Method of making natural sorbent for purifying water in domestic water supply system

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of making sorbents from natural raw material. Gaize from Astrakhan Region, containing the following (wt %) is crushed: SiO2 - 78-80; Al2O3 - 18-22; Fe2O3 - 0.5; H2O - 0.2-0.5; CaSO4 - 0.3-0.5; CaCO3 - 0.12-0.8, particles with diametre 3-10 mm are separated, washed with water until dust is removed and dried at 100-105°C to residual moisture of 2%.

EFFECT: obtaining ecologically clean sorbent.

5 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection, namely the production of ecologically pure aluminosilicate sorbent designed for water purification from heavy metals and some organic compounds in the system of economic-drinking water supply

A method of obtaining granulated sorbent on the basis of shungite, including the processing of shungite basic aluminum nitrate when heated, additional processing of the resulting product is a mixture containing liquid glass (sodium silicate) and magnesium oxide, granulating the resulting mass, subsequent annealing of the obtained granules and processing with sulfuric acid. According to this method the mixture for additional processing contains 3-5% of liquid glass and 3-5% of magnesium oxide (by weight of the sorbent), the calcination of the sorbent granules is carried out at 600-610°C for 90-120 min, and the subsequent processing of the granules are 2%sulfuric acid for 1.5 hours at a temperature of 60-90°C [1].

The disadvantages of this method are the use of minor mineral shungite, which is pre-modified with aluminum nitrate, calcining at high temperature, which requires appropriate equipment and power consumption, and processing in aggressive environments.

There is also known a method of preparation of the sorbent for purification of drinking and about illannoy water from heavy metal ions, oil products, phenol and surfactants. As a natural adsorbent used siliceous rock mixed mineral composition, containing, in wt.%: opal-cristobalite 30-49, zeolite 7-25, clay component 7-25, debris, sand, and silt material - the rest [2].

The disadvantage of this method is small, the degree of purification of water from heavy metal ions. In addition, processing of the breed is carried out at a temperature of 250°C, which requires the use of labor-intensive technological design process activation of the sorbent.

There is also known a method of preparation of the sorbent for adsorption purification of water from heavy metals, oil products, phenol, surfactants and salts of rigidity. As the adsorbent used siliceous rock mixed mineral composition, containing, in wt.%: opal-cristobalite 51-70, zeolite 9-25, clay component (montmorillonite, hydromica) 7-15, calcite 10-25, debris, sand, and silt material - the rest is taken from fields in Tatarstan. The adsorbent in the air-dry crush, pulverize and disperse the sit, release fraction (1.0 to 4.0)·10-3m Sample calcined (the speed of temperature rise of 50°C per hour) in an electric furnace at 300°C for 2 hours. In a porcelain Cup load the previously prepared sample and 2 is. a solution of hydrochloric acid (Hcl) at a ratio of T:W=1:2. The treatment is carried out at room temperature for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally with a glass rod. Then drain the solution of hydrochloric acid and neutralized adsorbent of 0.05 N. NaOH solution to pH=7,0 [3].

The disadvantage of this method is the use of hydrochloric acid, which requires equipment resistant to aggressive environments.

Closest to the claimed invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of producing a sorbent, comprising drying, grinding diatomaceous earth or silica clay, treated with a solution of sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate with a concentration of 8-12 wt.%, and heat treatment at 1000-1250°C [4].

The disadvantage of this method is that at temperatures above 300°C is the destruction of the flask, resulting in a sintered Malinova weight and small granules of silicon oxide, which leads to a sharp decrease in the sorption capacity of the flask. The collapse of the molding at high temperatures does not help and treatment hydroxides of alkali metals.

The present invention is to expand the range of sorbents for water purification through the development of simple and environmentally friendly method of producing sorbents on the basis of natural aluminosilicates.

Raw DL the receipt of the proposed sorbent serve the mold box, the field which is located near the village of Stone ravine to the North of the Astrakhan region. Their total number is about 200 million tons, on the surface is part of mastroeni, containing about 70 million tons of flasks.

The mold box of the Astrakhan region have the following basic composition: SiO2- 75-80%, Al2O3- 18-22%, Fe2O3- 0,5-1%, N2About - 0.2%to 0.5%, CaSO4from 0.3 - 0.5%, caso3- 0.12 to 0.8 percent. They have a high sorption capacity with respect to the ions of ammonium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, iron, cobalt, Nickel, manganese (II), chromium (III), zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, alkaline-earth, rare-earth elements and a large group of organic substances that can provide a high degree of water purification system of drinking water supply.

The essence of the claimed method of obtaining natural sorbent for water purification system of drinking water supply is as follows.

To increase sorption capacity flasks split up and scatter on the screens. Separated fractions from 3 to 10 mm, washed with water to remove dust and dried at a temperature of 100-105°C. to a residual moisture level of 2%.

The following examples are provided to more fully illustrate the invention.

Example 1. Raw materials from the quarry - gaize - particles with masses up to several kilograms grind the and ball mill. Eliminate small and large particles. Emit particles with a size of 3 to 4 mm in diameter. Washed with water to remove dust, then dried at a temperature of 100-105°C and air-dried to a residual moisture level of 2%. It sorbent SV-4.

Example 2. Flasks grind ball mill, sieve the small and large particles. Allocate fractions from 5 to 10 mm Washed with water. Dried at a temperature of 100-105°C. to a residual moisture level of 2%. It sorbent SV-10.

Ready sorbents SV-4 and SV-10 are solid particles of different shapes light gray in color, odorless and taste.

Hygienic evaluation of sorbents for water purification system, drinking water supply, obtained according to examples 1 and 2 was carried out according to THE 2641-001-51652069-2001 taking into account the guidelines for the hygienic assessment of the materials, reagents, equipment, technologies used in the water system MU 2.1.4.783. The obtained results are shown in table 1.

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Table 1.
The water quality parameters (water extracts) in a static experiment. Water water diocesana with a salt concentration of 160 mg/DM3; the temperature (25±5)°C; time infusion 1-30 days (1st series studies), with rent for water purification SV-4 (SW-10)
IndicatorsHygienic standardNight observation
Immediately135102030
The smell, the points≤2
Sample-0-10-10-10-10-10-1
Control0-10-10-10-10-10-10-1
Flavour scores≤1
Sample-0-10-1 0-10-10-10-1
Control0-10-10-10-10-10-10-1
Chroma, C≤20
Sample-001100
Control21--222
Turbidity1,5
Sample-0,60,28- 0,10,120,1
Control<0,1<0,1<0,1-<0,1<0,1<0,1
pH, standard units>6-<9
sample-7,3to 7.327,37,34to 7.327,34
Control7,47,27,247,287,267,267,28
Permanganate oxidation, mg O2/DM3<5
Sample4,04,0 4,14,14,154,154,15
Controla 3.9a 3.94,04,124,164,164,16
Ammonia nitrogen, mg/DM3<2
Sample------0,96
Control0,1-----0,2
Nitrite, mg/DM3<3
Sample-----0,44
Control0,1-----0,07
Nitrates, mg/DM3<45 (50)
Sample------3,25
Control1,3-----3,5

As can be seen from table 1, the study material does not impair the organoleptic properties of water (no foreign smell and taste aqueous extracts, practically did not change the value of color compared to control). In the process of contact of the sorbent SV-4 (SW-1) water pH remained almost unchanged and consistent with good hygiene standards (> 6-<9).

The analysis of the content of inorganic impurities in the aqueous extract on the 30th day experience has shown (2nd series studies)that the migration of inorganic substances - toxic metals I and II hazard class (aluminum, barium, cadmium, Nickel, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, niobium, strontium, lead) was almost absent and not revealed migration of metals affecting the organoleptic properties of water (iron, manganese, copper) (table 2).

Table 2
The content of inorganic impurities in water extracts from sorbent for purification of water. Distilled water, water temperature (37±2)°C, duration of infusion 30 day (2nd series studies).
№ p/pName impuritiesHygienic standard, mg/DM3Impurity concentration, mg/DM
1.Aluminum<0,50,02
2.Barium<0,10,04
3.Vanadium<0,14.Chrome<0,050,001
5.Niobium<0,010,001
6.Nickel<0,10,001
7.Cadmium<0,0010,0001
8.Strontium70,001
9.Lead<0,030,001
10.Arsenic<0,050,0001
11.Zinc<30,001
12.Calcium<0,50,001
13.Magnesium<0,50,001
14Iron<0,30,01
15.Manganese<0,1 (0,5)0,001
16.Copper<10,001

Assessment of possible migration of chemicals according to the biological testing on animals were carried out according to [5, 6]. The results of the biological testing are shown in table 3.

Table 3
The dynamics of water quality during prolonged contact with the sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) according to biological testing on animals Daphnia, ciliates, luminous bacteria Ecolum (in experimental studies: the insistence on re-purified tap water, the water temperature is 25±2°C, duration of infusion 1-30 days)
№ p/pThe observation periods, the dayDaphnids. The survival time, hour.(Hygiene norm >96)Ciliates. The coefficient of toxicity (Hygiene norm >0,5<1)Ecolum. Change is giving glow, % (Hygiene norm <50)
ControlExperienceControlExperienceControlExperience
1.1>96>960,560,571716
2.3>96>960,540,61515
3.596>960,620,621514
4.10<96>960,590,61920
5.20<96 >960,60,61919
6.30<96>960,60,621112

Analysis of the obtained data showed that the water extract of sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) almost had no toxic effect on Daphnia (I have not changed the terms of the survival of Daphnia compared to control), and it had no effect on hemotoxicity and generative function of the ciliates, which indicates that there is no migration of hazardous chemicals from the sorbent. Evaluating the results obtained, we can talk about the practical absence of toxic effects of aqueous extracts from sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) on the function of luminescence bacteria Ecolum compared to the control water (table 3).

To evaluate the potential migration of radionuclides studied their content in the solid material and water extraction in terms of total volume of α - and β-activity.

Determination of total α - and β-activity was carried out by direct measurement of the activity of the dry residue obtained by evaporation of the analyzed samples in combination with the measurement in the same slaveholding drugs with known specific activity.

Studies have not revealed the presence of radioactive components in the investigated water extract (α-activity - of 0.001 Bq/DM3), (β-activity - 0,084 Bq/DM3from sorbent SV-4 (SW-10).

Experimental study on the influence of the studied samples of the sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) on the growth and development of microflora conducted on the specified sorbent, carefully washed and bathed deklarirovannoe tap water after the temperature during the day, followed by the introduction of the natural microflora of contaminated water. Control was also used dekhlorirovanie tap water with the introduction of the natural microflora of contaminated water. Water samples from the vessel with a sorbent and a control were investigated according to the San Pin 2.1.4.1074-01.

Table 4
The effect of sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) on the growth of microflora in the water
ExposureVersion of experienceOKB/100 cm3TKB/100 cm3TBC (37°C)
1 hourControl150110120
Experience140110100
1 dayControl1000,9×104
Experience000,7×104
2 daysControl00of 2.0×104
Experience001,7×104
3 daysControl00of 3.2×104
Experience00a 2.5×104
20 daysControl000,5×104
Experience000,7×104
30 daysControl000,7·104
Experience000,8·104

As can be seen from the obtained data (table 4), after one day there is a reduction of the content of micro-organisms (total coliform bacteria (OKB), thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB)) as in the control and experience. Intensive growth of microbial numbers (TBC) on the studied sorbent was observed on the third day, and experience were significantly more peak, that is confirmed by data on the increase in the content of ammonium nitrogen in the experiment compared with the control. On the twentieth and the thirtieth day there was a natural death microflora, and the sorbent slowed the process of dying. The development of microflora on the investigated sample in the process of biofouling confirms the appropriateness, if necessary, periodically or on an ongoing basis disinfection of treated water on it one of the conventional disinfection methods.

To test the effectiveness of the cleaning water from toxic metal ions and organic compounds showed (table 5), the sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) has a high absorption capacity for toxic metals and organic compounds.

Table 5
The efficiency of water purification from toxic metal ions and organic compounds by sorbent SV-4 (SW-10)
Defined indexContent in mg/DM3The cleaning efficiency, %
To sorptionAfter sorption
Toxic metals:
Lead10,35±1,050,01±0,00599,9
Cadmium5,6±0,50,006±0,000699,9
Zinc3.3V±0,50,003±0,000399,9
Mercury10,1±0,80,001±0,0000599,9
Copper3,2±0,50,003±0,0004 99,9
Cobalt3±0,20,003±0,000499
Chromium (III)2±0,20,005±0,000599,7
Chromium (VI)2±0,20,005±0,000599,7
Organic pollutants:
Diesel fuel5±0,10,01±0,00599,8
Oil5±0,10,01±0,00599,8
Benzo(a)pyrene0,25±0,050,0002599,9
Phenol1±0,010,001±0,000599,9
o,m,p-Chlorophenols1±0,010,001±0,000599,9
2,4-Dichlorphenol0,5±0,010,0005±0,0001 99,9
2,4-Dinitrophenol0,5±0,010,0005±0,000199,9
Dioxins0,0005Not found99,99

Thus, based on the results of organoleptic, physico-chemical, Express-Toxicological and radiological investigations can be concluded about the possibility of using sorbent SV-4 (SW-10) in practice, the drinking water supply for drinking water treatment.

Using the proposed method of obtaining natural sorbent on the basis of a molding in the Astrakhan region for water purification system, drinking water enables you to:

1) to improve the quality of treated water;

2) to expand the scope of natural adsorption of raw materials.

References

1. Gorstein AU, Baron POSTGRADUATE, sarcina MV / Way to obtain granulated adsorbent: A.S. 822881 the USSR, MKI 6 01J 20/02, C02F 1/28, C02F 101:10, C02F 103:00; Appl. 1976.07.06; publ. 1981.04.23.

2. Konyukhov, ETC, Kikilo D.A., Luchin G.S., Chuprina T.N., Mikhailov O.A., distanov e.g. S.Y., Kharisov YG / Method adsorption of water purification: RF Patent №2111171, IPC 6 C02F 1/28; Appl. 1996.01.16; publ. 1998.05.20.

3. Konyukhov, ETC, Kikilo D.A., Mikhailova O.A., Naked, the VA SZ, Chuprina T.N., Distanov e.g. S.Y., Yarulina GG, Kharisov YG / Method adsorption of water purification: RF Patent №2150997, IPC 7 01J 20/16, C02F 1/28; Appl. 1998.09.03; publ. 2000.06.20.

4. Danilov A.A., raisers using B.C., Sentaku A.V., Pavlov N/ a Method of producing a sorbent. RF patent 2141374, IPC B01J 20/10, B01J 20/16, B01J 20/30 Appl. 1998.12.15; publ. 1999.11.20.

5. Methodical recommendations on the application of bioassay techniques for assessment of water quality in the system of economic-drinking water supply. Mr No. CSO PTS 005-95.

6. RD 118.02.90. Methodological guidance on biotesting of water. Hostomice the USSR hydrometerology. M: Min. zdravoohr. The USSR, 1991.

A method of producing a sorbent for water purification system, drinking water supply, providing for grinding the mold box with the separation of particles of a given size, wherein the grinding is subjected to the mold of the Astrakhan region, containing, wt.%: SiO278-80; Al2O318-22; Fe2O30,5; N2About 0.2 to 0.5; CaSO40,3-0,5; caso3of 0.12 to 0.8, emit a particle size of from 3 to 10 mm in diameter, washed particles with water to remove dust and dried at 100-105°C to a residual moisture content of 2%.



 

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3 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in chemical industry and environment protection. Waste gas flow is cooled, compressed by compressor and then passed through material that is half-permeable for gas, for instance, molecular sieve or activated coal. Adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in half-permeable material is carried out in compliance with adsorption technology at periodical change or swinging of temperature (AKT). Part of separated gas flow that contains highly concentrated carbon dioxide is used as initial material for production of ammonia and urea or methanol or is collected and stored for further use.

EFFECT: lower consumption of energy, reduced structural expenses and expenses on servicing.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method for preparation of filter-sorption material includes application of silica-alumina mineral on substrate. Substrate used is basalt fibers, and silica-alumina mineral is bentonitic clay with montmorillonite content of at least 80%. Basalt fibers are processed by 5-7% water solution of alkali, bentonitic clay that has been previously exposed to soda activation is added, then mixed with addition of binding agent selected from aluminium salts, at ratio of bentonitic clay and binding agent equal to 1:3, heated at temperature of 50-100°C for 2 hours, material is cooled, flushed by water and exposed to thermal activation at the temperature of 110-120°C.

EFFECT: higher sorption capacity of filter-sorption material capable of regeneration, and expansion of material application sphere.

3 tbl

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns environmental protection, particularly adsorbent of compound action suitable for obtaining filtering material for both fine sewage purification and complex treatment of exhausted mineral oil. Adsorbent of compound action is obtained by mixing thermal power plant burnout with mineral sediment based on iron oxide-hydroxide extracted at ground water deferrisation plants, and undergoes thermal processing within 180-350°C interval for 3-6 hours. After oil treatment the adsorbent is recovered by heating at 300-350°C for 4-5 hours.

EFFECT: obtaining adsorbent of compound action suitable for both sewage treatment and complex treatment of exhausted mineral oils, from waste.

3 cl, 6 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns production of sorbent materials for natural and industrial water and sewage treatment for removal of multicomponent impurities, such as oil and oil products, organic substances, heavy metal cations, radionuclides, ammonium cations, and other impurities. Method for obtaining carbon-containing sorbents based on natural laminar alumosilicates involves simultaneous alumosilicate calcination and processing by hydrocarbons of oil origin at 500-700°C until hydrophobic nanolayer is formed and carbon concentration in sorbent reaches 0.7-1.1%.

EFFECT: obtaining sorbents displaying ion exchange activity and high oil absorption capacity.

2 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining the polymeric composition is proposed. It is obtained by inter-reacting a guanidine containing polymer and a natural mineral in which interaction of the water-soluble guanidine containing polymer and a natural mineral is accomplished by intercalation of the guanidine containing monomer in the interlayer space of montmorillonite and its subsequent polymerisation. The relation of components in the obtained composition is, mass%: montmorillonite 50-85, methacrylate of guanidine 15-50.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the sorption activity of the composition.

3 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention allows recycling the polymeric waste, wastes from oil manufacturing; it can be used in elimination of the oil and oil products outflow, and in sewage treatment. The method of preparation of fine-dispersed oil and oil products sorbent is proposed, which consists in dissolution of high-molecular foamed polystyrene wastes in the organic solvent under intensive stirring at concentration range 20-35% mass by polymer; solvent distillation by exposing the mixture under vacuum, the foamed polystyrene wastes are dissolved in acetone at room temperature within 2-3 minutes; the Circulite or filtration perlite are added to this solution and stirred, the received mixture is heated till 80-100°C and the received homogenous mass is cooled, divided into small fractions and grinded.

EFFECT: method simplifies technique for sorbent preparation and reduces price.

1 tbl

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: sorbent catalyst appropriate to produce drinking water contains, as carrier, filter material (ODM-2F), ground opokas with summary pore volume 0.45-0.55 cm3/g (98.0-99.5%) and manganese dioxide (0.5-2.0%). Sorption capacity of sorbent catalyst exceeds that of quartz sand-based "black sand" by a factor above 1.5.

EFFECT: increased sorption capacity.

1 tbl, 4 ex

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