Method of green fodder production

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method green fodder production includes seeding binary mixture of grass-legume crops and their mowing for fodder when being fully developed. The half-norm of binary mixture of winter crops shall be sown in autumn. During spring aftergrowing the half-norm of binary mixture of grass-legume spring crops of early sowing shall be interplanted. The mixed grass crop shall be mowed for fodder when being fully developed.

EFFECT: method enables to improve quality and quantity of fodder.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly the cultivation of fodder crops and can be used in obtaining green forage in early spring.

A method of obtaining the forage crop when sown binary grass-legume mixtures in the fall, and next spring the green mass is cut in the budding phase of legumes and earing cereal (Brazhnikov OF Methods of forming mixed agrophytocenosis annual and perennial forage crops in the middle Volga region, the dissertation. Penza, 2007, p.6-7.).

The disadvantage of this method is that during the winter period, the proportion of winter crops exposed to frost, waterlogging, damping off, which contributes to the loss of many plants, resulting in crops become sparse.

The closest technical solution is a way of sowing winter forage crops in binary mixtures of cereals and legumes (patent 2201058 published 27.03.2003.).

However, the inflated standards of the culture may not provide sufficient development of plants, which reduces their resistance to the winter period, so that the spring crops grow thinned. Such crops reduce the quantity and quality of forage.

The purpose of the invention is improving the quantity and quality of forage.

This goal is achieved is eat, what are binary grass-legume mixture of winter crops sown in half the desired rate, and the regrowth of their spring podshuveyt early spring crops and in the phase of full development of the mixture is cut for feed.

The method is as follows.

Autumn sown mixture of winter wheat in the amount of 125 kg (half the required standards) and winter vetch 25 kg/ha

Such thinned seeding allows to achieve the tillering stage, before the advent of cold weather, because each plant has enough space power, the best coverage. Particularly favorable conditions for the development reaches the Vic, as in dense sowing it more drops out of the grass.

Formed plants at the tillering stage, cereal and booting bean store a sufficient amount of nutrients, allowing them to better withstand the winter than in the dense planting.

In the spring when growing winter crops in sparse sowing podshuveyt early spring crops oats and peas, also in half-normal (oats 50 kg/ha, peas 40 kg/ha).

Such seeding avoids the germination of weeds, improve the density of the grass and the quality of green fodder.

Example: on September 25, were sown winter wheat (125 kg/ha) and winter vetch (25 kg/ha). In the spring, after regrowth was carried out by sowing oats (50 kg/ha) and pea (40 kg/ha). In the flowering period of oats and peas, in phase Colo the value of winter wheat and budding peas mass was cut for fodder.

Results data are summarized in table.

Options experienceGreen mass yield, t/haProtein content, %The ratio of sugar to proteinFodder units, t/ha
Sowing of winter crops cereal-legume the full rate (250 kg/ha oz. wheat and 50 kg/ha wiki)35,812-130,8225,8
Sowing in half the normal sowing of spring crops28,410-110,7818,7
Offer42,514-150,9534,4

Thus, sowing of spring crops cereal-legume mixture increases the yield and its quality.

A method of obtaining a green fodder, including planting of binary mixtures of grasses and legumes and mowing them for fodder at the stage of full development, characterized in that autumn sown half-rate binary mixtures of grass-legume winter crops, but when atrasta the AI their spring podshuveyt half-rate binary mixtures of grasses and legumes early spring crops sowing and in the phase of full development of the mowed grass mixture feed.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of soya cultivation consists in preliminary preparation of soil: first crop stubbling, soil treatment with herbicides, fertilisation, real tillage, early spring breaking up of soil and smoothing after which preliminary watering and cultivation at a depth of 4-5 cm are carried out. Then the following to be implemented: sowing, soil compaction before and after the sowing, sprout harrowing, watering during crop season and crop desiccation. Foliage spraying to be implemented during flower-bud formation with spray material ranging 200-250 l/ha with the following microelements: molybdenum 100-200 g/ha, barium - 500-1000 g/ha, cobalt - 200-300 g/ha, zinc - 300-400 g/ha and copper - 250-350 g/ha.

EFFECT: method ensures increase in productivity and oil content of seeds.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for seeding small free running seeds in the forest nurseries as well as in other nurseries. The roller-planter has a three-section frame, whose sections are connected with feathering and transversal delta hinges. The first frame section made from cross beam and corresponding coupler ring is equipped in the middle with rigidly fixed longitudinal beam, diagonal elements and additional feathering hinges forming triangular space frame. The additional hinge is located atop of the triangular frame on the same longitudinal axis as the main feathering hinge. The second section of the frame is equipped with the following operating elements of the roller-planter: a land lever, a furrow-forming seeder, a seed tanker with distributor and covering knives. The third section of the frame is equipped with a water-filled roller.

EFFECT: improved reliability of the planter design when being transported as well as improved reliability when following contour of cultivated area surface.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: coulter part of a drilling machine comprises a gauge roller-clod remover, a coulter with a pole, a seed embedder set near the coulter. The gauge roller is a wheel with its two vertical discs being connected through the uniformly circumferentially set ribs. The ribs are made of square bars. A ball is set inside the free space of the wheel and a rotary cutter is mounted in the middle at the outer circle of the wheel. The coulter is made as a plate hoe with a tubular pole. The lower end of the pole is placed in the free space of the plate hoe and is bent in the direction opposite to the gauge roller. Openings are provided circumferentially in the wheel vertical discs. The gauge roller can move up-and-down.

EFFECT: invention allows for the intensified process of crushing and removing the soil clots from the rows, stabilisation of the seeding pitch, improvement of the seeds contact with the soil, creation of favourable conditions for the seed germination and coming of the germ out to the daylight, removal of suppressing weeds from the cultivated crops.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: coulter part of a drilling machine comprises a gauge roller-clod remover, a coulter with a pole, a seed embedder set near the coulter. The gauge roller is a wheel with its two vertical discs being connected through the uniformly circumferentially set ribs. The ribs are made of square bars. A ball is set inside the free space of the wheel and a rotary cutter is mounted in the middle at the outer circle of the wheel. The coulter is made as a plate hoe with a tubular pole. The lower end of the pole is placed in the free space of the plate hoe and is bent in the direction opposite to the gauge roller. Openings are provided circumferentially in the wheel vertical discs. The gauge roller can move up-and-down.

EFFECT: invention allows for the intensified process of crushing and removing the soil clots from the rows, stabilisation of the seeding pitch, improvement of the seeds contact with the soil, creation of favourable conditions for the seed germination and coming of the germ out to the daylight, removal of suppressing weeds from the cultivated crops.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: tool comprises a flat hoe with a share and a landside, a pole, a fertiliser tube, a distribution chamber with an air-and-fertiliser mix deflector set in it. The air-and-fertiliser mix deflector is of prismatoid form. The greater base of the prismatoid is mounted at the front distribution chamber wall by an axle. The deflector allows turning and fixation of the working positions of the prismatoid side faces in respect to the side walls of the distribution chamber. An opening is provided in the back distribution chamber wall to evaluate the deflector performance.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of mineral fertilisers along the flat hoe coverage is ensured.

4 dwg

Shovel coulter // 2369070

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural engineering, namely to the coulters of drilling machines. The coulter comprises a centre hoe, a plate and a seed distributor. The coulter is equipped by a holder fixed behind an ellipsoid seed-and-fertiliser tube. The upper part of the seed-and-fertiliser tube is inclined forward. There is an insertion in the lower part of the seed-and-fertiliser tube. A rod which is bent and placed beyond the coulter working zone is fixed to the insertion along the circular arc.

EFFECT: uniformity of seed distribution is ensured, tractive resistance is decreased and sticking of plant residues on the coulter is prevented.

2 dwg

Checkrow planting // 2369069

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: planting method implies control over the seed cluster placement. Laser beams are generated at the field section edges perpendicular to the device movement direction and parallel to the soil surface. The beams are the alignment reference points for distancing. The beams activate and deactivate an optical device mounted on a drilling machine. The optical device is used to measure the travel of the drilling machine and is connected to the drilling machine electronic control unit. The control unit in its turn is managing the activation of a seed feeder of the drilling machine sections by an electrical circuit. The seeds are supplied at the moments when the distance between the drilling machine and the alignment reference point is multiple of the specified seeding interval. In the course of operation the control unit memory saves the distance between the place of the last seed feeder actuation of the drilling machine sections and the alignment reference point in the drilling machine travelling direction. Then the control unit activates the seed feeder of the drilling machine sections at the said distance in the beginning of moving in the next sector.

EFFECT: invention allows for the decrease of labour content and increase the accuracy of placing the seed clusters in the field in the square corners.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic seed distributor comprises a casing with a seed chamber, a vacuum chamber, a seed disc with elongated suction holes which is set between them and a diverter for excessive seeds. The suction holes are made at the seed disc so that their greater symmetry axis is perpendicular to the working surface of the excessive seed diverter in the middle part of the working zone of the latter device.

EFFECT: distributor allows for the improvement of seed metering quality.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic vacuum seed distributor comprises a casing, seed and vacuum chambers with a seed disc being set between them on a horizontal shaft; the disc is fitted with circumferential suction holes on its face surface. A plate diverter of excessive seeds is adjoining the face surface of the seed disc. The diverter is equipped by a shank end with saw-shape ridges and a guide. The guide is fitted by a through longitudinal slot along the symmetry axis and a pin orthogonally coupled with the guide face plane. The cross-section of the saw-shape ridge forms a figure with a closed line; the section is made by the plane perpendicular to the seed disc face plane and placed orthogonally to the seed disc radius passing through the vertex of the saw-shape ridge. Points placed on the closed line are spaced from the seed disc face plane by different distances. The distance of these points and the seed disc face plane is mainly increasing along the movement direction of the suction holes.

EFFECT: invention allows for the increase of excessive seeds removal efficiency and reduction of the seed damage.

6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, namely to crops cultivation in particular to cultivating seed and planting onions as bulb onions in a drip irrigation system. The seed and planting onions cultivation method implies making ridges 80-90 cm wide and interridge hollow 60-70 cm wide, seeding in rows with row spacing of 5×20×5×(20-30)×5×20×5 cm, placing flexible watering hoses with trickle interval of 20 cm into the inter-row space 20 cm with the water consumption of each trickle not less than 0.95 l/hour. Middle wide inter-row spaces (20-30 cm) in each ridge are fitted with additional flexible irrigating pipeline with trickle interval of 0.4 m and water consumption of each trickle equal to 1.9-2.1 l/hour, the irrigation time is reduced by a half.

EFFECT: method of cultivating seed and planting onions as bulb onions in the irrigated farming by a drip irrigation system provides for the yield increase, standard products output, reducing inefficient use of irrigation water and macro- and micronutrients introduced with the latter, reducing weeds in the interridge hollows.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: cultivation method comprises soil preparation, row planting, attendance and harvesting operations. Rapeseeds shall be sown in the row middles of rye while simultaneous wide-row planting. After overwinting the inter-low tillage is implemented including rye crushing and covering.

EFFECT: method enables to increase efficiency of rape cultivation and crop capacity as well as secure stable output yield on the land under cultivation.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes forecrop harvesting, forecrop primary tillage, organic manuring and fertiliser dressing. Basic soil processing is performed, early spring casing harrowing is carried out, upper layer is cultivated from 0.06 to 0.08 m deep, soil herbicides are applied, seedbed is subject to preplanting cultivation up to 0.04-0.06 m deep. Seeding is performed at the temperature of upper soil layer ranging from +14 to 16°C. Soil is rammed before and after seeding, seeds being processed with insecticides. Row ripping, vegetative irrigation, foliage spraying, preharvesting crop desiccation is performed. To obtain predicted crop yield of group of average early ripening grain sorghum variety being 7 tons/ha, wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 300 to 350 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N140P100K50 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 7 to 12% N, 15-20% P, 3-5% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 50-58% N, 20-30% P, 20-25% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 30-43% N, 50-65% P, 70-77% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 8 tons/hectare sorghum seeds are sown with germination number ranging from 350 to 450 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. N160P120K70 is dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 17-22% N, 25-30% P, 13-15% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 45-50% N, 35-45% P, 30-35% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 28-38% N, 25-40% P, 50-57% K. To obtain predicted crop yield of 9 tons/hectare wide-row sowing of sorghum seeds is applied with germination number ranging from 400-500 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. Nutrition macro-elements N180P140K90 are dosed with irrigation water: during "seedlings-tillering" inter-stage period dose being from 27-32% N, 35-45% P, 15-23% K, during "stem elongation-paniculation" inter-stage period dose being 40-45% N, 45-50% P, 35-45% K, during "blooming-milk-wax ripeness" inter-stage period dose being 23-33% N, 5-20% P, 40-42% K. Irrigation schedule of 70-80-70% HB is maintained until "paniculation" stage being 70% HB in the layer 0-0.4 m, during the rest period of vegetation up to beginning of grain formation HB is kept 80-70% in the layer 0-0,7 m.

EFFECT: method ensures to obtain harvest of grain sorghum seeds with substantially decreased fertiliser quantity.

3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves boardless strip soil loosening. Flat loosening of even strips is done at a depth of 0.28-0.3 m, and odd strips - at a depth of 0.1-0.12 m. On moderately weed infested and moderately packed soil, strips are made with width of 0.3-0.4 m. On heavily weed infested and packed soil, even strips are made with width of 0.4 m, and odd strips with width of 0.6 m.

EFFECT: such a technique allows for reducing power input on autumn soil preparation and increases snow water intake of the soil.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed by 110+30 cm seeding pattern. Potato tubers are laid on soil surface pre-processed by disc tools. At the same time soil is raised at sites adjoining tuber zone by screw-type plough bottoms and laid over the potato tubers. Due to plow bottoms set to face each other, a bed with width equal to double width of mouldboard grip is formed in one passage.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of potato cultivation in beds in insufficient moistening conditions.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves precedent removal followed by cutting narrow slits. Slits are cut at 0.35-0.40 m pitch to 0.35-0.45 m depth and 0.016-0.020 m width. Triangle-profile groove is made in alignment line of each narrow slit to the depth of 0.50-0.75 of arable layer with 0.15-0.20 m width in top part. Stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants are removed from field surface into triangle-profile grooves. Lime at 10-30 tons per hectare rate is applied in a strip over each groove on stubby remnants surface. 40-60% solution of natural bischofite mineral of the formula MgCl26H2O at 600-1200 litres per hectare rate is applied by fine dispersion on surface. Organic fertilisers are applied in late autumn period at 40-60 tons per hectare rate. In early spring period soil cultivation is performed, mineral fertilisers are applied, and seedlings are planted to open ground. Soil cultivation involves ploughing with full layer overturn, terrain leveling, pre-planting cultivation. 30-40% phosphor and potassium fertilisers are applied on surface. Cultivation machine includes frame, bearing wheel, suspension bracket and work tools. Groups of work tools are positioned in sequence on the frame along the machine course and with disposition sideways. Each tool group has slit-cutting strut, mouldboard for triangle-profile groove disclosure, and slanted cutter for shifting stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants into the groove.

EFFECT: secured crops of high-quality cauliflower owing to technology and structure.

9 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: soils purification method from heavy metals presupposes growing of phyto - ameliorants on contaminated soils with their consecutive removal. Carthamus is used as an ameliorating plant. Seeds of carthamus are sowed into the contaminated soil in the amount of 20-22 kg/ha, adult plants are kept until end of blowing and beginning of lower leaves dying-off, thereafter phyto-ameliorant is totally removed from the soil.

EFFECT: total consumption of ions of heavy metals.

3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method presupposes reclamation leveling, introduction of chemical substance including humic acids and microorganisms, tillage and seeding. Organic -mineral fertiliser is used as a chemical substance. It contains peat with adjusted to the disrupted soils microorganisms, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and nitrogenous, mineral salts, and balance of peat hydraulitic decomposition with hydric dioxide and ammonia containing humic acids. Organic-mineral fertiliser is introduced before tillage in the amount of 10-50 t/ha.

EFFECT: increased amount of accumulated plant - available organic matter, moving forms of fertiliser elements, increased microbiological and ferment activity, growth and development of plants, enriching disrupted during coal mining soils with organic matter.

2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: seeds of spring wheat and feeding blue lupine or yellow lupine are sowed together in the ratio 2.5-3.75:1.0 million of viable sees per 1 hectare. Only phosphate-potassium fertilizers are used as fertilizers.

EFFECT: development of thick wheat and lupine agrophytocenosis for inhibiting weeds by applying phytocoenotic method without using herbicides and increasing content of protein and wet gluten in the grains of soft spring wheat.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mechanical removal of oil products from the ground surface by collecting oil over a layer of contaminated soil with further oil refining. Mechanical admixtures containing fuel oil residuals are sent for washing. After removing oil products, the depth of soil contamination is determined, thereafter contaminated soil is frozen at the temperatures below freezing point to the depths lower than the level of contamination. Frozen soil which is lower the level of contamination is withdrawn together with clean soil and taken out for washing. Washing of oil contamination is carried out by using cleaning fluid which contains 0.3-3.0% of surfactant aqueous solution at the temperature not less than 40°C. Before washing, soil is fractioned into floating mass and deposited soil. Washing of floating mass is carried out by jet machining together with separating mass from contaminated cleaning aqueous solution. After washing, soil and/or separated mechanical admixtures are returned to the place of drawing, thereafter permanent grasses are sowed while adding mineral fertilizers, within two years woody plants and grasses are dressed with mineral fertilizers.

EFFECT: acceleration of ground reclamation together with impact reduction upon environment during land restoration.

9 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes skimming of precursor, tillage by killer, introduction of fertiliser, ploughing with layer circulation, early-spring soil tillage and smoothing. Preplant water application and cultivation is implemented for depth 4-5 cm. Also it is implemented sowing, packing of soil before and after sowing, shoots harrowing, irrigation during the vegetation and dessication of crops. At late autumn on true area with laid out soil layer of top layer for depth 0-0.12 m along the lines east-west there are formed with two sloping surfaces of different flat combs with vertex with angle at vertex β=180°-(θ+α). Height of combs is installed by calculation from expression: H=(bs-b3)·tgα·tgΘ/(tgα+tgΘ), m. In early spring period it is implemented combing of cold-resistant weeds and mount of combs. At sowing of soya seeds vertex of comb and south slope are compacted up to values, defined from the expression: m. At compaction of comb vertex at north slope and simultaneous sowing of seeds into seeds bed it is implemented groove for depth of seeds sowing and it is laid flexible spray pipeline of trickle irrigation system.

EFFECT: receiving of guaranteed harvest of soya grain in irrigated cropping at cultivation in conditions of acutely continental climate.

5 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

Up!