Multilayer covering, tent polymer material
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer, tent covering material. The material contains a polyester base and a double-sided polyvinyl chloride coating. The polyester base is flat knitted linen, made from polyester thread of 100-111 tex, with 200-400 filaments in the thread and 85-400 windings per metre. Mass ratio of layers front : intermediate : back equals 1.1:1:1.6 respectively. Mass ratio of layers of polyester base and polymer coating is 1:2.7. The polymer coating is obtained, based on suspended polyvinyl chloride and additionally contains a mixture of dioctylphthalate and dioctyl sebacate plasticizers, Vitur T thermoplastic polyurethane, synthetic butadiene-acrylo-nitric rubber BNKS -28, copolymer of methyl methacrylate, butadiene and styrene KANE ACE B-28A. The stabilisers used are barium-, cadmium-, zinc-containing Vigostab BKT complex stabilisers. The antipyretic additive is antimony trioxide and chloroparaffin CP-1100. The coating also contains a fungicide - salicylic acid alinide, processing additive - stearic acid and pigments.
EFFECT: good fatigue properties in static and dynamic conditions, high frost resistance (up to -60 °C), fire-resistance and resistance to action of microorganisms.
1 cl, 6 tbl, 9 ex
The invention relates to the production of multi-layer covering awning polymeric materials and can be used in the manufacture of tent materials and other reinforced materials used in the construction of prefabricated structures and shelters automotive transport operated in different climatic zones, including in the Far North.
Known awning materials based on polyester fabrics with double-sided imposition of polyvinylchloride composition (EN 585094A) have a high linear density of yarn, which makes them great weight, complicating their use.
Also known tarpaulin materials with double-sided coating for vehicles (GOST 29151-91)derived from polyester fabric with a plain weave with a linear density - 27,7-111 Tex with the number of filaments in a complex 48-192 and the number of turns 160-280 cu/m (art; 56303; 56235 according to GOST 26369-84, 27507-87, 27507-89 and THE 17-04-15-248-90). However, they also have the aforementioned disadvantages.
Known awning materials according to GOST 29151-91 and EN 2139963C1, EN-S performed on polyester fabric with a plain weave, made of filament yarn with a low number of filaments in the complex (about 48 filaments) and high twist 160-280 kr/m with double-sided PVC is th floor, not quite frost resistant (not higher than -45°C), which significantly reduces the efficiency of the finished material in static and dynamic conditions and do not meet the requirements of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation (table 3).
The objective of this invention is to provide a multi-layer covering, awning polymeric material suitable for use in the construction of prefabricated structures and shelters means of road transport in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation.
The essence of the invention lies in the fact that as the basis for the multi-layered material consisting of polyester plackowatego canvas with double-sided coating, use polyester complex thread 100-111 dtex, number of filaments (filaments)=1) in the complex 200-400 and the number of turns 85-100 cu/m, while the mass ratio of the layers is personal: intermediate: wrong - 1,1:1:1,6 respectively, while the mass ratio of the polyester fabric and PVC coating is 1:2,7.
To achieve static and dynamic hardiness polymer-based coating suspension PVC with a constant of Fikentscher 70-72 additionally contains a mixture of plasticizer is dioctylphthalate (DOP) and dioctylsebacate (DOC); thermopl the partial polyurethane brand Vitart;
on BNR rubber stamps BNX-28; a copolymer of methyl methacrylate, butadiene and styrene brand KANE ACE WA in the ratio of 1:1,3:1,7:0,7:0,6 respectively. As the stabilizer is complex barium-cadmium-zinc stabilizer brand Vegetab BKC. Antivirusa Supplement is made in the form of a mixture of antimony trioxide and chlorinated paraffin stamps CP-1100 in the ratio of 1:1,fungicide-anilide salicylic acid. The composition also contains a technological additive: stearic acid, pigments, and the quantitative composition is selected when the following parts by weight (or mass%):
|parts by weight||wt.%|
|1. PVC m PVC-M with K=70-72||100||34,1|
|2. The dioctylphthalate (DOP)||30||10,2|
|3. Dioctylsebacate (DOS)||40||13,8|
|4. Thermoplastic polyurethane TPU m Vitur T||50||17,1|
|5. The NBR m BNC-28||206,8|
|6. Copolymer of methyl methacrylate, butadiene and styrene M. KANE-ACE B28A||18||6,1|
|7. The stabilizer complex m Vegetab BKC||4||1,4|
|8. The antimony trioxide||10||3,4|
|9. Chloroparaffin m CP-1100||10||3,4|
|10. Anilide salicylic acid||3||1|
|11. Stearic acid||1||0,3|
As raw materials are used with the components shown in table 6. As the basis for the manufacture of laminated covering, awning polymeric material is a polyester fabric JI-007 or PSO-003 on TU RB 780137328001-2003 made of filament yarn with a linear density 100-111 Tex and number of filaments in a complex 200-400 and the Islom torsions 85-100 cu/m (table 4), when this mass ratio of the polyester fabric and PVC coating is 1:2,7.
In the manufacture of laminated covering, awning polymeric material adhered to the following process steps:
- preparation of a polymeric composition in 2-stage turbomachine followed by treatment in an intensive mixer, roll mill, extruder;
- drawing on both sides of the basics of polymer coating on backing the car, "BEM-1570".
Implementation of the invention with different specific values of the distinctive features shown in the examples 1-9 (table 1-2).
Example 1. Polyvinyl chloride suspension m PVC-M, di-(2 ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP), di-(2 ethylhexyl)sebacina (DOS), barium, cadmium-, zinc-containing complex stabilizer M. Vegetab BKC, taken in the ratio of 100:30:40:4 process 2-stage mixer at a temperature of 110-120°C for 7-10 minutes
In an intensive mixer, heated to 150°C is loaded thermoplastic polyurethane M. Vicart, pre-flared NBR BNX-28, a copolymer of methyl methacrylate, butadiene and styrene M. KANE ACE VA and processed within 3 min, then loaded swollen PVC composition of the 2-stage mixer, pre-worn in pasta with dioctylphthalate in the ratio of the antimony trioxide (3:1), pigments (1:0,8), annelid salicia the Oh of the acid (1:1), chloroparaffin HP-1100, stearic acid, and processed within 3 minutes, the Ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:1,3:1,7:0,7:0,6 respectively.
PVC plasticate after intensive mixer is treated in the mill and in extruder.
On one side of polyester bases, with technical indicators shown in table 5, on backing the car is put back layer of the multilayer material in the amount of 320 g/m2. After cooling, the semi-finished product on the other side of the fabric face covering is applied in the amount of 220 g/m2.
The ratio of the layer by weight is the front layer: intermediate:wrong(1,1:1:1,6).
Example 2. Similar to example 1, but the ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:2,5:2,5:1:0.9 respectively.
Example 3. Similar to example 1, but the ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:0,75:1,25:0,5:0,45 respectively.
Example 4. Similar to example 1, but the ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:1:2:0,7:0,6 respectively.
Example 5. Similar to example 1, but the ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:2:2:1:0.9 respectively.
Example 6. Similar to example 1, but the ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:1,3:1,7:0,5:0,5 respectively.
Example 7. Similar to example 1, but the ratio of plasticizing agents is 1:1,3:1,7:0,8:0,8-meet the but.
Example 8. Similar to example 1, but the mass ratio of the layers is personal: intermediate: reverse 1:1:1,5.
Example 9. Similar to example 1, but the mass ratio of the layers is personal: intermediate: the reverse 1,2:1:1,7.
The resulting material was tested for physical and mechanical properties in accordance with state Standards (table 2÷3).
As can be seen from tables 1-2, the proposed technological regimes and the production parameters of the material allow us to fully achieve the objectives of the present invention.
As can be seen from the data presented in table 2, example 1 quantitative composition of polyvinylchloride composition for front and back cover is optimal and allows you to get stated in the description of the multi-layer covering, awning polymeric material corresponding to modern requirements.
The technical result is expressed in the use as the basis polyester plackowatego canvas using multifilament yarn with an increased number of filaments and reduced twist of 100 turns/m, which allows to significantly improve the fatigue properties of the material under dynamic conditions.
Using this proposed polyvinylchloride composition multilayer tent covering the polymeric material provides a reliable physical-mechanical indicators of the indicators is zarubezhnykh analogues, and resistance to low temperatures and frost resistance under dynamic conditions at -20°C increased about 3 times. Through the use of more efficient plasticizers and additives (fungicides, flame retardants and others) provides fire resistance, frost resistance of the multilayer covering, awning polymer material to -60°C and resistance to the action of microorganisms; reduced mass 1 m2the above-mentioned material.
Stated in the description of the multi-layer covering, awning polymeric material corresponds to the modern requirements of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation.
|The composition of the polymer coating|
|no PP||Name of the component||The placeholder||Examples|
|1.||Polyvinyl chloride suspension m PVC-M||-||100||100||100||100||100||100||100||100||100|
|10.||The antimony trioxide||-||10||10td align="center"> 10||10||10||5||15||10||10|
|13.||Anilide salicylic acid||-||3||3||3||3,5||2,5||3||3||3||3|
|№№ p/p||Indices||The placeholder||Examples|
|1.||Mass, 1 m2g||900||740±10||740±10||740±10||740±10||740±10||740±10||740±10||700±10||750±10|
|2.||The gain in weight of the polymer coating, g/m2|
|- facial layer||-||220||220||220||220||220||220||200||200||240|
|- reverse layer||-||320||320||320||320||320||320||320||300||310|
|3.||Polyester base||P/EF plain weave fabric according to GOST 5530-94 of yarns with a linear density of 36.2 those/481||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those /200f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those/ 200f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those/ 200f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those/ 200f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those/ 350f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those/ 300f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 111 those/ 400f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn Ah/ 300f||JI-007 from p/EF multifilament yarn 225 those/ 400f|
|4.||The breaking load of the strips 50×200 mm, Dan|
|in longitudinal e.g.||120||220±20||220±20||220±20||220±20||190±20||200±20||180±20||180±20||220±20|
|5.||Elongation at break, %|
|in longitudinal e.g.||24||25||24||26||26||25||26||24||25||25|
|6.||Resistance to tearing, Dan|
|in longitudinal e.g.||42||110±10||100±10||100±10||100±10||100±10||100±10||100±10||100±10||100±10|
|in longitudinal e.g.||26||21||22||24||25||26||28||32||30||32|
|8.||Frost resistance in static conditions, °C||minus 45||minus 60±2||minus 56±2||minus 58±2||minus 55±2||minus 52±2||minus 56±2||minus 60±2||minus 58±2||minus 56±2|
|9.||Frost resistance under dynamic conditions at minus 20°C, cycles, bending diamond||>7600||4000||5800||5200||3800||4100||>7600||5600||>6300|
|12||Resistance to loads the view of gasoline and oils||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable||Stable|
|13||Resistance to repeated bending, cycles||320||350||320||330||320||340||>350||320||280||300|
|14||The lightfastness, points||4-5||5||5||5||5||5||5||5||5||5|
|16||The strength of the weld in shear, kN|
|in longitudinal e.g.||0,5||0,83||0,8||0,81||0,6||0,71||0,75||0,78||0,6||0,8|
|Comparative physico-mechanical properties covering, awning polymeric materials|
|№№p/p||Indices||Test method||Normalized values (TTT MOD)||Similar to RU 2148116,cI||The proposed material for the patent application|
|1.||Weight of 1 sq. m, g||GOST 17073||900||800||740±10|
|2.||The breaking load, Dan||GOST 17316|
|in the longitudinal direction||190÷296||120||226÷286|
|in the transverse direction||180÷240||105||206÷224|
|3.||Elongation, %||The OST 17316|
|in the longitudinal direction||10-40||24||24|
|in the transverse direction||20-50||40||30|
|4.||Resistance to tearing, Dan||GOST 17074|
|in the longitudinal direction||50-100||42||110|
|in the transverse direction||70-110||40||140|
|5.||Resistance to repeated bending, kilocycle||GOST 8978||at least 250||320||350|
|6.||Rigidity, SN||GOST 8977||no more than|
|in the longitudinal direction||30||26||21|
|in the transverse direction||20||10||9|
|7.||The lightfastness, points||GOST 9780||at least 5||4||5|
|8.||Frost resistance in static conditions, °C||GOST 15162||not above||minus 45||*minus 60|
|minus 60||**minus 65|
|9.||Frost resistance under dynamic conditions (-20°C)cycles, bending diamond||GOST||3500||-||>10000|
|10.||Rating mm/min||no more of 1.66||neosporosis||neosporosis|
|11.||The permeability, h||GOST 22944||drops no||drops no||drops no|
|12.||Resistance to gasoline and oils||GOST 29151||stable||stable||stable|
|13.||The strength of the weld in shear, kN||GOST 29151|
|in the longitudinal direction||0,8||0,5||0,83|
|in the transverse direction||0,9||0,47||0,93|
|14.||Funginertness, points||GOST 12.4.152 method And||no more than 3||2|
|* - the test results of the FSUE "Unepic"|
|** - the test results IL CC"Poliert" (No. 876-01-08)|
|Characteristics of PE-threads|
|Nominal linear density multifilament yarn, Tex/ the Number of filaments in a complex||The number of NTD||The breaking load of mn/Tex, not less than||Elongation at break, %||Shrinkage, % at 150°C, not more than||The number of turns per 1 m|
|Technical characteristics of the polyester plackowatego paintings JI-007|
|Name of indicator||The norm on THE other||The results of the analysis|
|The width of the blade edges, cm||152±1||153|
|Surface density, g/m||180±2||180|
|The breaking load, Dan, strips of size 50×200 mm|
|on the basis of||at least 250||270|
|- duck||not less than 200||208|
|on the basis of||18||18|
|The number of threads per 10 cm|
|on the basis of||70||80|
|The change of linear dimensions in a hot air at 150°C, %,max||2,1-3,1||2,9|
Multilayer covering awning polymeric material comprising a polyester base and double-sided PVC coating, characterized in that the polyester base is ploskovatoe fabric made from polyester multifilament yarn 100÷111 Tex with the number of filaments in a comprehensive 200÷400 and the number of turns 85÷100 kr/m, while the mass ratio of the layers is personal: intermediate: wrong - 1,1:1:1,6, respectively, and asboe ratio of layers of polyester substrates and polymeric coatings -
1:2,7 obtained on the basis of suspension polyvinyl chloride and optionally containing a mixture of plasticizer dioctylphthalate and dioctylsebacate, thermoplastic polyurethane brand Vitur T, nitrile butadiene synthetic rubber stamps BNX-28, copolymer of methyl methacrylate, butadiene and styrene brand KANE ACE B-28A in the ratio of 1:1,3:1,7:0,7:0,6 respectively, as stabilizers used barium, cadmium-, zinc-containing complex stabilizer brand Vegetab BKC, antispiritual additive is antimony trioxide and chloroparaffin CP-1100 in the ratio of 1:1, fungicide - anilide salicylic acid, technological additive - stearic acid and pigments, and the quantitative composition of polyvinylchloride composition for front and back cover are selected in the following ratio, parts by weight:
|Polyvinyl chloride brand PVC-M with K=70-72||100|
|The dioctylphthalate (DOP)||30|
|Thermoplastic polyurethane brand Vitur T||50|
|The NBR synthetic brand BNX-28||20|
|Copolymer of methyl methacrylate,|
|butadiene and styrene brand KANE ACE B-28A||18|
|The barium, cadmium-, zinc-containing complex|
|the stabilizer brand Vegetab BKC||4|
|The antimony trioxide||10|
|Anilide salicylic acid||3|
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to floor coating and can be used individually or industrially for floor coating in apartments and manufacturing facilities. The floor coating is polyvinyl chloride foam. Cost-effectiveness lies in use of available agents for cooling to technologically feasible temperature, creation of conditions for hardening of the surface layer of the fabric, possibility of turning the fabric by 180 degrees when there is need to use dyeing and lacquer coatings at rate of movement of the fabric of up to 25 m/min.
EFFECT: effect of sensory and organoleptic perception of natural species of wood and/or stones.
SUBSTANCE: foamable composition for obtaining foamed products contains polyvinylchloride, primary plasticiser, if necessary, other additives and as alkyl ester of benzoic acid, isononyl ester of benzoic acid in amount from 5 to 95 wt %, counting per weight of all available plasticiser, which constitutes 10 to 400 wt.p. per 100 wt.p. of polyvinylchloride. Method of product obtaining, which contains at least one foamed layer of polyvinylchloride consists in application of foamed composition on carrier, before and after application it is foamed and in conclusion it is thermally processed. Product represents covering for floors, artificial leather and wallpapers.
EFFECT: reduction of composition viscosity, temperature of its gelatinisation, which results in simple and quicker composition processing.
11 cl, 8 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods of production of the of the laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to production of plastics, namely - to the development of the method of production of the laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating. The method is realized by deposition at heating up to temperature of 150-190°С on the textile base of the coating consisting of the polyvinylchloride composition including the film forming agent - polyvinylchloride suspension, the plasticizers - di-(2-ethylhexyl)- phthalate, chlorinated paraffin wax and the mixture of dioxane alcohols and their high-boiling ethers with the number of the hydroxyl groups of 23-36 %, the filler - the chalk and the crystalline calcium carbonate, the stabilizing agent - the stearic acid and calcium - the zinc complex stabilizing agent , the surface active agent - the flotation reactant - oxalic agent, the pigment - titanium dioxide, as the textile basis they use the cloth thermo bound by the surface density of 46-54 g/m2 made out of the polyester filaments with the density of 0.12-0.33 tack and the cutting length of 38-66 mm. The laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating has the bonding strength of the film coating with the base of 2.0-2.3 kN/m, the rigidity of 0.4-0.9 cN and variation of the linear dimensions lengthways of 0.4-0.7 % and transversely - 0.1-0.3 %.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating has the bonding strength of the film coating with the base of 2.0-2.3 kN/m, the rigidity of 0.4-0.9 cN and variation of the linear dimensions lengthwise and transversely are less than unity.
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of simulated leather-type material with polymer coating, which can be used in making automotive tents, shelters, and for bundling of various technical tools. According to first option, material comprises textile backing and polymer coating formed on said backing with the aid of calender technique at the face and at the underside. Coating is composed of, weight parts: suspension polyvinylchloride (S-7058M) 100, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 20-60, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 5.0-20, trichloroethyl phosphate 5.0-15, "Vigostab BTs-42" 1.0-3.0, antimony trioxide 5.0-20, aluminum hydroxide 20-5.0, butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-28) 30-0.1, thermoplastic polyurethane (VITUR 2213, 2513) 0.1-70, calcium stearate 0.5-2.0, and pigments 2.0-6.0, weight ratio of layers in material being as follows: face polymer coating/underside polymer coating = (0.3÷0.5):(0.2÷0.4). According to second option, material comprises textile backing and polymer coating formed on said backing at the face and at the underside, face-side polymer coating being formed with the aid of calender technique and composed of, wt parts: suspension polyvinylchloride (S-7058M) 100, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 20-60, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 5.0-20, trichloroethyl phosphate 5.0-15, "Vigostab BTs-42" 1.0-3.0, antimony trioxide 5.0-20, aluminum hydroxide 20-5.0, butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-28) 30-0.1, thermoplastic polyurethane (VITUR 2213, 2513) 0.1-70, calcium stearate 0.5-2.0, and pigments 2.0-6.0, and underside coating being formed with the aid of deposition technique and composed of, wt parts: emulsion polyvinylchloride (EP-6602Ts) 100, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 20-60, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 5.0-20, trichloroethyl phosphate 5.0-15, "Vigostab BTs-42" 1.0-3.0, antimony trioxide 5.0-20, aluminum hydroxide 20-5.0, and pigments 2.0-6.0, weight ratio of layers in material being as follows: face polymer coating/underside polymer coating = (0.3÷0.5):(0.15÷0.3). According to second option, material represents film having the same composition as coating in the first option formed with the aid of calender technique, thickness of this film material ranging from 0.15 to 1.0 mm.
EFFECT: enhanced frost resistance, increased level of resistance to multiple bending (also at negative temperatures), and increased level of resistance to abrasion ensuring long service time.
3 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: floor coating obtained by laying method has its principal structure formed from thermoplastic material, in particular from plasticized polyvinylchloride, reinforced with textile armature and, if necessary, attached to foam sublayer. Front face resistance surface coating to be imaged and to provide wear resistance of part. Reverse face, which contacts floor, represents textile. Connection of textile structure with reverse surface of principal support is provided by means of additional plastisol layer penetrating to a inconsiderable depth into textile structure and ensuring, after gelation, fastening of textile to reverse face of principal support made from thermoplastic material.
EFFECT: improved walking comfort and both acoustic and thermal insulation at better mechanical strength and evenness.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, laminated materials, such as rolled polymeric floor coverings, in particular, linoleum.
SUBSTANCE: multilayer rolled polymeric 2.7 mm thick floor covering has base comprising lower layer of nonwoven needle-stitched material of polyester or polypropylene filaments or mixture of filaments having thickness of 1.3-2.0 mm, density of 200-360 g/m2, and upper polymeric layer composed of at least two polyvinyl chloride layers. Lower polyvinyl chloride layer has glass fabric or mineral paper used as reinforcement material and having thickness of 0.6-1.0 mm. Thickness of transparent face layer is 0.12-0.50 mm. Middle polyvinyl chloride layer of polymeric layer may foamed and provided with decorative relief pattern.
EFFECT: increased decorative effect, improved wear resistance, heat and sound isolating properties and sanitary and hygienic qualities of rolled covering.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to floor coverings and may be used by individuals or in industry for floor covering in residential flats and industrial premises. The floor covering manufacture method involves operations of the application of PVC coatings using the air cushion for the preservation of the printed layer(s), levelling of the web edges, creation of stock of the floor covering rolled in the process of its coating, tensioning, drying, and cooling; along with a number of auxiliary operations related to the collection of excessive covering mass. The invention ensures cost effectiveness of the process, consisting in the selection of the most optimal operations of manufacture and inspection of the web proper, in the process of application of the coatings and the ultraviolet lacquer, the process of web tension synchronisation in various periods of its processing, the operations of linoleum web cooling, and other operations related to careful treatment of the covering, for example, during web rotation using the air cushion.
EFFECT: increased cost effectiveness of floor covering manufacture process.
FIELD: personal demand items.
SUBSTANCE: colour match is provided for the items containing various materials of bases. Composition of the coating is chosen so that it can be applied to various materials of bases thus in general maintaining equal visual characteristics of the item. Bases can contain flexible materials such as natural leather, synthetic leather, vinyl, foam, cloth and the like. The item includes the first base having the first flexible material, the second base having the second material different from the first material, the coating with colour match, which is made on the basis of solvent or on the basis of water dispersion of polymeric material, which contains polyurethane, and covers at least the section of the first base and at least the section of the second base. Examples of the items are footwear, automobile upholstery and automobile interiors. Manufacturing method of the item including the first and the second flexible bases made from various materials includes the following: the coating of at least the section of the first flexible base by the composition of the coating with colour match as per item 1 of the formula; and the coating of at least the section of the second flexible base by the composition of the coating with colour match as per item 1 of the formula.
EFFECT: there shall preferably be provided the composition of the coating capable of covering various types of bases of the item, and at the same time excluding the necessity of levelling colours.
23 cl, 2 dwg, 12 tbl, 7 ex