to accelerated particles.

The desired range of values of the energy for the process, as in the previous example, is determined experimentally.

Example 3. The method is implemented according to the General scheme described in example 1. On a substrate made of aluminum the size of 15×15 mm thickness of 0.5 mm by a vacuum sputtering was done working layer thickness of 50 nm of carbon with the addition of 10 at.% the ATA. aluminum. After that, the material of the active layer in the desired areas completely removed by irradiation with accelerated helium ions with an energy of 1.5 Kev, with a current density of 1 mA/cm2within 5 min via mask with the corresponding picture.

Example 4. The method is implemented according to the General scheme described in example 2. On a substrate made of polyamide size 15×15 mm thickness of 0.5 mm by a vacuum sputtering was caused to the underlying layer of aluminum with a thickness of 100 nm and the working layer of the inorganic material-based carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms 5 at.% and magnesium 1 at.%, thickness of 20 nm. Then, for complete removal of the material of the working layer is irradiated with accelerated ions of oxygen with an energy of 1 Kev, the beam current density of 0.5 mA/cm2within 1.5 minutes

Example 5. The method was implemented according to the General scheme outlined in examples 1 and 2 using different substances from two or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon by adding different numbers of atoms of aluminum and magnesium as the working layer and different types of accelerated h is STIC. For convenience the results are summarized in table.

Table
№№ p/pThe substrate materialThe material of the active layerThe thickness of the working layer, nmType of particlesThe particle energy, Kev
1.AluminumCarbon with 10 at.% aluminum50Helium ions1,5
2.AluminumCarbon from 0.1 at.% aluminum1Hydrogen ions0,5
3.AluminumCarbon with 20 at.% aluminum200Ions of nitrogen5
4.AluminumCarbon with 10 at.% aluminum and 5 at.% magnesium1000Oxygen ions3
5.Aluminum, doped with 2 at.% magnesiumCarbon from 0.1 at.% aluminum50Helium ions 75 at.% and hydrogen ions 20 at.% and ions of nitrogen 4.9 at.% and oxygen ions 0.1 at.%3,5
6.AluminumCarbon with 5 at.% aluminum and 15 at.% magnesium10The helium atoms1
7.AluminumCarbon with 12 at.% aluminum25The hydrogen atoms1,5
8.the polyamide layer on the basis of AL-doped at.% magnesiumCarbon with 5 at.% aluminum and 1 at.% magnesium20Oxygen ions1
9.The polyamide layer with ALCarbon with 9 at.% aluminum and 1 at.% magnesium100Oxygen atoms0,8
10.AluminumCarbon with 9 at.% aluminum150Oxygen ions 99 at.% and hydrogen ions 1 at.%0,6
11.The polyamide layer with ALCarbon with 11 at.% aluminum10Ions of nitrogen and 85 at.% and helium ions 14 at.% and hydrogen ions 1 at.%0,9
12.Steel HNT with a layer of ALCarbon with 10 at.% aluminum50Helium ions1
13.Steel HNT saloem ALCarbon with 10 at.% aluminum and 1 at.% magnesium100Oxygen atoms0,5
14.AluminumCarbon with 5 at.% aluminum200The oxygen atoms of 95 at.%, the nitrogen atoms 4 at.%, the hydrogen atoms of 1 at.%1
15.The polyamide layer is of luminia Carbon with 8 at.% aluminum20Helium ions2

1. Method of making printing plates for offset printing, comprising applying to the substrate with a deposited layer of aluminium or alloys based on it or on a substrate of aluminium or alloys based on the working layer thickness of 1-1000 nm two - or polyatomic inorganic material based on carbon with the addition of aluminium atoms is from 0.01 to 20 at.% and creating it to be the image is printed by complete removal of the required sections of the working layer by irradiation in vacuum through a mask accelerated ions or atoms of oxygen, or hydrogen, or nitrogen, or inert gases.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for the irradiation of a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the irradiation use ions or atoms of oxygen with the addition of ions or nitrogen atoms.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that for the irradiation of a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen by adding ions or nitrogen atoms.

5. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that for the irradiation of a mixture of ions or atoms of oxygen and hydrogen by adding ions or nitrogen atoms and/or ions or atoms of inert the gas.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the active layer further added magnesium atoms in an amount of from 0.01 to 15 at.%.



 

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