Method for performance of underground mine tunnel of round cross section
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, in particular to mechanised performance of underground mine tunnels with round shape of cross section. Method for performance of underground mine tunnel of round cross section includes formation of oriented cavity in the Earth bowels, cutting of helical and longitudinal radial channels in edge zone of tunnel in surrounding rock mass, loading and transportation of broken muck, maintenance of stripped area by erection of support and organization of ventilation. Together with cavity formation they cut three longitudinal radial channels, evenly distributing them in plane of tunnel cross section. At the same time one of longitudinal radial channels is oriented along line of most probable largest action of external load from forces of rock pressure. Damaged rock is removed from longitudinal radial channels and loaded in transport vehicle. In longitudinal radial channels they install embedded elements, to which support elements are connected. Besides depth of longitudinal radial channel makes at least half of radius of cross section of produced tunnel.
EFFECT: higher reliability of mine tunnel maintenance in operational period.
The present invention relates to mining, in particular for mechanized underground mine workings with a round cross-sectional shape.
The known method of mechanical carrying out of excavation, including the formation of oriented cavity in the Earth by the destruction of part of the rock mass by means of mechanization, loading smitten rock in the vehicle, transport smitten rock, maintaining goaf erection ring lining and organization ventilation . The disadvantage of this method is the lack of spatial relationships lining excavation with the array of surrounding rock, resulting over time of the local concentration of rock pressure on the lining, exceeding its carrying capacity.
A prototype of the selected mechanized way of conducting the excavation, including the formation of oriented cavity in the Ground, cutting a spiral and longitudinal channels in the selection area generation in the array of surrounding rocks, loading and transportation of the smitten rock, maintaining goaf erection screw lining and organization ventilation . The spatial relationship of the lining of the driven working with an array of surrounding rocks carry out the installation of assialant lining in the screw channel output.
The disadvantages of the prototype are:
- when carrying out production in the array with the broken continuity, i.e. the dam, there is a low probability that the shape of the plot of the screw channels from cutting to install elements lining;
- a large number of longitudinal channels, cut for contour generation, increases the level of disturbance of the array of surrounding rocks;
the depth of cutting of longitudinal channels, comparable to the depth of cutting of the screw channels, it is not possible to use them for communication supports production with less disturbed by the array of surrounding rocks;
- shallow depth of spiral and longitudinal channels does not allow to redistribute the load from the forces of rock pressure on the support generation in order to increase its stability.
These shortcomings, in our opinion, reduce the effectiveness of the excavation and the reliability of its maintenance in the period of operation.
Studies of the stability of excavations conducted by the Institute of coal and coal chemistry SB RAS, found that when performing longitudinal channel depth of not less than half of the radius of the cross-section generation in selection area generation in the array of surrounding rocks is the redistribution of power rock pressure on the lining. In particular, when conducting horizontal excavation round the cross of the Oia, the most rational, from the point of view of a more uniform distribution of forces mountain of pressure on the lining of this production is evenly distributed over the three longitudinal radial channels in the cross-section generation, when one of them carry out on line is most likely the greatest action of the external load from the forces of rock pressure, i.e. vertically, and the other two symmetrically him on both sides, i.e. at an angle of about 120 degrees from the vertical axis.
The purpose of the present invention is to enhance reliability of maintaining the excavation in the operational period due to redistribution of forces of rock pressure array surrounding rocks, the current at the circuit output.
This objective is achieved in that in the method of conducting underground mining circular cross-section, including the formation of oriented cavity in the Ground, cutting a spiral and longitudinal radial channels in the selection area generation in the array of surrounding rocks, loading and transportation of the smitten rock, maintaining goaf erection lining and organization ventilation, simultaneously with the formation of a cavity cut into three longitudinal radial channel, spread them evenly in the plane of the cross-section generation and the axis of one of them focusing on whether the AI is most likely the greatest action of the external load from the forces of rock pressure, destroyed rock removed from the longitudinal channels and loaded into the vehicle in the longitudinal channels set embedded elements, which elements are jointed lining, and the depth of the longitudinal radial channel is not less than half the radius of the cross-section of the driven working.
The invention is illustrated by diagrams. Figure 1 shows the scheme of loading the enclosing elements of the excavation of circular cross section; figure 2 is the same after cutting the longitudinal channels; Fig 3 is a diagram of the installation of embedded items in the longitudinal channels.
The method can be implemented as follows. When performing, for example, horizontal or inclined underground mining 1 tunneling shield unit the most likely direction of load action from the forces of rock pressure on the enclosing elements generate a circular cross-section is vertical, i.e. from top to bottom at the centre of development. To redistribute the load from the forces of rock pressure additional Executive bodies panel Assembly cut vertical longitudinal radial channel 2, the axis of which is oriented from the centre to develop up, and two of the same channel 3 and 4, the axes of which are oriented from the center of working out down in different directions from the vertical axis of the cross section of coal under the m approximately 120 degrees to the axis of the vertical channel 2, i.e. an axis radial of the longitudinal channels are distributed evenly over the cross-sectional area of production. The depth of cutting of channels shall not be less than half the radius of the driven working. In the cut longitudinal channels 2, 3 and 4, after Stripping them from smitten them breed, at equal distance along the length of the working stack embedded elements 5. During the construction of the lining 6 of its elements by mechanical links 7 associated with packing elements 5.
Due to the longitudinal radially oriented channels cut in the array of surrounding rocks in the selection area generation, the load from the forces of rock pressure on the enclosing elements of the production will be distributed differently. The top load will be redistributed on both sides of manufacture. Due to this, his greatest value will be less in absolute value. Lateral longitudinal channels due to the placement of embedded items lining will provide supports additional supports on the sides of the generation that will contribute to the sustainability of production. Longitudinal channels over time will be destroyed, and the elements of the mortgage - trapped in them rocks. Due to this, will be strengthened communication lining excavation with the array of surrounding rocks, which will also contribute to a more uniform distribution of load on the furnace the lining, i.e. increasing the reliability of maintaining production in the operational period. And this is the purpose of the invention.
Sources of information
1. Conduct and maintain excavations in unstable rocks / Vaitape, Yevksinskii, Bwill and others - M.: Nedra, 1990, p.19 2.4) (similar).
2. Tunneling shield Assembly / A.S. USSR №1647144, publ. 07.05.91, bull. No. 17 (prototype).
The way of mines circular cross-section, including the formation of oriented cavity in the Ground, cutting a spiral and longitudinal radial channels in the selection area generation in the array of surrounding rocks, loading and transportation of the smitten rock, maintaining goaf erection lining and organization ventilation, characterized in that simultaneously with the formation of a cavity cut into three longitudinal radial channel, spread them evenly in the plane of the cross-section generation, with one of them on line is most likely the greatest action of the external load from the forces of rock pressure, destroyed the rock removed from the longitudinal radial canals and ship in the vehicle in a longitudinal radial channels set embedded elements, which elements are jointed lining, and the depth of the longitudinal radial channel of the composition is employed at least half the radius of the cross-section of the driven working.
SUBSTANCE: method of boring hard rock by means of tunnel boring machine equipped with disks of hardened steel projecting from cutting head consists in supply of foamed water liquid to cutting head; this composition corresponds to surface active substance -SAS and lubricating material - polyethylene oxide with molecular wt from 4.500.000 to 8.000.000. The said ingredients are measured separately in a water form, are added into water and are transformed into a foam using anionic or nonionic SAS; the said composition is obtained by dilution of concentrate with water on site.
EFFECT: reduced wear of cutting components; increased boring efficiency.
FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating conditions favorable for chemical reaction between chemical element oxides basically constituting rock and graphite for rock fusion. For this rock is heated up to high temperature at face by thermal electric arc energy transmission through metal front tunneling machine wall. Electric arc is generated between electrodes inside discharge chambers arranged on inner surface of front tunneling machine wall. Electric current is supplied to electrodes via graphite mass moving through electrically-insulated pipes. Graphite is forced via electrodes and introduced into face through nozzles connected to front tunneling machine wall.
EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.
FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.
EFFECT: prevention of ground and object deformation in tunnel boring machine movement area, increased backfill layer elasticity and tunnel lining impermeability.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inspection technology, to field of investigation of geomechanical process by means of physical simulation on equivalent materials. Method for investigation of bolting work on models made of equivalent materials is implemented by means of device as follows: model 5 is in layers rolled on stand, in body of model it is implemented opening 8, replicating mine working, and there are installed two supports 1,2 and flexible element 3,4 of the device for modeling of bolting operation. One of supports 2 of the device for modeling of bolting operation is rolled at level of model 5, corresponding the level of location of low anchor lock, the second support 1 is rolled at level of model, corresponding the level of location of top anchor lock. Reference elements are implemented in the form of rods 1,2, ends of which are in couples are disengaged from body of model 5, and each resilient member 3,4 connects existing ends of rods couples 1,2. Device is outfitted by rigid 6 and nonrigid 7 sleeves, installed on rods 1,2 in turn and opposite.
EFFECT: invention significantly extend functional capabilities of modeling method on equivalent materials and provides decision of task, which were unrealisable before.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: procedure for development consists in excavating layers with primary stopes mined in ore massif and with undercutting stopes driven in direct vicinity from filling mass and in supporting stopes with framed support. When driving the primary stope, there are assembled frames of the support consisting of a roof beam and two props. At driving undercutting stopes there are assembled frames of the support, each consisting of the roof beam and one prop located from the side of ore massif; the second end of the roof beam of the support of the undercutting stopes rests on filling mass. Before filling the undercutting stope driven from one of sides of filling mass formed in the primary stope, nearest to it props of the support of the primary stope are removed. Before filling the undercutting stope driven from another side of filling massif formed in the primary stope the roof beams and the second props of the support of the primary stope are removed. When there are used the roof beams of rectangular shape, width of the undercutting stopes is accepted below width of the primary stopes at a value equal to length of the section of the roof beam of the support of the undercutting stope resting on filling mass. While supporting stopes of rectangular or trapezoid shape with the framed support, there are used metal props consisting of two elements connected with a wedge-shaped lock.
EFFECT: preventing dangerous failures of host rock and reducing costs for stopes support.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of panels, supports and water intake chute. The panels have U-shaped flanged cross sections. The flanges and ribs of panels are different with regard to the required width and height along the corresponding sides of U-shaped cross section. The upper support to the bearing lining fastener assembly and lower panels to support fastener assembly are spatially distanced and implemented so that canopy panels and effective canopy hanger can be remotely adjusted to the bearing tunnel lining regardless canopy panels width and lining elements width dimensions. The upper fastener assembly is provided with supporting element for assembling pin, for example, pivot block, with one end being fixed to the bearing lining by means of fastening element, for example, bolt and/or threaded pin and/or anchor. The other end is coupled with the assembling pin, by means of, for example, a pair of nuts with spherical surface and beveled washers. The lower panel to support fastener assembly is made from the supporting element and clamping element for panels and installed on the assembling pin. The panels are installed and fastened to ensure the required architectural geometry of arch and overflow conditions in the lower panel fastener assembly for water penetrating through the lining. The position of the lower fastener assembly is adjusted by the upper fastener assembly. The invention provides for different structural implementation of the upper fastener assembly and specific features of U-shaped panel profiles and lower fastener assembly for the includes tunnel and horizontal tunnel.
EFFECT: possibility of spatial assembling pin position adjustment and installation of canopy panels in designed position regardless arch configuration inaccuracies in underground structure; more effective, reliable and simplified hanger for canopy to be attached to bearing lining notwithstanding canopy panel width and lining width ensuring conditions of penetrating through lining water.
15 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to supporting mine tunnels and can be used in mining industry and tunnel construction. The method of supporting mine tunnels involves drilling holes, putting a net near the walls, fitting an arch support and putting sprayed plaster base-spread concrete. At the bottom of the goaf, between the line holes, holes are drilled with length, multiple of the deviation of the goaf in one cycle. The indicated holes are drilled within the limits of the specified outline of the goaf. Bars are put into the holes. The bars are joined to similar bars of the preceding installation. Between the bars and the walls of the goaf, a net is put. The latter, together with anchor bars, is pressed to the walls of the goaf by the arch support. The sprayed plaster base-spread concrete is then put. The invention provides for safe work in the bottom hole when constructing underground mines and structures in fractured ground and in conditions of high pressure, where it is necessary to install the support tightly against the bottom hole.
EFFECT: provision for safe work in the bottom hole when constructing underground mines and structures in fractured ground and in conditions of high pressure, where it is necessary to install the support tightly against the bottom hole.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mineral resource industry and coal mining, particularly to locking devices for sliding at maximum loads connections of arc elements of yielding metal frame supports fabricated out of mining special structural stock and implemented for support of mining (underground) workings of ore, coal and slate mines. The lock consists of strap 1 with apertures 2 and "П"-shaped fastening bracket 3 with threaded ends 4 let through apertures 2 of strap 1, of interior 5 and exterior 6 special profiles located between ends, of nut 7 and also of stiffeners-stabilisers. The stiffeners-stabilisers are made in form of semi-spheres 8,9 with element-filler 19; the said semi-spheres contact with each other around the circumference of a big circle; apertures 10 are made in end planes 11 of poles of semi-spheres 8,9; threaded ends 4 of "П"-shaped bracket 3 are let through apertures 10. The exterior surface of sphere 12,13 formed at conjugation of both semi-spheres 8,9 contacts inclined side wall 14 of the special profile, also simultaneously end plane 17 of the pole of one semi-spheres 9 rests on strap 1 of the lock, while diametrically opposite end plane 15 of the pole of upper semi-sphere 8 is inserted into a thrust with flange 16 of mining special profile.
EFFECT: upgraded reliability of support and safety of mine operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction and repair of tunnels. Method of concreting on pneumatic false work is characterised by the fact that air casing is installed into additional perforated elastic casing. Device for preparation and supply of concrete mixture is connected by means of pipeline to internal cavity shaped by external side of air casing and internal side of additional perforated elastic casing. Reinforcing structure is assembled and fixed on internal surface of base, then air casing is filled by one quarter of its volume, after that concrete mixture is supplied under pressure to cavity between air casing and additional perforated elastic casing via pipeline and is evenly distributed along surface of air casing by means of its supercharge and pressing of concrete mixture to additional perforated elastic casing, thus extruding concrete mixture through perforation of additional perforated elastic casing by further supercharging of air casing. Device is equipped with working platform with the possibility of longitudinal displacement, where pneumatic pump is fixed, as well as device for preparation and supply of concrete mixture. Air casing with perforated casing are located outside the limits of working platform. Pipeline of device for preparation and supply of concrete mixture is connected to internal cavity shaped by external side of air casing and internal side of perforated elastic casing.
EFFECT: higher reliability, acceleration of flowing and provision of technological process continuity, higher strength characteristics of false work structure.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and is designed for elimination of hazardous situation at instantaneous inrush of water. Massif of rock is bored around with bore holes and outpost blast holes in vicinity of a groove head. Clay material is stacked inside the contour. Explosive substances are inserted in bore and blast holes; and explosion is initiated.
EFFECT: reduced time and material costs for preparation of non-combustible material to simultaneous discharge.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to strengthening of the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel and may be employed for strengthening of bases of buildings and constructions. Method includes feeding of mortar with filling agents. A shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel above the detected emptiness for feeding of filling material and a second shaft for feeding of consolidating mortar. Feeding device is installed and filling material is supplied through it in the form of balls of waterproof material, density whereof equals or is greater than water density. Balls are compressed by means of a vibrations generator; entrained water is pressed out from the emptiness by balls either through holes in the rock or through the consolidating mortar feeding shaft. Having filled the emptiness with balls, feeding device is taken away and the shaft is sealed, consolidating mortar is supplied into the second shaft and having filled all the emptiness the shaft is sealed. Should there be no water in the emptiness one shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel; where through emptiness are filled with balls compressed by a vibration generator, after that feeding device is taken away and consolidating mortar is supplied through the shaft. Emptiness been filled the shaft is sealed.
EFFECT: cost reduction of elimination of emptiness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises leaving of massifs of minerals 14 between chambers 7-13, driven at extraction of potassium salt bed 1, and filling chambers with backfill material. Bores 6 are drilled from ground surface 5 to chambers; the bores are cased with tubes. Not soluble in water backfill material is supplied into chambers via bores 6 till chambers are filled for their complete height at a point of backfill material supply. The first to be filled are chambers 7 located at proximity to the underground water inrush zone 4 from the side of the bed rise 1 of potassium salt; thereafter filling of chambers 8-10 located below underground water inrush 4 is carried out. Not solved in water, hardening, backfill materials are supplied into chambers 7-13 via bores 6. If filed chambers driven along the course of bed chambers have considerable length, the distance between bores is determined from a calculated expression.
EFFECT: invention facilitates prevention of flooding of potassium mine and hazardous deformation of the earth surface at breaks of water protective strata and underground water inrushes into mine through water permeable cracks generated in water protective strata in areas of geological disturbances.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention falls within the realms of mining industry and can be used for protection of development drifts. The method involves the use of belt roadway of one pillar as ventilation for an adjacent pillar. In the belt roadway after passing a mining face pneumocylinders are placed. In addition, at the same time of belt roadway operations, a bench is made along its entire length at a step of entry way and the pneumocylinders are placed into it. When an extraction pillar is mined in the opposite direction, a pneumocylinder nearest to the powered roof support of the mining face is discharges and taken out to the belt roadway. H-frame structures are put on the bed soil behind the support of the mining face and the pneumocylinders are placed inside them. After shifting the structures due to rock pressure and contact of the walls of the H-frame structures with the bed soil, the pneumocylinders are discharged and taken out to the belt roadway. After making a bench, mine props with beams are installed inside it. The beams are located along the belt entry and the pneumocylinders are placed in the gaps between the props under the beams with their longer side perpendicular to the entry. Compressed air is supplied which presses the support bars to the bed roof. Besides, the support bars are placed with a shift in relation to a pair of central support bars and in relation to one another at the width of one pneumocylinder. When mining an extraction pillar in the opposite direction, a pneumocylinder nearest to the powered roof support of the mining face and the nearest mine props are discharged and taken out to the belt roadway, and the upper canopies of the powered roof support section support the nearest ends of the support bars.
EFFECT: more effective protection of development drifts and reduction in their maintenance costs for their reuse.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has external longitudinal roods, internal rods shortened relatively to external rods and transverse rods. Consoles of outer longitudinal rods are fixed relatively to support profile by folds. Transverse rods are rigidly connected in places of their contact to outer and inner longitudinal rods. Consoles of outer rods are folded back at angle, repeating angle of slant of side wall of support profile and fixing position of tie-bar on it. All inner rods are made with length, necessary for pressing tie-bar between support profile and enveloping rocks at portion of placement of inner and outer longitudinal rods to place of contact of said consoles at part of their length with end of support profile.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower costs.