Method of determining turbine volume flow rate of low-pressure hydraulic power plants

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measuring methods of turbine flow rate of river-run hydraulic power plants. The method is meant for determining water volume flow rate of turbines of low-pressure hydraulic units with reinforced concrete spiral chambers of trapezoidal cross-section with partial angle of contact and stators made in the form of columns. At that, the columns are combined with chords from above and from below. The method consists in measuring average flow velocity by using acoustic method and determining water volume rate as per the measured velocity value and constant flow coefficient. Acoustic beam is formed with acoustic converters. Flow coefficient is determined at power tests performed at a certain site. As per the first version of the invention, one of acoustic converters is installed on upper or lower belt of the stator, escaping stator column. At that, the second acoustic converter is installed on the spiral chamber wall in horizontal plane or at an angle thereto. As per the second version of the invention, acoustic beam reflector is installed on upper or lower belt of the stator. Both acoustic converters are installed on the spiral chamber wall. At that, one branch of acoustic beam cut off with the reflector is routed in plan at an angle of installation of stator columns. The second branch of the beam is routed in plan at an angle of 90° to the first one.

EFFECT: invention allows providing high measuring accuracy of turbine flow rate of river-run hydraulic power plants and reliability of the measuring system allowing to perform continuous operating control of flow rate.

4 cl, 11 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods of flow measurement turbine run-of-river hydropower plants for continuous operational control of its value.

Recommendations of the international standard IEC 41:1991 /1/ a method of measuring flow low-pressure turbines of hydroelectric power stations, referred to as the method of winter-Kennedy.

The method has several drawbacks:

- low reliability to ensure continuous operational monitoring of water consumption due to the need for regular monitoring of odbornikov pressure and purge pulse tubes;

- premenopausally pulse tubes in case of their failure, as they are laid in the concrete array.

Currently, due to the wide use of accurate and reliable acoustic method for determining the average value of the flow rate, the method of winter-Kennedy rarely used.

The closest in technical essence to the invention is a method of determining volumetric flow water turbine low-pressure hydraulic systems with reinforced concrete spiral chambers trapezoidal section with bulk-angle coverage and stators in the form of columns above and below the joint zones, consisting in measuring the average flow velocity using an acoustic method in the formation of the years of the acoustic beam of acoustic transducers and determining the volumetric flow of water on the measured velocity and constant coefficient of discharge, a particular case of energy tests on a specific object on the patent of the Russian Federation 2201579 /2/. This method involves the application of acoustic methods to determine the average flow velocity in the cross-section of a spiral chamber with the placement of acoustic transducers in a horizontal plane within the height of the stay vanes. One of the acoustic transducers (AP1) is installed on top of the stator column, and the second (UP) in the horizontal plane on the wall of the spiral chamber.

This method has the following disadvantages:

- placement of the acoustic transducer and the protective pipe of the cable line at the inlet end of the stator column distorts their profile.

- at the entrance to the stator have the greatest speed, and therefore in frontal leakage flow on the acoustic transducer likely damage carried by the stream objects;

- calculation of flow coefficient taken equal distribution of flow along the perimeter of the stator. In fact, through the open portion of the spiral chamber is supplied by 13-15% of consumption more than in the spiral part (Ihemelu. The turbine chamber hydroelectric power plants. M: Energy, 1970 /3/).

In addition, the coefficient of discharge method is calculated by the geometric parameters of the spiral chamber and the trace of the acoustic beam of the services is via a uniform distribution of flow, that leads to a significant overestimation of its size.

The invention aims to remedy these disadvantages. The technical result is to achieve a high accuracy flow measurement turbine run-of-river hydroelectric power and reliability of the measuring system that allows you to perform continuous operational control flow.

The problem is solved and the technical result is achieved in the first embodiment by the fact that the method of determining the volumetric flow water turbine low-pressure hydraulic systems with reinforced concrete spiral chambers trapezoidal section with bulk-angle coverage and stators in the form of columns above and below the joint zones, consisting in measuring the average flow velocity using an acoustic method for forming an acoustic beam of acoustic transducers and determining the volumetric flow of water on the measured velocity and constant coefficient of discharge, specific energy when testing on a specific object, one of the acoustic transducers (UP or AP) establish, bypassing the stator column, on the upper or lower zone of the stator, and the second on the wall of the spiral chamber in a horizontal plane or at an angle thereto.

The problem is solved, and those who practical result is achieved by the second option, however, the method of determining the volumetric flow water turbine low-pressure hydraulic systems with reinforced concrete spiral chambers trapezoidal section with bulk-angle coverage and stators in the form of columns above and below the joint zones, consisting in measuring the average flow velocity using an acoustic method for forming an acoustic beam of acoustic transducers and determining the volumetric flow of water on the measured velocity and constant coefficient of discharge, specific energy when testing on a specific object, while on the upper or lower zone of the stator set the acoustic reflector of the beam, and both acoustic transducer mounted on the wall of the spiral chamber so that one branch of the acoustic beam, cut off the reflector, traced in terms of angle of installation of the stay vanes and the second at an angle of 90° to it.

For both options a constant flow coefficient determined by the results of the energy test turbines directly on a specific object at the maximum (estimated) value of efficiency.

Figure 1 shows the placement of acoustic transducers (AP) and reflectors of acoustic beam (OA) in the spiral chamber.

Figure 2 shows the accommodation is acoustic transducers (AP) and reflectors of acoustic beam (OA) in cross sections of the spiral chamber Tauri-sectional profiles.

Figure 3 presents the distribution of mean values of radial velocities along the perimeter of the stator in the spiral chamber with an angle of coverage of φ=180°.

Figure 4 shows a scheme for determining the values of the projections of the absolute values of the flow rate on the acoustic beam.

Figure 5 - projection of the velocity of the acoustic beam in the horizontal plane.

Figure 6 - projection of the velocity of the acoustic beam at an angle to the horizontal plane when (vz)cp=0.

7 - same as figure 6, if (vz)cp>0 in the interval from AP41to AP42.

On Fig shows the placement of the acoustic transducers in the cross section of a spiral chamber Tauri section, developed down.

Figure 9 is the same as on Fig to section developed up.

Figure 10 shows the dependence of the distribution of relative values of the vertical component of velocity along the height of the cross section (curve 1 is for a symmetric profile 2 to profile, developed up, 3 - profile, developed down).

Figure 11 presents the operational characteristics of the turbine PL 20/811 - In - 1000 Nizhnekamsk hydroelectric power station.

The layout of the flowing part of the run-of-river hydropower plants does not contain areas with a circular cross section. The recipient directly articulates with the input section of reinforced concrete spiral chamber Tauri slashing the Oia bulk-angle coverage (φ=180 to 200° /3/, 1). Here the position of the 4 marked the wall of the spiral chamber, positions 5 and 6 of the upper and lower zones of the stator, respectively. On the projection O1 is AP1, O2 - UP, UP, OS1 and OS2, O3 - APOA, APOA, APTA, O4 - UP, Up and AP (AP - acoustic transducers, OA - reflectors of acoustic pulses, APOA - acoustic transducers, using reflectors of acoustic pulses, APT - acoustic transducers placed on the wall of the spiral chamber in a horizontal plane at half the height of the stator columns).

The radii "r" in figure 1 denote: r1- the radius of the outer contour of the upper and lower zones of the stator, r2is the radius of the circle drawn on the output edges of the stay vanes, r3- the distance from the center of the acoustic transducer to the wall of the spiral chamber in alignment I.

In the drawings, the height of the stator is indicated by "b0"and "bf" - height cross section of a spiral chamber at an angle of coverage of "f".

In domestic and foreign practice prevails spiral cameras on the law of squares, i.e. by the condition of the constancy of the moment circumferential velocity vu:

where r is the radius measured from the axis of rotation of the turbine prior to the settlement point in the cross section of the spiral.

Assuming uniform distribution of the flow rate is on the perimeter and the height of the stator, have:

where: vrradial component of velocity;

αarticle- the angle of stator columns.

From equation (2) have /3/:

where b0- the height of the stator;

Q is an arbitrary value of consumption.

The average peripheral speed vuequal to:

or

where:

- the length of the acoustic beam;

R1distance from the centre to the place of installation of the acoustic transducer to the stator column (patent /2/) or belt stator (according to the stated method);

R2distance from the centre to the place of installation of the acoustic transducer to the wall of the spiral chamber.

The absolute value of the velocity projected onto the acoustic beam in the horizontal plane, is equal to (4, 5):

where- the average radial component of velocity.

Such projection of the absolute value of the velocity of the acoustic beam will be, if the acoustic beam is in the horizontal plane within the height of the stay vanes from AP1 to AP, from UP to AP41or from UP to EP1when Tauri section symmetrical profile spiral chamber (Figure 2), from UP to AP41or from UP to EP1in operacnich sections of spiral chambers t-shaped cross-sections, developed up or down (Fig, 9).

When tracing the acoustic beam at an angle to the horizontal plane from UP to AP42or from UP to EP2for Tauri-sectional profiles (Figure 2), the vertical component is compensated, and (vz)cp=0 (Figure 10, curve 1).

The projection of the absolute velocity of the acoustic beam (Figure 4-7) will be equal to:

When tracing the acoustic beam, when the acoustic transducer is placed on the wall of the spiral chamber between AP41and AP42or AP1and AP2(Figure 2 and Fig-9), the projection of the absolute velocity of the acoustic beam is determined by considering the vertical component of velocity (Figure 10).

The projection of the absolute velocity in these cases (Figure 10) is equal to:

In the proposed method applied acoustic method for determining the average flow velocity projected onto the acoustic beam. The magnitude of the projection of the absolute value of the velocity of the acoustic beam is calculated by the expression:

where: t1and t2the propagation time of the ultrasonic pulse stream and against him;

Lα- the length of the active part of the acoustic beam, m;

With0the speed of ultrasound in still water, the/s;

vCRthe projection of the absolute velocity of the flow on the acoustic beam in equations (5), (6) or (7), m/S.

From equations (8) and (9) we have:

where C0=2 Lα/(t1+t2), the calculated equal 1447 m/s (11).

Equation (8), (9) and (10) differ from the equations adopted for water pipes with a circular cross section.

To determine the volumetric flow rate measured by the propagation time of an ultrasonic pulse from one transducer to the other and back, calculate the average projection of the absolute values of the flow rate on the acoustic beam vCRproduce a working installation energy test hydraulic power unit, calculate the constant coefficient of proportionality in the expression:

where: R is the measured active power of the generator in kW;

N working pressure turbine in m;

ηt- guaranteed maximum efficiency of the turbine at the design point;

ηg- guaranteed value of efficiency of the generator for the measured active power of the generator in the absence of a reactive component (cos φ=1), calculate the rate:

When tracing the acoustic beam in the horizontal plane vCRequal to the absolute value of the flow velocity, a trace at an angle to the horizontal plane is less than its value.

According to experimental research plots circumferential, radial and vertical components of velocity in the cross section of the spiral portion of the turbine chamber for different values of the expenditure of such. Change only their absolute values in accordance with changes in the flow rate. Thus, the dimensionless velocity field in the turbine chamber does not depend on the mode of operation of the turbine and are determined only by the size of the camera, its form and conditions of entry /3/. This property provides a constant factor K1in the whole range of changes in the flow rate (from idling turbines to the maximum).

In this regard, given the complex shape of the flow in the spiral chamber, the exact value of the coefficient K1in equation (13) can only be determined by experiment, in which simultaneously with the definition of vCR, determines the magnitude of the flow rate Q other methods.

One of them uses the principle of "speed square" with the use of current meters mounted on the frame, placed in the slots of the recipient.

Even with good tools, measurement, uniformity of the velocity distribution over the cross section and completing the measurement of the total cross section uncertainty is ±2%. For large low-pressure hydropower plants with two or three spans of the recipient is done is of such conditions is impossible, and the error in determining the flow rate significantly exceeds the above and reaches three percent or more.

The inventive method provides for the implementation of the test mode, the respective maximum guaranteed with an error less than ±1% of the value of efficiency of the turbine (point And figure 11).

Table 1 shows the results of determination of the coefficient K1for operating points A (N=68 MW, H=16.8 m and ηt=94,5%) and b (N=62.5 MW, H=11.5 m and ηt=93%). The last mode was tested in 2005 at unit No. 5 Nizhnekamsk hydroelectric power station. In the same table (column 4) shows the data calculated by the geometric parameters of the spiral chamber (according to the way /2/) with regard to the conditions of Nizhnekamsk hydroelectric power station (Figure 1).

Factor K2shown in the table, defined by the expression:

where: (t2-t1) is in microseconds and the flow rate Q is in m3/s

From the results shown in table 1, it follows that in the calculation of the coefficient K1only the geometrical parameters of the spiral chamber and the placement of acoustic transducers similar to the /2/ and its value is significantly overestimated. So for conditions Nizhnekamsk hydroelectric overestimation reaches 7.7%. The reason for this is the adoption of the concept of uniform distribution of flow along the perimeter of the stator.

In table 2 is shown the values of K 1and K2for various schemes of trace acoustic beam in the first embodiment of the claimed method (Figure 2, Figure 4-7). Some of them change compared with the data of table 1 is due to the fact that in order to protect the acoustic transducers from the windshield leakage flow and the possible damage they are placed not to tip the stay vanes and belt stator.

According to the second variant of the inventive method the achievement of these technical results achieved by the fact that for the measurement of liquid flow in the spiral chamber using an ultrasonic method of determining the average flow velocity on the upper or lower zones of the stator is mounted reflector acoustic beam (OS1 or OS2, figures 1 and 2), and acoustic transducers are mounted on the wall of the spiral chamber in cross-sections I and II (Figure 1). In section I, the acoustic transducer can be installed at any point vertically between AP4 and AP, which are disposed in horizontal planes corresponding to the placement of the reflectors of acoustic beam OS1 and OS2 (Figure 2).

In section II acoustic transducer, APOE is installed in the same plane, which is selected for installation of the acoustic transducer to the wall of the spiral chamber in alignment I.

Full length acoustic beam consists of two parts (Lα OA), where Lα- the length of the acoustic beam from the acoustic transducer is installed on the wall of the spiral chamber in section I, to the acoustic beam reflector mounted on the belt of the stator, and LOA- the length of the acoustic beam from a reflector of acoustic beam to the acoustic transducer is installed on the wall of the spiral chamber in section II.

The angle between the sites I and II is equal to 90°. In this case, when the trace acoustic beam Lαin section I, under the angle αarticleinstall the stay vanes acoustic beam is projected absolute value of the flow velocity and the beam LOAthe projection of the velocity is equal to zero or when some traces of the acoustic beam is practically zero.

Table 3 shows the results for the coecients K1and K2according to the second variant of the claimed method.

To determine the values of K1and K2according to the second variant of the claimed method was used, the same formulas used for calculations under the first option.

The exception is the computation of the values of t1and t2that for the second variant of the claimed method was determined by the equations in the form:

where: VPR1- the projection of the absolute values of the speed and actionsi beam L α;

VAC2the projection of the vertical component of the velocity (vz)cpacoustic

ray LOA.

When tracing of acoustic rays in a horizontal plane or an inclined plane in a spiral chamber Tauri-sectional profiles (Figure 10, curve 1) value (vz)cp=0.

When tracing the acoustic beam on an inclined plane from the zones of the stator to acoustic transducers mounted on the wall of the spiral chamber in a horizontal plane drawn through the middle of the height of the stay vanes, the value (vz)cpminor (Figure 10, curves 2 and 3) and practically does not affect the determination of the coefficients of K1and K2.

From the comparison results are shown in tables 2 and 3 shows that both options achieve the same technical result. That is equally provide highly accurate flow measurement turbine run-of-river hydroelectric power and reliability of the measuring system.

TABLE 1
OptionsOperational characteristicsSimilar /2/
Mode And (11) The mode In (11)
1234
Lαm6,02756,02756,0275
Vum/s3,024,123,02
(Vu)cpm/s1,802,461,80
(Vr)cpm/s1,191,631,19
vCRm/s2,162,952,16
t1with0,004159310,00415704-
t2c0,004171740,00417408-
t2-t1, ISS12,4316,98-
K1202,14 201,93217,80
K235,12635,082-

TABLE 2
OptionsTrace acoustic beam in the first embodiment of the claimed method
AP-AP41or AP-AP1(β=00)AP-APT or AP-APT (β=22.84 to°)AP-AP42or AP-AP2(β+γ=40,11°)
Lαm5,8416,3387,637
Vum/s2,952,952,95
(Vu)cpm/s1,761,621,35
(Vr)cpm/s1,161,070,89
(Vz)cpm/s0 0,150
vCRm/s2,111,801,24
t1with0,004030060,004374650,00527330
t2c0,004041830,004385550,00528234
t2-t1, ISS11,7710,909,04
K1206,93242,57352,11
To237,09640,0648,299

TABLE 3
OptionsTrace acoustic beam according to the second variant of the claimed method
AP41OA1-APOA1or AP42OA2-APOA2(Fig 1 and 2)APT-OA1-APTA or APT-OA2-AP is OA (Figure 1 and 2) AP42OA1-APOA2or AP41OA2-APOA1(Fig 1 and 2)
1234
Lαm5,8416,3387,637
LαOAm3,8764,2065,068
(vu)cpm/s1,761,621,35
(vr)cpm/s1,161,070,89
(vz)cpm/s00,150
VCRm/s2,111,801,24
t1c0,006709390,007281650,00877572
t2c0,006721160,00729255 0,00878476
(t2-t1), ISS11,7710,909,04
K1206,93242,57352,11
To237,09640,0648,299

1. The method of determining the volumetric flow water turbine low-pressure hydraulic systems with reinforced concrete spiral chambers trapezoidal section with bulk-angle coverage and stators in the form of columns above and below the joint zones, consisting in measuring the average flow velocity using an acoustic method for forming an acoustic beam of acoustic transducers and determining the volumetric flow of water on the measured velocity and constant coefficient of discharge, specific energy when testing on a specific object, characterized in that one of the acoustic transducers set, bypassing the stator column, on the top or bottom zone of the stator, and the second on the wall of the spiral chamber in the horizontal plane or at an angle thereto.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the constant coefficient RA is turn determined by the results of the energy test turbines directly on a specific object at the maximum (estimated) value of efficiency.

3. The method of determining the volumetric flow water turbine low-pressure hydraulic systems with reinforced concrete spiral chambers trapezoidal section with bulk-angle coverage and stators in the form of columns above and below the joint zones, consisting in measuring the average flow velocity using an acoustic method for forming an acoustic beam of acoustic transducers and determining the volumetric flow of water on the measured velocity and constant coefficient of discharge, specific energy when testing on a specific object, characterized in that the upper or lower zone of the stator set the acoustic reflector of the beam, and both acoustic transducer mounted on the wall of the spiral chamber so that one branch of the acoustic beam cut out the reflector, traced in terms of angle of installation of the stay vanes and the second at an angle of 90° to it.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the constant coefficient of discharge is determined by the results of the energy test turbines directly on a specific object at the maximum (estimated) value of efficiency.



 

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