Device and method of making building bearing piles from one or successive layers formed in ground rock

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry and namely to construction of bearing piles in ground rock. Device for making multi-layer sealed pile in ground rock includes, in the combination, elongated hollow tube having longitudinal axis, upper inlet end for material, open lower discharge end for material and diametre of the first external surface and common formed lower head element at open discharge end, which has diametre of the second external surface, which is more than diametre of the first external surface and made with the possibility of transmitting combination from axial and transverse stress components when hollow tube is lowered. Head element consists of common attachment to hollow tube; at that, head element includes lower driving end which in general has configuration of flattened cone between head element of external surface and lower discharge hole made in the lower driving end, and back end having in general the configuration of flattened cone, and cap of the head element covering lower discharge hole. Lower head element with the cap and hollow tube are formed for being introduced into ground rock and for displacing the earth when hollow tube with lower head element and the above cap is lowered into ground rock so that a cavity is formed in ground rock. The cap is at least partially removed from lower discharge hole when hollow tube is then lifted from the formed cavity in order to perform passage of material through lower discharge hole to the cavity section released with hollow tube and lower head element. The latter has the form of cross section and the sizes which are more than the shape of cross section and sizes of hollow tube in order to decrease friction forces on hollow tube when penetrating into ground rock and being removed from it.

EFFECT: improving reliability of the pile and capacity and production effectiveness of piles.

34 cl, 26 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a device and method of construction of the supporting piles, consisting of one or more of compacted layers of concrete material aggregate. The device provides the possibility of formation or construction of the piles from one or multiple layers inside dirt rocks, while strengthening the soil adjacent to the pile. Thus, the device forms a cavity in the dirt breed by forcing a hollow tube into a dirt breed, followed by raising the pipe, the introduction of the filler through the pipe section of the cavity below the raised pipe and then dive down tube to seal the filler material, at the same time Prodanova material filler sideways in the dirt breed.

In U.S. patent No. 5249892, shown here as a reference, discloses a method and apparatus for the construction of short piles of aggregate on site. The method includes drilling a cavity in a soil rock and then the introduction and compaction of successive layers or layers of filler material into the cavity for the formation of piles, which can provide support for construction. Such piles are performed first by drilling pit or cavity in the dirt breed, then remove the drill, then the premises of the relatively small individual layer of filler into the cavity and then compacting the sludge the seal layer of the filler in the cavity by mechanical tamping. Mechanical compaction is usually removed after compaction of each layer, and then place the additional filler in the cavity for the formation of the next compacted layer or layer. Layers or layers of filler, which condense during the formation of piles, typically have a diameter of 2-3 feet and a vertical height of approximately 12 inches.

This device and method create a rigid and stable column or pile, suitable for maintaining the structure. However, this method of construction of the piles has a limit on the depth at which it is advisable to perform a method of forming piles, and speed, which can carry out this process. Another limitation is that in some types of soil, especially in sandy soils during drilling or formation of cavities occur collapse and may require the use of temporary casing pipe, such as steel casing pipe. The use of temporary steel casing pipe slows down the construction of piles and therefore increases the cost of education piles. Normally, therefore, the method described in patent No. 5249892 is limited by the formation of piles in limited types of soil at depths not exceeding approximately 25 feet.

The result is the need for the method of construction of the piles and wired the y with a mechanical device, which can efficiently and economically be used to form or structure of pile at great depths, high velocity, installation, and sand or other soils that are unstable during drilling, without temporary casing pipe, as well as having the characteristics and advantages associated with the method, the device and the structure of short piles of aggregate, disclosed in patent No. 5249892, and also have additional benefits.

Thus, the present invention relates to a method of installation of piles formed from one or more layers or formed by layers of filler material, with or without additives, which includes the steps of placing or pushing or forcing the elongated hollow tube having a bottom head element and a unique configuration of the pipe, dirt rock, filling a hollow tube that includes a bottom head element, the material of the filler, release a predetermined volume of filler material from the bottom of the head element when the hollow pipe lift on the set of increasing distance in the cavity formed in the dirt breed, and then transfer axial static vector of efforts and additional dynamic vector of effort on the hollow tube and its special bottom head element is to transmit energy through the lower end of a hollow tube in the upper part of the layer of the released material filler, thus compacting the layer of filler material, and Prodanova the filler material in the lateral or transverse direction in the side walls of the cavity. The rise of a hollow tube, having a special bottom head element followed by pushing down with the applied axial or vertical static force vector and additional dynamic vector effort affects the material of the filler, which is not protected by the hollow tube from the side walls of the cavity during compression, thus sagusa and sealing material filler, and Prodanova material out into a dirt breed, due to the side of the effort applied to the material of the fill dirt rock. Thus, the compacted filler material forms a layer which has a lateral dimension or diameter greater than the diameter of the cavity formed by the hollow tube and the head element, leading to the construction of the piles formed from one or more layers.

The filler material released from the special bottom head element is a hollow tube, when the special bottom head element is raised, preferably given priestawami steps, first over the base of the cavity, and then on the top section of each of the successive layers of the piles, which are formed in the cavity and adjacent soil is the breed through this process. The filler material produced from a hollow tube, seal sealing the effort delivered by the hollow tube and special bottom head element after the hollow pipe is raised to open the site cavity, releasing the filler material in this open area. Hollow tube then push down to seal the filler and push it sideways in the dirt breed. The material of the filler, thereby condense the set of consecutive increments or layers. The process is continuously repeated along the length or depth of the cavity, so that in the end inside dirt rocks formed pile or column of filler separately from compacted layers or strata. Pile, having a length of forty (40) feet or more, you can do so in a relatively short period of time without removing the hollow tube from the soil. The resulting pile also generally has a cross-sectional dimension greater than the cross-sectional dimension of the hollow tube.

You can use many types of filler materials in the application of this process, including the rubble of many types of pits, or recycled crushed concrete. Additives may include water, dry cement or cement slurry type liquid cement-sand mortar with the addition of fly ash, hydrated Izvestiya quicklime, or you can use any other additive that can improve the capacity or technical characteristics of the formed piles. In this process, you can also use combinations of these materials.

Hollow tube with a special bottom head element can be positioned inside the dirt and rocks with the help of push and/or vertical vibration or vertical compacting hollow tube having a leading end, a special bottom head element in the soil with the application of axial or vertical static force vector and, possibly with the support of a dynamic vector of effort. The soil, which displace through the initial pressing, pushing and/or vibration of a hollow tube with a special bottom head element, in General, move and condense in the lateral direction in the previously existing dirt rock and compacted down. If there is a solid or a thick layer of soil over solid or dense layer can be penetrated by drilling or drilling of such layer to form a cavity or passage in which you can place and immerse hollow tube and special bottom head element.

Hollow tube usually made of a pipe of uniform diameter with bulbourethral bottom head element, and it may include a mechanism inside nego valve near or inside the bottom of the head element or the valve mechanism at the lower end of the head element. A hollow tube is generally cylindrical with a constant, uniform, smaller diameter on the upper section of the pipe. The lower end bulbourethral or more external diameter of the hollow pipe (i.e. the bottom of the parent element) made in one piece with a hollow tube or may be separately formed and attached to the lower end of a hollow tube of smaller diameter. Thus, the bottom head element is in General cylindrical, usually has a larger outer diameter or outer cross-sectional profile than the rest of the hollow tube, and is concentric relative to the Central axis of the hollow tube. The leading end of the bottom head element has a certain shape to facilitate penetration into the ground breed and transmit the required vector of the efforts of the surrounding soil, and the material of the filler produced from a hollow tube. The transition from a section of a hollow pipe of smaller external diameter of the bottom head element may have the shape of a truncated cone. Similarly, for the lower part of the head element, you can use the shape of a truncated cone or conical shape to facilitate penetration and soil compaction. The leading end of the bottom head element may include an element protective cap, which penetrates through dirt breed after the initial placement of the floor the second pipe in the dirt breed, preventing the penetration of the ground in the hollow tube. The protective cap then release from the end of the hollow tube, to open the passage to the end, when the hollow tube is first raised so that the filler material can flow into the cavity that occurs as a result of raising the hollow tube.

Alternatively, or in addition, the bottom head element of the leading end may include an exhaust passage with a mechanical valve, which is closed during the initial penetration of dirt breed hollow tube and the bottom of the head element, but which can be opened during lifting to release the filler material. You can use other types and forms of valve mechanisms leading end to facilitate initial penetration into the dirt breed and allow release of the material of the filler, when you raise a hollow tube, and transfer vector efforts in combination with the element of the leading end or the bottom head element in order to seal the layers.

In addition, the device may include means for placing the lifting anchor element formed inside piles, as well as the control mechanism for measuring the movement of the lower part of the formed piles under load, such as during load tests. Such auxiliary parts and the tools and injected through the hollow tube during formation of the pile.

The present invention is the creation of a hollow tube with the bottom head element of special construction, suitable for making compacted piles of aggregate, with or without additives, which continues to a great depth, and the creation of an improved method of forming piles, which continues to a greater depth than usual, adapted or performed by known techniques short pile of placeholder.

Another objective of the invention to provide an improved method and device for the formation of piles of compacted filler material, which does not require the use of temporary steel casing pipe during the formation of piles, particularly in soils that are susceptible to collapse, sandy soil.

Another objective of the invention to provide an improved method and device for the formation of piles of compacted filler material, which may include many possible additives comprising a mixture of stone, water additives, additives dry cement, additives cementitious slurry, additives, water, sand, cement, additives fly ash, additive hydrated lime or quicklime and add other types of additives to improve the technical properties of the soil parent rocks, filler materials and education is Anna piles.

Another additional object of the invention consists in the construction of piles of filler material, which is adapted for installation in many types of soil and which additionally adjusted for education to derive greater depths and with hope and speeds construction than known prior constructions piles of placeholder.

Another object of the invention is to create a device for the formation of piles, suitable for fast and efficient construction of compacted layered piles and/or piles, consisting of only one layer.

These and other objectives, advantages and features of the invention will be formulated in the detailed description that is given below.

In the detailed description below will be made with reference to the drawings comprised of the following figures:

figure 1 represents a schematic view of a hollow tube with the bottom head element, push, break-out or buried in the ground vertical static force vector and the possible dynamic effort;

figure 2 represents a schematic view of a subsequent stage from figure 1, where the filler material is placed in a hopper and fed into a hollow tube;

figure 3 is a view in section of a feed hopper, which has a double insulation absorbers and which can be used in combination with p the Loy pipe;

figa is an isometric view in section of a feed hopper and a hollow tube 3;

figv is an isometric view of a feed hopper and a hollow tube 3;

figure 4 represents a schematic view in section of a hollow tube having an inner narrowing or closing the valve;

figure 5 represents a schematic view depicting a stage additional introduction of water, cement slurry or other material into a hollow tube with recirculation, secured to the tank with liquid cement or water;

6 represents a schematic view depicting a stage following the stage 2 on which a hollow tube with its bottom head element raise the blind, to temporarily open hollow cavity in the dirt breed to allow rapid filling of the filler opening of the hollow cavity;

7 represents a schematic view of the process following the step 6, on which the bottom valve in the lower part of a hollow tube open, releasing a placeholder in unprotected or hollow section cavity;

figa and 8B are schematic views in section of an alternative device and stage presented or illustrated in Fig.7, where the bottom head element is a hollow tube includes protective cap, catharijneconvent in the lower part of the cavity formed on FIGU;

figs is a view in section of the protective cap Fig, taken along the line 8C-8C in figv;

figure 9 represents a schematic view in which a hollow tube and its associated special bottom head element provided with a vertical static force vector with possible dynamic effort to move the hollow tube and the bottom of the head element down by a specified distance, influencing and compacting the material of the filler, is released from the hollow tube, and pushing the filler material in the lateral direction in the dirt breed;

figure 10 presents a schematic view of a hollow tube and its special bottom head element is raised at a specified distance for the formation of the second layer;

11 represents a schematic view of a hollow tube and the bottom of the head element acting to provide a vertical vector force is required to move the hollow pipe and the bottom of the head element down by a specified distance for the formation of the second compacted layer at the top of the first compacted layer;

Fig represents a schematic view of a hollow tube with a possible element of steel rebar or a control element attached to the plate for mounting inside piles;

Fig represents a schematic view of a hollow tube where water or liquid solution of water-sand-Samantabhadra hollow tube with a filler;

Fig is a view in vertical section of the special bottom head element with a bottom valve type surge doors;

Fig is a view in section of the bottom head element Fig, taken along the line 15-15;

figa is a view in broken section of an alternative bottom head element of the type depicted in Fig;

Fig is a view in section of the special bottom head element, includes protective cap at the lower end, such figa;

Fig is a view in section of the special bottom head element with a possible lifting of the anchor element or a control device attached to the plate;

Fig is a view in section of a partially formed multilayer piles formed by a hollow tube and special bottom head element and method according to the invention;

Fig is a view in section of a fully-formed multilayer piles formed by a hollow tube and special bottom head element and method according to the invention;

Fig is a view in section of the formed multilayer piles possible with steel reinforcing rod with attached plate, which ensures that formed the pile to contain the pile with a lifting anchor device or to include to the control element for subsequent testing under load;

Fig is a view in section of the formed piles, pre-loaded or with indicator module load testing performed on the completed pile;

Fig is a graph illustrating the comparative chart load testing of the present invention, compared with the drilling concrete pile in the same soil formation rocks;

Fig represents a schematic view in terms of how to use the equipment according to the invention for the formation of single piles or pile, in which one or more layers formed sequentially, for lifting equipment, continuing on the distance from the bottom of the cavity formed by the apparatus is initially in the dirt breed;

Fig represents a schematic view in section of the continuation of the method depicted in Fig;

Fig represents a schematic view in section of further stages, depicted in Fig; and

Fig represents a schematic view in section of further way Fig-24.

Figure 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 20 and 23-25 shows the complete structure forming the pile device or mechanism and various and alternative stepwise execution of the method according to the invention, which produce resulting from the construction of the piles. With reference to figure 1, after which the duty to regulate to note, the method is applicable to the placement of piles in the dirt breed, requiring the strengthening of the soil to become thicker or more durable. For a wide variety of soils may require the use in practice of this invention, which includes, in particular, sandy and clayey soil. With this invention it is possible to build piles consisting of one or more layers, with the use of filler materials and, possibly, with the use of filler materials additive type liquid solution of water-sand-cement, which have greater rigidity and strength than many piles of filler of the prior art, which can economically extend or build to greater depths than many piles of prior art, which can be created without the use of temporary steel casing unlike many piles prior art, and which can be installed faster than many piles prior level of technology.

As the first stage hollow tube or hollow shaft 30, having a longitudinal axis 35, which includes a special bottom head element 32 or together with him, and the associated upper end hopper 34 for a placeholder push through the device 37, resulting in the static axial ve is Torno force, shown in figure 3, and possibly vertically (along the axis) vibrating or straightening, or both, with a dynamic vector of effort into a dirt rock 36. The stretch of unpaved breed 36, which contains the volume of material displaced by the push of a segment of a hollow tube 30, which includes a special bottom head element 32, push, primarily in the lateral direction, thus sealing the adjacent dirt rock 36. As shown in figure 1, the hollow tube 30 may include a cylindrical steel tube 30, having a longitudinal axis 35 and the outer diameter of, for example, in the range of 6-14 inches. When the layer of hard or dense soil prevents the pushing of the hollow tube 30 and special bottom head element 32 in the dirt breed 36, such solid or dense layer can be drilled or sabarinath, and then you can continue the process of integrating, using the device 37 of the trigger.

Typically, the hollow tube 30 has a continuous cylindrical outer shape, although you can use other forms. Although the outer diameter of the hollow tube 30 is usually 6-14 inches, in the practice of the invention can use other diameters. In addition, generally, a hollow tube 30 extend or push dirt breed of 36 to a maximum depth of piles, for example up to 40 feet or more. A hollow pipe is 30 usually attached to the extension 42 of the actuator upper end, you can capture device or mechanism 37 actuation to push and may vibrate or trampovat hollow tube 30 in a dirt rock 36. Hopper 34, which contains a reservoir 43 for filler materials, usually isolated isolation dampers 46, 48 of strip 42. Vibrating or tamping device 37, which is attached to the extension 42, can be supported from cable or arm of an excavator or crane. Weight hoppers 34, vibrating or tamping device 37 (with possible additional weight) and a hollow tube 30 may be sufficient to ensure that the static force vector without the need for a separate actuator static force. The vector of the static force can, if required, be increased by using the mechanism of the vertical vibration and/or tamping dynamic efforts.

Figure 3, 3A and 3B shows a special characteristic, preferably associated with feeding hopper 34. Double insulated dampers 46, 48 attached to the upper and lower sides of the feed hopper 34 to reduce the amplification of the vibration of the hoppers 34 and securing the Assembly hoppers greater structural integrity. The extension 42 is attached to the pipe 30 to the transfer pipe 30 static and dynamic is a mini effort. The extension 42 is isolated from the hoppers 34 and, thus, he is able to slide relative to the dampers 46, 48.

4 shows an additional feature of the hollow tube 30. Inside the hollow pipe 30 or the special bottom head element, or in the lower end section 32 of the hollow tube 30 can be installed butterfly valve, pressure valve, gate valve or other type of mechanism 48 of the valve to partially or fully close the internal passage of the hollow tube 30 and to stop or control the flow or movement of materials 44 of the filler and any additional materials. This valve 48 can be mechanically or hydraulically to open, partially open or close to control the movement of materials 44 of the filler through the hollow tube 30. You can also operate using gravity way shut-off valve that opens when raised, and is closed when placed on the material 44 placeholder.

On Fig shows the construction of the special bottom head element or section 32. Special bottom head element 32 is cylindrical, although you can use other forms. Typically, the outer diameter of the special bottom head element 32 is greater than the nominal outer diameter of the upper section 33 of the hollow tube 30, and is 10-18 inches, although you can use the th other diameters and/or cross-section profiles in the application of the invention in practice. Thus, the head element 32 may have a cross-sectional sizes are the same as those of the hollow tube 30, or less, although this configuration is in General not preferred.

On Fig, 15 and 15A depicts a variant embodiment of the invention, with the valve mechanism, introduced in the head element 32. The head element 32 has a bottom section in the form of a truncated cone or bottom section 50 with the discharge hole 52 for material 44 of the filler, which is opened and closed when the plate 54 of the valve opens or closes the hole 52. The plate 54 of the valve mounted on the rod 56, which slides in the sleeve 59 that is supported in a predetermined position of the radial struts 58, attached to the inner walls of the passage of the head element 32 of the hollow tube 30. Plate 54 slides to the closed position when the hollow tube 30 push down in the dirt breed 36, and slides to the open position when the hollow tube 30 is raised, thus allowing the flow of materials 44 placeholder. The valve hole 54 control or limit the rod 56, which has a cylinder 56a, limiting the sliding movement of the rod 56. Hollow tube 30 can thus be immersed to the desired depth 81 (6) with a hole 52 is closed by a plate 54. Then, when the hollow tube 30 is raised (for example, the distance is s 91 figure 10), the plate 54 is held down due to gravity, so that the material 44 placeholder will leak through the hole 52 in the cavity formed by raising the hollow tube 30. After that, the pipe 30 act or dipped down, closing plate 54 of the valve and sealing released material to form a compacted layer 72. In the embodiment, by Fig, 15, 15A plate 54 of the valve moves in response to gravity. However, the rod 56 can alternatively be returned to the place or to assist in the movement of hydraulic, mechanical or electrical mechanism. Alternatively, as described below, the plate 54 can be replaced by a protective cap 64 or bottom plate lifting anchor device or control mechanism 70, as described below. In addition, instead of the valve mechanism shown in Fig, 15, 15A, it is possible to use the shut-off valve 38 in figure 4.

Typically, the inner diameter of the hollow tube 30 and the head element 32, equal or equal, although the outer diameter of the head element 32 is generally larger than the external diameter of the hollow tube 30. Alternatively, when using the mechanism 54 of the valve, the inner diameter of the head element 32 may be greater than the internal diameter of the hollow tube 30. The head element 32 can be performed in one piece with the hollow tube 30 and the and form separately and bolted or welded to the hollow tube 30. Usually, the internal diameter of the hollow tube 30 is between 6-10 inches, and outer diameter of the head element 32 is approximately 10-18 inches. The hole 53 on Fig on the extreme lower end or the leading end of the head element 32 may be equal to or less than the internal diameter of the head element 32. For example, with reference to Fig, note that the head element 32 may have an internal diameter of 12 inches, and the hole 53 may have a diameter of 6-10 inches, while on Fig with the embodiment of the protective cap, which is described later, the discharge hole of the head element 32 has the same diameter as the internal diameter of the head element 32 and a hollow tube 30.

The plate or valve 54 can also be performed in such a way as to facilitate the closing, when the hollow tube 30 is pushed down in the dirt breed 36, or relating to material 44 placeholder in the formed cavity. For example, the diameter of the element 54 may exceed the diameter of the hole 53, as shown in Fig, or edge 55 of the valve element may be beveled, as shown in figa, to engage the beveled edge 59 of the hole 53. Then, when applying static or other downward force to the hollow tube 30, the plate 54 of the valve will be maintained in the closed position in the opening 53.

Bulbourethral bottom head element 32 of a hollow t the UBA 30 typically has a length in the range of one to three dimensions diameter or maximum lateral size. The head element 32 provides increased lateral force seals on a dirt breed 36, when the pipe 30 enters or pressed into the soil, and thus causes more light subsequent passage section 33 of smaller diameter of the hollow tube 30. The leading and trailing edges 50, 63 of the head element 32 in the form of a truncated cone or inclined facilitate reducing or immersing penetration and lateral compaction 36 because of their design profile. The rear inclined edge 63 on Fig facilitates lifting of the hollow tube 30 and the head element 32 and the side seal dirt breed 36 during the lifting stage in this way. Again, shape or inclined configuration of the head element 32 provides the possibility of achieving this. Usually the leading and trailing edges 50, 63 form an angle of 45°, 15° with the longitudinal axis 35 of the hollow tube 30.

Figure 5 presents another sign of the hollow tube 30. Inlet port 60 and outlet 62 is located on the lower area of the loading hopper 34 or the upper end of the hollow tube 30 to allow the addition of water or slurry type liquid solution of water-sand-cement as an additive to the placeholder for special designs piles. The purpose of the intake channel 62 is to maintain the level of water or additives, which will be effective to facilitate the flow napolnitel is, and to ensure the possibility of recirculation of the liquid solution from the tank and back to the tank to facilitate mixing and to keep the water column or the column of liquid solution (pressure) is relatively constant. Inlet port 60 and outlet 62 can lead directly into the hopper 34 or hollow tube 30 (see Fig), or they can be connected to separate channels or pipelines with a head element 32. Note that the discharge aperture 31 for the liquid solution can be run through the hollow tube 30 above the head element 32, as shown in figure 2, to add the unloading of liquid solution in the annular space around the hollow tube 30 and to prevent the filling of the cavity with soil from the rock 36.

On Figa, 8B, 8C and 16 shows another alternative sign the bottom head element 32. Instead of a valve 54 of the base or lower end, you can use the protective cap 64, to prevent clogging of the head element 32, when the head element 32 is pushed through the ground rock 36. The cap 64 can be performed by any of a variety of ways. For example, it may be flat, pointed or beveled. It can be arcuate. When he mowed, it can form an angle of 45°, 25° relative to the horizontal axis 35. The cap 64 may include some quantities is shifted to the outside of the legs 87, located so as to enter without clearance in the Central hole 89 of the bottom head element 32 and to hold the cap 64 in place until until the hollow tube 30 at first did not raise, and the filler 44 is not forced to flow from the holes 52 in the section of the open cavity.

On Fig depicts another alternative is a sign of the special bottom head element 32. Sliding plate 54 and the rod 56 to the support plate 54 may include a passage or axial pipe 57, which provides the possibility of placing the reinforcing element or rod 68 attached to the bottom plate 70. The rod 68 and plate 70 will be released at the lower part of the formed cavity and used for lifting anchor device or a monitoring mechanism to measure the movement of the lower part of the pile during the test under load. The sliding rod 68 attached to the bottom plate 70 can replace the protective cap 64, closing the hole special head element 32 while pushing in the dirt breed 36, and to perform in the form of a platform set for lifting and anchoring devices or control mechanism. Thus, the plate 54 of the bottom valve can be eliminated or can be held in place when lifting the anchor cell battery (included) or control the LLC. On Fig depicted lifting anchor device 68, 70 or control mechanism in place after the formation of piles in accordance with the invention, in which the plate or valve 54 is omitted.

The mode of action

1 shows a conventional first stage of the action described device or mechanism. Hollow tube 30 with a special bottom head element 32 and attached to the upper extension 42 and connected Assembly 34 hoppers pushing with vertical or axial static force vector, usually supplemented dynamic vector efforts, dirt breed 36 through the device 37 to actuate or weight components. Practically, using a pipe 30 with a special bottom head element 32, having the above dimensions and configuration, it is applied vector force 5-20 tons usually throughout time. Figure 2 shows the loading of the filler 44 in the hopper 34, when the hollow tube 30 and fixtures reach the planned depth 81 piles in a soil rock 36. Figure 6 shows the subsequent move up or lifting of the hollow pipe 30 at a predetermined distance 91 lifting, usually 24-48 inches to open the site cavity 102 under the head element 32 of the lower section in the dirt breed 36.

Figure 7 shows the opening of the bottom valve is 54, to allow the filler 44 and possible additives to fill the space or section 85 of the cavity 102 below the head element 32, while the hollow tube 30 and the fixture is raised. The valve 54 may be opened when the hollow tube 30 is raised, due to the weight of the filler 44 on the upper side of the valve 54. Alternatively, the valve 54 can be actuated, for example, a hydraulic mechanism, or hollow tube 30 can be raised and then add the filler to flow through the hole 53 of the valve under the action of the valve 54. Alternatively, the inner valve 38 may be opened during lifting or after lifting. Alternatively, if there is no valve 54, the protective cap 64 will be released from the end of the head element 32 in General under the force applied by the weight of the material 44 placeholder directed through the hollow tube 30, when the special head element 32 is lifted from the lower part 81 formed cavity 102 piles.

Figure 9 depicts further pushing down the hollow tube 30 and fixtures and closing the bottom valve 54 to seal the filler 44 in section 85 of the cavity, thus Prodanova filler 44 and possible additives in the lateral direction, and vertically down into the ground rock 36. Set the travel distance d is I push down usually equal to the distance 91 lifting minus one foot, to produce the completed layer 72 with a thickness of one foot after lifting for a specified distance 91 of the hollow tube 30. The projected thickness of the layer 72 may differ from one foot depending on the specific requirements of the formed piles and technical characteristics of soil rocks 36 and filler 44. Seal material 44 placeholder issued in exempt section 85 of the cavity 7 to produce lateral movement of the material 44 of the filler in the horizontal direction, and also seals in the vertical direction, is important in the application of the invention in practice.

Figure 10 shows a subsequent or second formation layer produced by the ascent of the hollow tube 30 and fixtures to another specified distance 91A, usually 24 to 48 inches, to provide the possibility of opening the bottom valve 54 (in the case of a use case for using the valve 54 and the passage or movement of the filler 44 and possible additives in the area of the cavity 85A, which was open or uncovered when lifting pipe 30.

The rise of a hollow tube in the range of two (2)or four (4) feet, usually accompanied by a lowering (as described below) to form layer 72 piles having a vertical size of one (1) foot is normal for the materials forming the pile, as described here. Thus, the axial size of the HH 72 may be in the range of 3/4-1/5 distance 91, when the hollow tube 30 is raised. However, an implementation option, depicted in Fig-26 is an alternative Protocol seals.

Figure 11 is depicted pushing a hollow tube 30 and fixtures and closing the bottom valve 54 to seal the filler 44 in the newly opened area 85A cavity figure 10 and the bursting of the filler 44 and possible additives in the lateral direction in a dirt rock 36. Distance push is equal to the distance of the lift minus the planned thickness of the layer. When using the method with protective cap 64, the hole 50 of the base when sealing the filler 44 can be left open.

On Fig depicted pile, partially formed by the described method, in which multiple layers 72 were sequentially formed by a seal, and a hollow tube 30 is raised, when the filler 44 fills the area 85X cavity. On Fig depicted pile 76, fully formed by the described method. On Fig depicted pile 76 formed with an installed lift anchor device 68, 70 or control mechanism. On Fig presents additional pre-load formed by the pile 76, for example, by placing cargo 75 formed on the pile and additional testing module indicator performed on the formed pile 76, consisting of numerous uplot the military layers 72.

On Fig-26 presents an alternative procedure for the formation of piles using the described device. Hollow tube 30 is initially cut through or dipped into a dirt breed 36 to the desired depth of 100. The extreme rear end of the head element 32 includes a mechanism 54 of the valve protective cap 64 or similar item. Punching a hollow tube 30 vertically down into the soil forms a cavity 102 (Fig). It is assumed that the special bottom head element 32 in a common cylindrical cavity 102 is generally cylindrical and may or may not support the full configuration of the diameter associated with the shape and diameter of the special bottom head element 32.

After the desired penetration into the ground 36 bedrock (Fig) hollow tube 30 is raised to the upper part of the formed cavity (Fig). When it is raised, the material 44 of the filler and possible materials additives are discharged through the lower end of the special bottom head element 32.

Perhaps the filler materials are discharged into the annular space 104 formed between the upper section 33 of the hollow tube 30 and the inner walls of the formed cavity 102. Note that the filler materials can flow through the secondary side passages 108 or more pipelines 110 in the hollow tube 30. When hollow t the UBA 30 is raised, the cavity 102 is filled. In addition, the materials of the filler in the annular space 104 can prodavlivaetsya out in the dirt breed 36 and due to the configuration of the special bottom head element 32, when it is raised.

Thus, the hollow tube 30 is typically raise essentially the full length of the initially formed cavity 102, and then, as shown in Fig again forced down, causing the seal material in the cavity 102 and punching in the lateral direction in the dirt breed 36 (Fig). The degree of downward movement of the hollow tube 30 is dependent on various factors, including the size and shape of the cavity 102, composition and mixing of the filler materials and additives, the force transmitted to the hollow tube 30, and characteristics of soil rock 36. Typically, the downward movement continues until the lower end or base of the special bottom head element 32 will not fit on the bottom part 81 pre-formed cavity 102 or close to it.

After completion of the second downward movement of the hollow tube 30 raise typically the overall length of the cavity 102, again supporting the filler and possibly materials additives during lifting and again fill the newly created cavity 102A (Fig). The full cycle of lowering and full lift ends at least after two, and who is one, three or more times Prodanova more filler 44 and possibly materials additives in the lateral direction in the ground 36 maternal breed. Additionally, the cycle can be adjusted according to different schemes, such as the full lifting and lowering after full recovery and partial lowering or lifting and full lowering and combinations thereof.

You can use water or a liquid solution or other liquid, to facilitate the flow and presentation of the material 44 of the filler through the hollow tube 30. Water can be fed directly into the hollow tube 30 and through the hopper 34. This can be done under pressure, or the pressure can be ensured through the use of a feed hopper 34 as a tank. Thus, water, liquid or other liquid provide for effective flow of filler, in particular in the hollow tube 30 and the small diameter of the pipe 30 with a diameter of 5-10 inches. Note that usually the size of the inner passage tube 30 and/or discharge openings exceeds at least 4.0 times the maximum aggregate size for all of the described embodiments. With each layer 72, constituting approximately 12 inches in vertical height, and the inner diameter of the pipe 30 constituting approximately 6-10 inches, using water as a lubricant is particularly desirable.

It should be noted that the diameter of the cavity 102 formed in the ground 36 parent species, relatively smaller than many of the alternative technologies, forming piles. However, the usage of the cavity 102 of relatively small diameter or holes of small size in the dirt breed 36 provides the possibility of rupture or immersion pipe 30 at a substantial depth and further education piles with horizontal dimensions, respectively, greater than the external dimensions of the tube 30. The use of filler 44 with additives comprising a liquid substance, or without them, to form one or more layers by means of seals and horizontal displacement, thus the hollow tube 30 and special bottom head element 32, as described. Layers 72 compacted vertically, and the filler 44 displacement in the transverse direction with the resulting firmly cemented the design of the piles.

On Fig presents the results of the test piles according to the present invention in the form of a mapping from the drilling reinforced concrete pile. Graphs illustrate the movement of the three piles, constructed in accordance with the invention (curves A, B, C), with the drilling of reinforced concrete pile prior art (curve D), when the pile load increasing loads up to max the maximum loads and then decreasing the load to zero load. The tests were carried out using the following test conditions and the use of reinforced steel drilling reinforced concrete pile as the pile for testing.

The hole or cavity is approximately 8 inches in diameter was drilled to a depth of 20 feet and filled with concrete for the formation of drilling reinforced concrete piles (test D). In the center of the drill concrete piles was placed steel reinforcing bar to provide structural integrity. Cardboard cylindrical shape 12 inches in diameter was placed on the upper portion of the piles to facilitate subsequent testing in compression under load. Soil parent rock for all four trials consisted of fine particles to medium-grained sand medium density with a standard number of strokes penetration (SPT's) in the range of 3-17 blows per foot. Groundwater was located at a depth of approximately 10 feet below ground surface.

Piles of filler according to the invention described in tests A, B and C, were carried out through a hollow tube 30 with an outer diameter of six (6) inches and with the special bottom head element 32 with an outer diameter of 10 inches. In tests A and B used only a placeholder. In test C used : size is the diameter and cementing liquid solution. In the test And used the initial displacements rise two feet and set push down move one foot, which got a lot of layers in one foot. In test B was used, the specified move up to three feet and set move push down on two feet, again leading to layers of one foot. In test C was used, the specified move up on two feet and set move push down on one foot and included cementing additive liquid solution.

Data analysis can be attributed to the rigidity or the modularity of the construction of the piles. When the deviation 0.5 inch test And corresponded to the load 27 tons, test B was consistent with the capacity of 35 tons, test C corresponded to a load of 47 tons, and test D corresponded to the load 16 tons. Thus, when such a deviation (0.5 inch) and the use of test B as a standard test and the basis for comparison, the coefficient of relative stiffness for test B was 1.0, for test A was 0.77 for testing C amounted to 1.34, and for test D was 0,46. Standard test B 2.19 times more stringent than for the control test piles test D. Standard test B 1.30 times more stringent than the test of A while test C with the addition of the liquid solution in 2,94 R is for more hard, than concrete pile prior art (test D). This illustrates that the modules piles formed in accordance with the invention, essentially surpass modules drilling reinforced concrete reinforced by steel piles (test D). These tests also illustrate that the process of moving with the rise of three feet moving push down on two feet surpassed the process of moving with the rise of two feet and move push down on one ft. Tests also illustrate that the use of the additive from the liquid grout material has substantially improved the rigidity of the formed piles for deviations less than approximately 0.75 inches, but have not fundamentally improved the rigidity of the formed piles compared to test B for deviations greater than about 0.9 inches.

In the preferred embodiment, because the bottom head element 32 of the hollow tube or hollow shaft 30 has a greater cross-sectional area, this leads to various advantages. First, the configuration of the device, by using the mechanism of bottom 54 of the valve, reduces the possibility that the filler material will clog up the device during the formation of the cavity 102 in the dirt breed 36, and when the hollow tube 30 is partially pulled out of the dirt breed 36 to open or to form p is the maturity 85 inside dirt rock 36. In addition, the configuration provides the ability to transfer more energy from the vectors of static forces and dynamic vectors efforts through the bottom head element 32 devices and shock on aggregate 44 in the cavity 70. Another advantage is that the friction of the hollow pipe 30 on the side of the formed cavity 102 in the land is reduced due to the fact that the effective diameter of the hollow tube 30 is smaller than the effective diameter of the bottom head element 32. That is, the cross-sectional area of the remaining part of the hollow tube 30 is reduced. It makes it easier to push into the ground and provides the ability to push through formations that can be considered more rugged or rigid. The head element 32 greater cross-sectional area also increases the ability to provide section 102 of the cavity with defined sizes for the reception of the filler 44, which has a larger volume than the volume associated with the rest of the hollow shaft 30, thus providing an opportunity for additional material to take and longitudinal (or axial)and perpendicular (or transverse) efforts during the formation of layer 72. Reduced friction of the hollow pipe 30 on the side of the formed cavity 102 in the ground 36 also provides the advantage of easier lifting of the hollow tube 30 during the formation of piles.

In the method according to image is the shadow at the bottom of the layer 72 may be larger effective diameter and have a different number of secured therein filler. Thus, the bottom layer 72 or the bottom layer in the pile 76 can be formed having a larger cross-section, as well as great depth, forming the basis for piles 76. In other words, by way of example, the lower portion or the bottom layer 72 can be created by lifting the hollow shaft 30 by three feet and then reducing the height of the layer 72 to one foot, while the subsequent layers 72 can be created by lifting the hollow shaft 30 on two feet and reducing the thickness of the layer 72 to one foot.

Completed pile 76, as mentioned above, you can pre-load and after it was formed, applying a static load or dynamic load 75 on the upper part of the pile 76 within the prescribed period of time (see Fig). Thus, the load 75 can be applied to the top of the pile 76 during the period of time from 30 seconds to 15 minutes or longer. This latch efforts can also provide a "test indicator module, as a static load 75 attached to the top of the pile 76, may be followed by measuring the deviation generated by static load 75. Test indicator module can be included in a pre-load of each pile to achieve two goals with one action; namely, (1) applying pre-load and (2) execution test indicator mo is Ulya.

Material 44 of the filler, which is used in the creation of piles 76 may be different. That is, in the cavity 85 can be placed pure stone aggregate. This stone can have a nominal size of 40 mm diameter with less than 5%, having a nominal diameter less than 2 mm Subsequently formed material can enter the liquid solution as described above. The liquid solution can be administered simultaneously with the introduction of the filler 44, or before or after.

When using the vibration frequency for transmission to the dynamic pressure, the vibration frequency of the efforts transmitted to the hollow shaft or hollow tube 30 is preferably in the range between 300 and 3000 rpm. The various diameters of the hollow tube or shaft 30 to the head element 32 is typically in the range of 0.92-0.50 in. As previously mentioned, the angle of the lower part may be in the range between 30° and 60° relative to the longitudinal axis 35.

As an additional characteristic of the invention a method of forming piles can be performed by entering the hollow tube 30 with a special bottom head element 32 to the full depth 81 scheduled piles. Subsequently, the hollow tube 30 and special bottom head element 32 is raised to its full length is scheduled piles with continuous movement, when the filler and/or a liquid solution, or other liquid entering the cavity, when the hollow tube 30 and special bottom head element 32 is raised. Subsequently, after reaching the upper part of the planned piles hollow tube 30 and special bottom head element 32 can again statically to push and possibly strengthen through the mechanism of the dynamic efforts of the vertical vibration and/or compacting or down to the bottom of the pile in the formation. The filler 44 and/or a liquid solution, or other material filling the cavity, the pre-unloaded, will move in the transverse direction in a dirt breed because its displace moving down a hollow tube 30 and the head element 32. Then the process can be repeated with a hollow tube 30 and the bottom head element 32, the raised or for the remainder of the length or the depth of planned piles or shorter length, in each case with a filler and/or liquid substance that fills the newly created cavity, when the hollow tube 30 is raised. Thus, forming the pile material may contain a single layer or several layers with additional filler material and possible liquid solution and/or other additives, and moved in the lateral direction to the side of the hollow cavity in the ground rock.

Note that the mechanism for implementation of the above procedures and methods may work at an accelerated rate. Immersion of the hollow tube 30 and golovnogo element 32 down can produce slightly faster for example, in two minutes or less. The rise of the hollow tube 30 and the head element 32 increments at the partial or total distance within the formed cavity may take even less time, depending on the distance to move the lifting and hoisting speed. Thus, the pile is formed from dirt breed 36 for a few minutes. Therefore, the production rate associated with the method and device according to the invention, considerably faster.

Thus, for the method and device can perform various modifications and changes within the scope of the invention. Thus, it is possible to modify the construction and method steps according to the invention without going beyond its nature and scope. You can use an alternative configuration of hollow pipes, dimensions, profiles, cross-sections and lengths of pipe. Special head element 32 may differ in their configuration and use. Valve 54 may vary in its configuration and use, or may be excluded when using the protective cap. The leading end of the bottom head element 32 can have any suitable shape. For example, it can be pointed, conical, obtuse, in the form of a screw or any shape which facilitates penetration into the soil parent rock and the seal material of the filler. Can is to use advanced or bulbourethral head element 32 in combination with one or more sections of enlarged external diameter of the hollow tube 30, having a different shape or configuration. Therefore, the invention should be limited only by the subsequent claims and its equivalents.

1. Device for multilayer structures compacted piles in a soil rock containing in combination an elongated hollow tube having a longitudinal axis, an upper inlet end for the material, an open bottom discharge end of the material and the diameter of the first outer surface; and a single shaped bottom head element has an open discharge end, with the diameter of the second outer surface, greater than the diameter of the first outer surface, and configured to transmit a combination of axial and transverse stress components when lowering the hollow tube, and the head element contains a single attachment to a hollow tube, with the head element includes a leading bottom end, having the General configuration of a truncated cone between the head element outer surface and a bottom discharge opening in the lower leading end and the rear end having the General configuration of a truncated cone; and the cap of the head element covering the bottom discharge hole; and the bottom head element with a cap and a hollow pipe formed for insertion into the ground rock and implementation of the displacement of soil by lowering the hollow tubes of the bottom head element and the specified cap in the dirt breed, to form a cavity in the dirt breed, while the cap is at least partially removed from the lower discharge aperture when the hollow tube is subsequently raised from the formed cavity to effect the passage of the material through the bottom discharge opening in the area of the cavity, released by the hollow tube and the bottom head element, and the bottom head element has a cross-sectional shape and dimensions greater than the cross-sectional shape and dimensions of the hollow pipe to reduce friction forces on the hollow tube when the penetration of dirt breed and pulling out of it.

2. The device according to claim 1, additionally containing a feed mechanism of a fluid medium, for directing material of the fluid in the hollow tube and the feed mechanism of the solid material to supply aggregate to the input end of the hollow tube.

3. The device according to claim 1 containing a filler in a hollow pipe, and a hollow pipe has a General circular internal cross section and additionally includes a feeder filler connected to the upper input end for material to feed the objects of the material of the filler in a hollow pipe with a minimum internal diameter of the hollow tube at least 4.0 times the maximum size of the largest object of the filler material in the hollow tube.

4. Device is about according to claim 1, additionally comprising at least one auxiliary supply pipe connected to the hollow pipe through the holes on the end of a hollow tube for conveying material fluid in the hollow tube.

5. The device according to claim 1, further comprising the hopper for feeding material into a hollow tube and at least one auxiliary supply pipe connected with a feeding hopper for feeding the liquid material into a hollow tube.

6. The device according to claim 1, further comprising openings of the passages in the hollow tube above the bottom head element for materials of the fluid inside the hollow pipe to be drained from the hollow tube above the bottom head element and on the outer side of the hollow pipe in the ring formed between the hollow tube and ground rock.

7. The device according to claim 1, further comprising a feeder feed hopper connected to the upper inlet end for the material of the hollow tube.

8. The device according to claim 1, further comprising the hopper and at least one isolation damper connecting the hopper with a hollow pipe.

9. The device according to claim 1, further comprising a mechanism effort, coupled with a hollow tube, for transmitting downward effort on the hollow tube.

10. The device according to claim 1, additionally including the General himself mechanism effort, connected to the hollow tube, for transmitting downward static axial forces.

11. The device according to claim 1, comprising a mechanism effort to transfer forces on the hollow tube selected from the group consisting of vertical reciprocating efforts, vertical vibrating dynamic axial forces and their combinations.

12. The device according to claim 1, wherein the cap includes a protective cap.

13. The device according to item 12, in which the protective cap has a transverse element plate for holding the lower part of the educated element of the pile.

14. The device according to item 12, in which the cap also includes at least one axial rod in combination with the element plate.

15. The device according to claim 1, in which the head element and the hollow tube, each has a uniform cylindrical cross-sectional profile.

16. The device according to 14, in which at least one rod extends in the axis direction from the lower part of the formed pile to ground surface level.

17. The device according to claim 1, wherein the cap includes a mechanism for opening and closing the lower discharge openings to allow the passage of material from the lower discharge aperture when opening and prevent passage of material from the lower discharge hole is closing.

18. The device according to claim 1, in which the leading lower end forms a surface that transmits energy to seal the filler in the cavity.

19. The method of forming piles in the soil parent rock, comprising the steps are carried out:
a) formation of an elongated cavity having a lower portion and a longitudinal axis in the soil parent rock by forcing a hollow tube having an open upper end and an open bottom head element with a closing mechanism to selectively close the hollow tube, and mentioned the bottom head element configured to transfer axial and transverse vector of efforts on the ground breed, with a closing mechanism that supports the unloading of material from the bottom of the head element, is closed during the formation of the cavity,
b) the rise of a hollow tube at the first increasing distance in the cavity,
c) opening closing mechanism when lifting a hollow tube,
d) the supply of the filler through the bottom head element is a hollow tube in the area of the cavity opening when lifting a hollow tube on said first increasing distance, and
e) sealing the filler in the cavity axial and transverse forces exerted on it from the formed bottom head element when the hollow tube is lowered.

20. The method according to claim 19, in which a hollow Tr is BU original push for a specified distance in the soil parent rock.

21. The method according to claim 19, in which step b) is performed at a specified distance.

22. The method according to claim 19, in which the repetition of steps b) -e).

23. The method according to claim 19, in which perform the step of closing mechanism closing before the seal.

24. The method according to claim 19, in which perform an additional step to separate the flow of the liquid material in combination with a filler to facilitate the flow of the fill.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, in which the liquid material is chosen from the group consisting of water, liquid grout material, bentonite, cement, fly ash, and combinations thereof.

26. The method according to claim 19, in which the hollow tube has a uniform internal cross-section.

27. The method according to claim 19, in which the bottom head element has an external cross-section greater than the external cross section of the remaining part of the hollow pipe.

28. The method according to claim 20, in which perform the handover phase of the static force on the hollow tube to effect the immersion of the hollow pipe and compaction of the fill.

29. The method according to claim 20, in which perform the handover phase of the dynamic axial force on the hollow tube to effect the immersion of the hollow pipe and compaction of the fill.

30. The method according to claim 19, in which perform repeating steps C) - e).

31. The method according to claim 19, in which the initial increase, essentially equal to the height of the subject is the education of the pile.

32. The method according to claim 19, in which the initial increase is less than the height to be the formation of piles.

33. Device for the construction of reinforcing the soil pile in the dirt rock containing in combination an elongated hollow tube having a longitudinal axis, and an elongated hollow tube has a top inlet end for the material, an open discharge end of the bottom head element containing a single fixed to the hollow tube, with the bottom head element and a hollow pipe formed to effect the displacement of the soil with the introduction of dirt breed, and the outer cross-section of the discharge end of the bottom head element is greater than the external cross section of the hollow tube adjacent thereto, so as to form bulbourethral section of a hollow pipe shape and size external cross-section larger than the shape and size of the external cross-section of the hollow tube adjacent to bulborama the end, and bulbourethral end having a surface configured to transfer axial and shear forces when moving down to the material.

34. Device for the construction of reinforcing the soil pile in the dirt rock containing in combination
in General cylindrical elongated hollow tube having a longitudinal axis, an upper inlet end for the material, open the first lower discharge end of the material; and shaped bottom head element attached to the discharge end of the material and with a passage through it, generally coaxial with the specified longitudinal axis; and the head element includes a discharge hole with the cap removed from the discharge aperture; a bottom head element and a hollow pipe formed for insertion into a dirt breed to effect the displacement of soil by lowering the hollow tube and the head element in a dirt rock to form a cavity in the dirt breed, and the cap is made with the possibility of removal from the bottom of the head element of the discharge openings when the hollow tube is subsequently raised from the bottom of the formed cavity, and the head element has the cross-sectional area, transverse to the longitudinal axis greater than the cross-sectional area of the hollow pipe, transverse to the longitudinal axis, with the head element also has the configuration adjacent to the discharge hole formed for simultaneous transmission of axial and shear forces on the ground breed when lowered into the dirt breed.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for arrangement of pile foundations for structures, to pile foundations and shell structure for creation of widened foot for pile foundations. Method for creation of pile foundation for structures, according to which the following stages are executed on site to arrange the mentioned foundation - well for installation of foundation pipe is drilled with the help of the first auger drill. The following section is drilled under lower end of installed foundation pipe. Cavity is arranged in the specified section by means of scraper and pressure of water jet. Loose soil is removed from specified cavity by mentioned first drill. Pipe for set of tools and accessories with the second auger drill and flexible shell that envelopes the lower part of the second specified drill is lowered through foundation pipe into lower part of specified section. Excess pressure is built up in specified shell, and moulding material is injected into specified cavity, surplus of which is then removed by the second auger drill. After mentioned material hardens, the specified shell is blown off and removed via specified foundation pipe. Reinforcing device is lowered into foundation pipe. Concrete material is poured into foundation pipe, at that specified cavity is filled, and specified reinforcing device is embedded into concrete, thus creating widened foot for foundation pipe. Versions of method and pile foundation are also stated.

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FIELD: building.

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FIELD: construction, particularly bored piles with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.

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FIELD: bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering, particularly concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.

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Bearing pile // 2251609

FIELD: building, particularly for constructing foundations of various building structures.

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2 cl, 5 dwg

The invention relates to the construction of pile foundations of bored piles in silty-clay soils
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The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to a method of construction in soil printed designs
The invention relates to the field of construction, and in particular to methods of construction of bored piles, the construction in the immediate vicinity of buildings and structures, and can be used in the formation of pile foundations structures for various purposes, in particular in a weak water-saturated soils

Bearing pile // 2251609

FIELD: building, particularly for constructing foundations of various building structures.

SUBSTANCE: bearing pile comprises head, rod and tip fixed to embedded rod part by embedded member. The tip is formed of thermoplastic concrete and has electric heater located inside the tip. Electric heater heats the tip after driving thereof into ground as far as it will go to obtain softening temperature of 80-150°C. Then the pile is fully driven in ground. Electric heater wires are placed in tube in longitudinal rod direction and brought outside under pile head for connection thereof with electric power source.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to provision of widened pile tip support area.

2 cl, 5 dwg

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36 cl, 25 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly bored piles with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.

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6 cl

FIELD: building.

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FIELD: construction.

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5 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry and namely to construction of bearing piles in ground rock. Device for making multi-layer sealed pile in ground rock includes, in the combination, elongated hollow tube having longitudinal axis, upper inlet end for material, open lower discharge end for material and diametre of the first external surface and common formed lower head element at open discharge end, which has diametre of the second external surface, which is more than diametre of the first external surface and made with the possibility of transmitting combination from axial and transverse stress components when hollow tube is lowered. Head element consists of common attachment to hollow tube; at that, head element includes lower driving end which in general has configuration of flattened cone between head element of external surface and lower discharge hole made in the lower driving end, and back end having in general the configuration of flattened cone, and cap of the head element covering lower discharge hole. Lower head element with the cap and hollow tube are formed for being introduced into ground rock and for displacing the earth when hollow tube with lower head element and the above cap is lowered into ground rock so that a cavity is formed in ground rock. The cap is at least partially removed from lower discharge hole when hollow tube is then lifted from the formed cavity in order to perform passage of material through lower discharge hole to the cavity section released with hollow tube and lower head element. The latter has the form of cross section and the sizes which are more than the shape of cross section and sizes of hollow tube in order to decrease friction forces on hollow tube when penetrating into ground rock and being removed from it.

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34 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas.

SUBSTANCE: invention related to construction, particularly can be used for bored piles with enlarged base arrangement. The method includes hole boring, hole opening with mechanical clampshell enlarger, reinforced cage installation and filling in the hole with concrete mixture. Developing enlargement with ration of enlargement diametre to hole diametre, equal de/dh≥2 with rotation velocity equal n=20-100 revolution per minute, dependant on ground conditions. After covering distance 0.8 h, where h - height of enlargement, stop axial supply of boring media and at that level, during 3-5 revolutions execute enlargement base cleaning, and ground collector and voids between enlarger blades complete filling. Turn on axial supply and execute boring till enlargement total height and enlargement blades closure. Take away enlarger, then concrete enlarged base, install reinforced cage and complete bored piles arrangement with concreting its core.

EFFECT: method of bored pile arrangement efficiency increase and hole enlarger design improvement, hole enlarger reliability increase, easing of ground withdrawal out form ground collector and better quality of constructed bore pile.

4 cl, 3 dwg

Driven pile // 2386748

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, in particular to pile foundations. Driven pile consists of shaft with axial hole, sharpened tip with circular base and conusoidal shell with spike, cavities inside shell filled with hardening solution. There is a threaded hole in tip base, which is closed with threaded plug with stem. Tip shell is rumpled with submergence force after removal of threaded plug and additional submersion of pile. For additional increase of bearing capacity there is an elastic shell on lower part of shaft with facilities for fixation of its upper and lower ends; cavity between elastic shell and shaft surface; protective jacket with facilities of its fixation of shaft, which slides in radial direction and embraces elastic shell. There is a radial hole in shaft, which connects longitudinal hole with specified cavity transformed into support belt after the pile has been submerged at the specified depth, the cavity has been filled with hardening solution via holes in shaft and the solution has hardened.

EFFECT: improved bearing capacity of hollow piles.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of drilled pile manufacturing includes well arrangement in soil. Supply of material into it. Compaction of soil under lower end of formed pile. In process of soil compaction, in the base of formed drilled pile with parametres equivalent to driven pile, its conventional camouflet cavity is arranged with diametre Dkp equal to diametre of dzs equivalent to driven pile, where: dzs - diametre (m) of equivalent driven pile. DkP - diametre (m) of conventional camouflet cavity produced in soil as it is displaced under lower end of formed drilled pile, by means of supply of controlled material volume to fill conventional camouflet cavity according to the following dependence : where V is controlled volume (m3) of material spent for filling of conventional camouflet cavity produced in soil due to its displacement into pile foundation. As well is filled with material in the form of hardening mix, preferably plastic concrete mix, diametre of equivalent driven pile is identified according to dependence , where dzs - diametre (m) of equivalent driven pile. Dskw - diametre (m) of well; Δh - measured value of subsidence (m) of plastic concrete mix in well as conventional camouflet cavity produced due to displacement of soil under lower end of formed pile is being filled. And in order to produce drilled pile with parametres of driven one of the same diametre, soil is treated in the lower end of pile till material subsides, preferably concrete mix, in well by value, which is compared with the one defined from the following ratio: Δh/Dskw=0.4. Besides in the lower end of well soil is exposed to forces, and their sufficiency is controlled (assessed) by flow of material additionally supplied to well in process of soil treatment, and its volume is identified according to formula , where Dskw - diametre (m) of formed pile. Besides in well reinforced with casing pipe, dynamic actions at soil are carried out until material subsidence value in casing pipe makes at least the following: , where Δhtr is subsidence (m) of material in casing pipe. Dskw - diametre (m) of well. Dfr - inner diametre (m) of casing pipe. Dynamic actions at soil in lower end of formed pile are carried out to achieve conventional failure, which is represented by material subsidence of not more than 2 mm in process of the last action, and when soils are compacted by electric explosions in pile foundation with application of electrode system, dynamic treatment is interrupted provided that electrode system freely installed on bottomhole in process of electric explosion sinks by not more than 1-2 cm, and in process of soil dynamic treatment at least one additional camouflet expansion is created along pile length, preferably, in zones of well opening of soils that are most pliant to compaction, which is detected by reaction of soil to test dynamic actions performed along pile length.

EFFECT: development of drilled piles with bearing capacity by soil, same as for driven piles, with minimum possible usage of resources and maximum possible usage of properties inherent in massif of soil that contains pile.

7 cl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device for compaction of soil in drilled pile well bottomhole includes casing pipe, bushing fixed on it with working element pulled through it. Working element is arranged in the form of hollow pipe, at the lower end of which there is a thrust journal and sealing attachment, and at the upper end there are upper and lower supports and inertial mass, placed on hollow pipe between upper and lower supports with sliding fit.

EFFECT: improved bearing capacity of drilled piles erected in watered and soft soils.

4 dwg

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