Method of using agricultural lands, polluted with heavy metals

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture and land recultivation. Method includes seeding of phytomeliorant plants, as such foddergrass mixtures containing not less than 60% of tetraploid rye-grass and polyploidy perennial cereals, such as timothy- grass and Bromus inermis. Norm of seeding is 20 - 24 kg/ha. High level of soil humidity up to 65-75% TMC and increased feeding mode are supported by carrying out fertilising watering. Herbage harvesting is performed at soil humidity not less than 65% TMC.

EFFECT: method allows to obtain feed production of high zootechnical quality, standard-pure as to content of heavy metals on polluted agricultural lands.

1 tbl

 

The present invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the cultivation of agricultural crops on lands containing heavy metals in excess of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC).

A known method of purification and reclamation of agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals, including the introduction of contaminated soil sorption agent (montmorillonite) in the amount of 2 t/ha, followed by stirring (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2210438, MKI VS 1/00, BI No. 23, 2003).

This method requires considerable costs for the acquisition and the making of the sorption agent.

There is a method of protection of soil from pollution with heavy metals, including planting on these lands plants phytomelioration, the ability to make and accumulate in their aboveground biomass of certain heavy metals (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2268096, MKI VS 1/00, BI No. 02, 2006).

This method is adopted as a prototype. Seeding plants phytomelioration allows for several years to reduce the content of heavy metals to the level of the MPC. Beveled biomass can be used in the disposal to highlight extracted from the soil of heavy metals.

The disadvantage of this method is the withdrawal of land from agricultural use for the entire period of work on extraction from soil m is for metal pollutants. In addition, this method is effective only in the absence of renewable soil contamination. In most cases, the resumption of pollution is inevitable, because its source is the existing industrial enterprises, transport, etc.

The aim of the invention is the use of agricultural land with an average degree of pollution with heavy metals (up to 5 MPC) with obtaining regulatory net agricultural products.

To achieve this goal allows the usage of agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals, including seeding plants phytomelioration, which according to the invention as phytomelioration use mixtures containing not less than 60% of tetraploid varieties regresa and polyploid perennial grasses, such as Timothy grass, meadow brome, at the seeding rate of 20-24 kg/ha, while in crops maintain a high level of soil moisture up to 65-75% duty cycle and increased nutritional mode by holding fertilizing irrigation, and harvesting of grass produced when soil moisture is not less than 65% duty cycle.

The essence of the method lies in the fact that polyploid plants, especially in the composition of the mixtures have a high resilience to adverse soil and climatic conditions and with high buffer b is reram, contaminated with heavy metals soils partially able to accumulate and record of contaminating metals in the roots, bringing in the aboveground part (green mass) only a small their share. Of them tetraploid ryegrass has the most powerful aerial part, so in mixtures should be at least 60%. The proposed method of use of agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals, for the cultivation of polyploid plants allows to obtain large amounts of green material for animal feed with the content of heavy metals did not exceed the TLV, constantly polluted by heavy metals in agricultural lands.

The proposed method of use of agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals, is carried out in the following order.

On the site, containing not more than 5 MPC zinc, copper and lead, produce pre-sowing soil cultivation, including ploughing with the introduction of basic fertilizer in the form of organic mixtures containing up to 50% of the estimated rates of fertilizer containing: N - 175-350, R - 90-180, K - 225-450. The specific rate of the fertilizer is specified based on the actual content of nutrients in the soil. In a well-cut land carry out sowing of perennial grass mixtures, including seeds polyploid varieties, Timothy meadow, fire awnless and more than 60% tetraploid ryegrass varieties. The seeding rate is 20 to 24 kg/ha under simultaneous row application of mineral fertilizers N - 20, R - 20, To - 20. Increased seeding rate helps to ensure good germination and dense grass with well-developed root system. The root system provides the absorption and fixation of contaminating metals. When this dense sod inhibits the growth of weeds, high content in the biomass field can lead to an increase in the content of heavy metals.

After germination on crops are controlling the moisture content of the topsoil. When it is reduced to 75% duty cycle produce irrigation sprinkler. Together with irrigation water spend making water-soluble forms of mineral fertilizers. Maintaining high levels of soil moisture requires frequent watering, the combination of which fertilizer can improve the utilization rate of fertilizer due to the flow not only through the root system, but also through the leaf surface. Feeding stop for a week before harvest or grazing animals aboveground plant mass.

It should be noted that the tetraploid ryegrass has stringent requirements for moisture. If there is insufficient soil moisture it dramatically reduces productivity, which can lead to a significant increase in the content in which biomasse heavy metals pollutants. So on the contaminated area soil moisture during the growing season should not fall below 75-65% duty cycle.

The root system of polyploid plants can hold in a bound state of heavy metals absorbed from the soil. Organic substances formed by the decomposition of the root mass mixtures, also link inside heavy metals, taking them unavailable for plants.

The aboveground parts of ryegrass due to its large mass and high water content of heavy metals does not exceed the value of the MPC. When land use as hay harvesting herbage produced upon occurrence of an earing in 80% of the plants in this period, the grass has the highest value of biomass. This should not prevent a decrease in soil moisture less than 65% duty cycle to avoid dust while cleaning and getting mowed biomass contaminated soil.

It was established experimentally that in areas where the content of zinc, lead and copper is about 5 MPC in plant mass of ryegrass tetraploid varieties grown on the proposed technology, their content in the feed does not exceed the MPC. The content of metals in the roots of plants hundreds of times higher than their content in aboveground phytomass and soil, which indicates that active accumulation and binding of these meta is fishing the root mass of ryegrass tetraploid. The results are shown in the table.

It should be noted that some of the excess content in aboveground plant biomass zinc may play a positive role, because zinc ions are antagonists of cadmium and prevent its accumulation in plants.

Removal of heavy metals by plants of tetraploid ryegrass contained in soil for up to 5 MAC.
The metals contained in the soilMPC (mg/kg) in soilThe metal content in the soil of experience (mg/kg)The metal content in plant (mg/kg)
Above ground biomassIn roots
Zinc5530050/72*50/3465
Copper3315030/3,430/1264
Lead321505/0,95/219
Note*: the maximum permissible concentration of metals in feed / metal content in biomass

Thus, the proposed method of use of agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals, allows on land with an average level of contamination (up to 5 MPC) to grow mixtures of tetraploid ryegrass and other polyploid grasses and use the "chronically" contaminated agricultural land to obtain regulatory pure heavy metal content of forage zootechnical products of high quality.

The method of use of agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals, including planting on these lands plants phytomelioration, characterized in that as phytomelioration use mixtures containing not less than 60% tetraploid ryegrass varieties and polyploid perennial grasses, such as Timothy grass, meadow brome, at the seeding rate of 20-24 kg/ha, while in crops maintain a high level of soil moisture up to 65-75% duty cycle and increased nutritional mode by holding fertilizing irrigation, and harvesting of grass produced when soil moisture is not less than 65% duty cycle.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method green fodder production includes seeding binary mixture of grass-legume crops and their mowing for fodder when being fully developed. The half-norm of binary mixture of winter crops shall be sown in autumn. During spring aftergrowing the half-norm of binary mixture of grass-legume spring crops of early sowing shall be interplanted. The mixed grass crop shall be mowed for fodder when being fully developed.

EFFECT: method enables to improve quality and quantity of fodder.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes forecrop harvesting, forecrop primary tillage, organic manuring and fertiliser dressing. Basic soil processing is performed, early spring casing harrowing is carried out, upper layer is cultivated from 0.06 to 0.08 m deep, soil herbicides are applied, seedbed is subject to preplanting cultivation up to 0.04-0.06 m deep. Seeding is performed at the temperature of upper soil layer ranging from +14 to 16C. Soil is rammed before and after seeding, seeds being processed with insecticides. Row ripping, vegetative irrigation, foliage spraying, preharvesting crop desiccation is performed. To obtain predicted crop yield of group of average early ripening grain sorghum variety being 7 tons/ha, wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 300 to 350 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N140P100K50 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 7 to 12% N, 15-20% P, 3-5% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 50-58% N, 20-30% P, 20-25% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 30-43% N, 50-65% P, 70-77% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 8 tons/hectare sorghum seeds are sown with germination number ranging from 350 to 450 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N160P120K70 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 17-22% N, 25-30% P, 13-15% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 45-50% N, 35-45% P, 30-35% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 28-38% N, 25-40% P, 50-57% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 9 tons/hectare wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 400-500 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. Nutrition macro-elements N180P140K90 are dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 27-32% N, 35-45% P, 15-23% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 40-45% N, 45-50% P, 35-45% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 23-33% N, 5-20% P, 40-42% K. Irrigation schedule of 70-80-70% HB is maintained until "paniculation" stage being 70% HB in the layer 0-0.4 m, during the rest period of vegetation up to beginning of grain formation HB is kept 80-70% in the layer 0-0,7 m.

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3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed by 110+30 cm seeding pattern. Potato tubers are laid on soil surface pre-processed by disc tools. At the same time soil is raised at sites adjoining tuber zone by screw-type plough bottoms and laid over the potato tubers. Due to plow bottoms set to face each other, a bed with width equal to double width of mouldboard grip is formed in one passage.

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3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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9 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 tbl

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1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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4 tbl

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.

EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.

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3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.

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3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: growing of high-protein crops, in particular, red clover under clearly defined continental or similar conditions or in arid climatic zones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing red clover (trifolium pratense L.) and cover crop at optimal time in spring; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing stubble breaking to 0.06-0.08 m depth and ameliorating mellowing to 0.6-0.8 m depth; applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer to provide for 3-4 year life of plants; plowing soil while turning layers by means of bottom-moldboard plows to 0.25-0.27 m depth while fully embedding stubble remains; after deep ameliorating tillage combined with turning of root layer, providing irrigation at the end of September - beginning of October at irrigation rate of 700-900 m3/hectare for keeping pre-irrigation soil moisture threshold; closing moisture feeding in early spring by means of heavy harrows in two tracks transverse to center ridges during moldboard plowing and simultaneously leveling field relief; providing cultivation to 0.05-0.08 m depth for killing cold-resistant weeds by means of A-hoes; providing presowing and postsowing compaction for increasing soil density in seeding layer at 0-10 cm depth; performing interlace sowing in early spring (0.30 m) of cover crop (oats, less commonly barley) at seeding rate of (3.0-3.5)·106 pieces of seeds per 1 hectare (continuous sowing at seeding rate of (8.5-9.5)·106 pieces per hectare to 0.03-0.04 m depth on light soil and 0.02-0.03 m depth on heavy soil for producing of 450-500 plants per 1 m2 at full germination phase, 250-300 plants at spring growing phase of second year of life, 200-220 plants per 1 m2 at spring growing phase of third year of life; providing mineral feeding by applying rated norms of phosphorous-potash fertilizer for stock plowing for three years of utilization of herbage, and applying differentiated doses of nitrous fertilizer for further mowing. Application of up to 100 kg/hectare of nitrogen during growing period at maximal dose of 35 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 60 t/hectare of green mass, and application of 130 kg of nitrogen per hectare during growing period at maximal dose of 45 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 80 t/hectare of green mass. Yield of 40 t/hectare of green mass is provided at irrigation norm of 850 m3/hectare with minimal period between irrigation procedures of 14-16 days, with total irrigation norm making 3,200-3,400 m3/hectare. Clover is mown at flowering phase. Time between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures is reduced to 1-3 days. Last mowing procedure is performed 25-30 days before air temperature reaches 00C.

EFFECT: improved quality of feed and predetermined productivity.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, production of fogger in irrigated zones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves periodically mowing biomass; irrigating and applying mineral fertilizer in spring at initial grass growing stage and for feeding after each mowing operation; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing pre-plowing irrigation at norm of 300-400 m3/hectare and ameliorating mellowing to 0.4-0.6 m depth; plowing to 0.25-0.27 m depth with turning of soil layer; mellowing top layer by means of cultivators to 0.08-0.012 m depth; leveling microrelief of irrigated field by means of levelers; providing interlace sowing of leguminous crops, such as lucerne and clover, and meadow grass crops, such as meadow fescue and orchard grass, at seeding norm of 4.8·106, 5.4·106, 5.5·106 and 8.1·106 pieces of seed per hectare, respectively, with grass mixtures being composed of two or four crops; keeping seeding depth in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.06 m; maintaining mineral feeding mode by applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer at norm rated for plowing for stock sufficient for 3-4 year usage of herbage; applying nitrous fertilizer in differentiated doses for mowing; applying 60 kg/hectare of nitrous fertilizer at growing period at maximal dose for first mowing of 40 kg/hectare to provide for guaranteed yield of up to 50 t/hectare of green mass; 80 kg/hectare at maximal dose for first mowing of 60 kg/hectare to provide for herbage yield of up to 70 t/hectare of green mass, and 100 kg/hectare at maximal dose of 70 kg/hectare for first mowing to provide for guaranteed yield of grass mixture of up to 90 t/hectare; keeping irrigation mode within the range of 60-80% norm of moisture. Green mass yield of from 50 to 90 t/hectare is provided with total irrigation norm of 2,550-3,250 m3/hectare to 3,600-4,050 m3/hectare. Interval between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures at growing period is reduced to 2-3 days. Agronomical care involves harrowing of last years crop fields, after mowing of grass for green feed, and in autumn - slitting field of young crop field of second and third years of life of plants to 0.4-0.6 m depth.

EFFECT: increased effectiveness of utilization of irrigated lands, increased production of ecologically safe high-quality feeds, provision for keeping of soil fertility and improved economy of region.

10 cl, 12 dwg, 52 tbl

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