Buffering during data streaming

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to buffering packets of a media stream during transmission from a transmission device to a receiving device. Media packets are generated from at least one type of media information in a stream generator; at least one transmission frame is generated based on transmitted media packets; transmitted packets are generated from at least one transmission frame and a transmission schedule is generated for transmitted packets. In addition, the first and second steps of hypothetical decoding are executed. The first step of hypothetical decoding is executed in accordance with the transmission schedule, and involves buffering the transmitted packets in accordance with the transmission schedule in the first buffer for hypothetical decoding and output of packets from the first buffer for hypothetical decoding based on the transmission frame. The second step of hypothetical decoding involves controlling occupance rate of the first and second buffer for hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following: operation of the stream generator, generation of at least one transmission frame, transmission schedule.

EFFECT: more efficient buffering of media stream packets.

20 cl, 7 dwg

 

The present invention relates to buffering packets of a media stream during transmission from the transmitting device and the receiving device. The invention also relates to a system, transmitting device, receiving device, server, wireless device, the signal gateway software product.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Transmission of media information such as audio, video, still images, etc. are usually based on the packaging, i.e. the transmitted information is in the packets. The packets are then transmitted as one or more streams of packets. In the streams of the packets can be transmitted, for example, as packets are RTP (Real Time Protocol / real-time), or as packets of another Protocol, which are not necessarily RTP packets. It may happen that during transmission, for whatever reasons, some packets will be lost. For example, in the transmission channel can be interference, decreasing the signal-carrying packets that may be the cause of packet loss. At the stage of transfer can be added to the packet stream some information for error correction, which can be used at the stage of admission to recover lost packets. One of the known methods based on direct error correction (FEC), packet flow insert additional packets carrying the information about the correction oshi is OK. These additional packages are referred to in this description of repair packets, i.e. packets that carry information for error correction. Repair packets generated based on packets that need to be protected with the help of repair packets. For example, a bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR operation (XOR) is performed on the data packet and the calculated FEC is packaged in the repair packets. Repair packages and packages that are used to create the repair packets form the FEC block. Consequently, any lost package included in the FEC block can be reconstructed using information from the repair packets of the same FEC block.

Batching can also be applied at different levels of the so-called Protocol stacks. The well-known OSI model describes a seven-layer structure in which the physical layer is the lowest and level of applications in the upper Protocol stack. The other layers of the OSI model is the data-link layer, which is above the physical network layer, transport layer, session level and Executive level lying below the application level. RTP packets can be assigned to the packets of the application layer (which therefore may be called in this case, the RTP level).

Many systems provide video controls transmission speed Yes the data and buffering. In systems with topology "one-one" the recipient can send the employment status of its buffer to the sender, which may respectively be configured baud rate (for example, the adaptation speed in the flow packet switched 3GPP (the communication standard of the third generation)). In unidirectional systems data streams usually have to obey known models buffering recipient. Examples of buffering systems, including specified recipient model buffering, is a system of MPEG-2, Appendix G for streaming data packet 3GPP technical specification 3GPP 26.234) and system wide multimedia/multicast 3GPP (MBMS, technical specification 3GPP 26.346). The sender must be sure that the transmitted streams correspond to the buffering model, i.e. will not be a cause of low or overflow of buffers. Recipients must be able to take existing threads and use the buffer size to the intended model of a buffer to destination the actual data buffer.

The simplified data transfer system over DVB-H (digital mobile TV) is depicted in figure 1 in the form of a flowchart. The content server (content) to provide multimedia content over the IP network to encapsulation IP. Last encapsulate IP streams for re the ACI transport streams MPEG-2, which are transmitted over the network DVB-H reception terminal.

Figure 7 shows an example of transmission media in the network 701 DVB. In systems DVB multiplex stream 702 is a set of DVB services 703, merged and transmitted in one transport stream. Traffic flows from different multiplex streams 702 may be transmitted in a DVB network 701. The components of the DVB service (e.g., audio components, video components, a text component) contained in the elementary streams 704, each of which carries data for one component of one of DVB services 703. Components of DVB services can be encapsulated as IP (Internet Protocol) streams 705 containing IP datagrams.

In DVB systems introduced the so-called multi-Protocol encapsulation (MPE). MPE is designed to convert datagrams (IP packets) network layer (the 3rd layer of the OSI model) in the transport streams. Each IP datagram is usually converted in a separate MPE section. A single elementary stream can contain multiple threads MPE sections. Elementary stream carrying MPE section, can also transfer data error correction, i.e. sections MPE FEC to support error correction for data packets in MPE sections. MPE sections can be considered as packet link layer Protocol stack OSI.

Hypothetical reference decoder (HRD) is used in several standards videoco the financing for compatibility with the standards of the generated data stream output from the decoder. Standards-compliant decoders must accept input streams that are compatible with HRD. HRD is used to prevent "adverse" flows, i.e. it inhibits the consumption of resources in the decoders in terms of memory and computational complexity. Input HRD have a constant bit rate, or a piecewise linear function of zero and a constant data transfer rate. HRD is also used to prevent the fluctuation speed video transfer that allows you to achieve near-constant quality and frequency transfer images.

When the send media streams in the multiplex mode, the output signal of the hypothetical demultiplexer must be compatible with the input requirements of a hypothetical MediaCoder. Otherwise, the compatibility with the model buffer MediaCoder cannot be guaranteed.

FEC decoding frame MPE FEC requires initial buffering (from reception of the first packet of the frame MPE FEC before MediaRecovery) in the receiving terminal, because if the receiver will decode the source RTP packets (i.e., the RTP media packets) immediately on receipt of the first packet, any loss of the original RTP packet will be delayed decoding to obtain maintenance information of the frame MPE FEC. Accordingly, it will cause a pause in FOTS is otvedenii.

Moreover, as explained further reproduction without pauses may require additional primary buffering after receiving the first frame of the MPE FEC. Let tai(n) the time of reception of the first bit of the frame MPE FEC n in order of transmission, taf(n) the time of receiving the last bit of the frame MPE FEC. Next, let b(n) is the number of bits in the payload RTP media stream frame n MPE FEC, and r(n) - transfer rate (which is used to verify compliance HRD). If for any values of n, b(n)/r(n)=taf(n)-tai(n)the duration of the initial buffering always could be zero. However, this will not happen for the following reasons.

First: "gouging" (number "media" column in the frame MPE FEC)code rate FEC (FEC columns in the frame MPE FEC) and the number of bits of padding may vary.

Second, the planning process may not be so accurate, as required by the above formula, but you can stick to the average flow rate and time intervals derived from the average rate.

Third: elementary stream and the interval of time-division may contain packets from multiple IP streams. The exact requirements on bits for each IP stream in the time interval is a difficult task for the media stream variable speed transmission, such as video.

Thus, pervi the Naya buffering one data block MPE FEC whole is not a sufficient condition, to ensure that the decoding and playback without pausing. Therefore, senders must give the recipients information, which provides sufficient, but not exhaustive amount of initial buffering.

Article 13 of the document ETSI EN 301192 v.1.4.1 determines the model of the decoder for broadcast data in DVB. The model consists of transport buffer and optional primary buffer. The transport buffer is small (512 bytes) buffer to remove duplicate packets MPEG-2 TS. The main buffer is used to smooth the transfer rate to match MediaCoder. The basic buffer can be controlled by setting the output speed of the transmission in the syntactic structure descriptor smoothing buffer systems MPEG-2. However, in the main buffer no signaling mechanism and use delay buffering, therefore, a primary buffer is not suitable for use in combination with the decoding MPE FEC.

As IP data transmission in DVB-H is a broadcast service, new recipients can "tune" in the middle of the stream, i.e. new recipients can begin to take the thread after the first packet of the stream has been transmitted. The optimal (minimum) delay in initial buffering is usually unstable during transmission of the stream.

The buffer size of the FEC decoding

How was is shown above, received for frame MPE FEC packets must be buffered before starting decoding of FEC packets. In this description, the buffer for this purpose is called the buffer FEC decoding. The employment-to-buffer decode FEC depends, among other things, on: 1) schedule the transmission of the elementary stream, 2) the magnitude of the initial buffering before the release buffer, 3) a method of creating a matrix inside FEC buffer FEC decoding, and 4) the speed of the data output from the buffer decode FEC. The maximum level of employment of the buffer determines the required size of the buffer for the stream. Obviously, in a variety of receiving devices, the implementation of the FEC decoding and associated buffering may be different. For example, players may have different methods of speed control output - one device can push the data from the buffer decode FEC, as soon as will enable buffers "download" (for example, the input buffers of the decoder), and the other device is able to push data from the buffer at the time when it is necessary to decode the next data array. Therefore, the maximum level of employment of the buffer may vary in different implementations and therefore difficult to determine for a particular stream buffer size of the FEC decoding without the model of a hypothetical buffer.

The encoders and the transceivers also follows the th information about the supported buffer size FEC decoding all receivers run-time encoding and scheduling transmission.

The INVENTION

The presented invention implements the buffering model of a hypothetical decoder when processing stream media. The model can be used to determine the minimum requirements for receivers/decoders, which should be able to handle at least all the threads that are able to handle a hypothetical model. Encoders and transceivers use the buffering model of a hypothetical decoder to ensure that the transmitted streams do not cause overflow or buffer underload hypothetical decoding.

The buffering model presented in this proposal contains two buffers, one for decapsulate frames MPE FEC and virtual decoding FEC and the second to smooth out variations in the transmission rate caused by the pulsating output of the FEC decoding.

According to the first aspect of the presents invention proposes a method of buffering packets of a media stream, including:

- the formation of media packets from at least one kind of media information stream generator;

generating at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the media packets for transmission;

- the formation of packets for transmission from at least one frame of the transmission;

- generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packet is in;

- the implementation of the first hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of the program, including:

- buffering of transmitted packets in accordance with the schedule transmission in the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

the output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission;

- the second hypothetical decoding, including:

- buffering of packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding;

- managing the employment level of the first buffer hypothetical decoding and the second hypothetical level decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

- work stream generator;

- generate at least one frame of the transmission;

- upload schedule.

According to the second aspect of the present invention, a system for buffering the media stream for transmission from the transmitting device and the receiving device, in which the transmitting device includes:

- stream generator, including

the first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream;

generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets;

in the ora driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission; and

- scheduler for generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets; and

- a hypothetical decoder for performing hypothetical decoding during transmission in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including:

the first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transfer;

the output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission;

the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

controller to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding and the second buffer hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

work stream generator;

generating at least one frame of the transmission;

the upload schedule.

According to a third aspect of the present invention offers a transmitting device, comprising a buffer for buffering the media stream for transmission from the transmitting device, receiving device, when the transmitting device includes:

- stream generator, including:

the first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one the IDA of media information of the media stream;

generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets;

the second driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission; and

- scheduler for generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets; and

- a hypothetical decoder for performing hypothetical decoding during transmission in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including:

the first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; and

the output of packets from the first hypothetical decoding buffer on the basis of a frame transmission;

the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

controller to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding and the second buffer hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

work stream generator;

generating at least one frame of the transmission;

the upload schedule.

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention proposes a wireless communication device that includes a buffer for buffering copper is stream for transmission from the wireless communication device of the receiving device, when the wireless communication device includes:

- stream generator, including:

the first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream;

generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets;

the second driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission; and

- scheduler for generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets; and

- a hypothetical decoder for performing hypothetical decoding during transmission in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including:

the first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; and

the output of packets from the first hypothetical decoding buffer on the basis of a frame transmission;

the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

controller to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding and the second buffer hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

work stream generator;

the generating system is of at least one frame of the transmission;

the upload schedule.

According to the fifth aspect of the present invention features a server that includes a buffer for buffering the media stream for transmission from the server to the receiving device, the server also includes:

- stream generator, including:

the first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream;

generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets;

the second driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission; and

- scheduler for generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets; and

- a hypothetical decoder for performing hypothetical decoding during transmission in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including:

the first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; and

the output of packets from the first hypothetical decoding buffer on the basis of a frame transmission;

the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

a controller to control the employment of the first buffer hypothesis is practical decoding and the second buffer hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

work stream generator;

generating at least one frame of the transmission;

the upload schedule;

transceiver for packet receiving device.

According to the sixth aspect of the present invention proposes a server multimedia services broad/multicast, broadcast, including a buffer for buffering the media stream for transmission from the server to the receiving device, the server also includes:

- stream generator, including:

the first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream;

generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets;

the second driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission; and

- scheduler for generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets; and

- a hypothetical decoder for performing hypothetical decoding during transmission in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including:

the first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; and

the output of packets from the first hypothetical decoding buffer on the basis of a frame transmission;

the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets, formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

a controller to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding and the second buffer hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

work stream generator;

generating at least one frame of the transmission;

the upload schedule.

a transceiver for transmitting packets as multimedia services broad/multicast, broadcast.

According to the seventh aspect of the present invention features receiving device to receive packets with the upload schedule and including at least one frame transmission, which formed packets, while the aforementioned at least one frame transmission includes the media packets formed on the basis of at least one kind of media information of the media stream, while receiving unit includes:

receiver for receiving the transmitted packets, including information on the amount of initial buffering delay decoding of the packets at the beginning of reception of packets;

the first decompressor to reconstruct the media packets from the received packets;

a buffer for buffering information of the media packets;

a decoder for decoding the media information of the media packets; and

controller to delay the decoding in accordance with the information on the amount of initial buffering.

According to the eighth aspect of the present invention proposes a signal associated with the media stream comprising media packets formed on the basis of at least one kind of media information of the media stream, where the media packets included in at least one frame transmission, from which the generated packets for transmission, and have the upload schedule, with the specified signal includes information about the amount of initial buffering delay decoded packets at the beginning of the reception of the media stream, which makes every mediapacker the media stream in any frame transmission is available during or before the time of decoding.

According to the ninth aspect of the present invention features a computer software product that includes a computer program stored on computer readable media including executable steps performed by the machine for buffering packets of a media stream by

formation of media packets from at least one kind of media information stream generator transmitting device;

- generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the media packets for transmission;

- generate packets for transmission from at least one frame of the transmission;

- execution of the first hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including running machine steps to

- buffering of packets for transmission in accordance with the schedule transmission in the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and

- output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission;

- the second hypothetical decoding, including:

- buffering of packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding;

- managing the employment level of the first buffer hypothetical decoding and the second hypothetical level decoding by controlling at least one of the following:

work stream generator;

generating at least one frame of the transmission;

the upload schedule.

Description of the DRAWINGS

Hereinafter the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 depicts a system in accordance with the exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

Figure 2 shows a simplified system IP transmission over DVB-H.

Figure 3 shows the frame structure for MPE FEC.

Figure 4 shows the transmitting device in accordance with the exemplary embodiment of the present invention in the form of a simplified block diagram.

Figure 5 illustrates the calculation procedure RSDT (table of reed-Solomon codes).

6 depicts a model of buffering in accordance with the exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

7 depicts an example of metaperiodate network of DVB.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

Next, the system in accordance with an example implementation of the present invention is described in more detail with reference to figures 1-6.

The system of figure 1 includes a transmitting device 1, the transmission channel 2 and the receiving device 3. The transmitting device 1 may be, for example, a server, a wireless device, a personal computer, etc. the Receiving device 3 may be, for example, wireless device, personal computer, TV, etc.

The transmitting device 1 includes a stream generator 1.0 for the formation of traffic 702 from one or more DVB communication systems (including mediacomponent or IP flows). In this implementation, the stream generator 1.0 includes the encoder 1.1 for encoding if necessary, the media, the driver 1.2 RTP/UDP/IP, Multiprotocol encapsulator 1.3, buffer 1.4 FEC encoding, the 1.6 block FEC encoding and block 1.8 scheduler transmission. The encoder 1.1 creates a stream data D1 containing binary coded signals. Stream data D1 is transmitted to the driver 1.2, in which the flow Yes the data D1 is in the payload R2 IP datagrams according to the format specification. Further, these original IP datagram (stream D2 in figure 2) are processed in block Multiprotocol encapsulant 1.3, which forms the MPE section through the conclusion of IP datagrams D2 in the personnel structure of the MPE. MPE sections (data stream D3) stored in the buffer FEC encoding.

To enable error correction from the lost transport packets should be generated the information necessary for recovery. In this example, the repair packets are generated as follows. The 1.6 block coding FEC calculates an error correcting code MPE sections and forms a section of the MPE FEC repair packets containing error correction code for the original IP datagram D2. Section MPE FEC (data flow D6) are also stored in the buffer 1.4 FEC encoding.

The scheduler 1.8 package defines the transfer rate of packets MPE sections. IP transmission over DVB-H is usually split time at which the elementary stream is transmitted in packs, so the receiver using the control signal remains inactive when receiving packets of signals is not expected. Tutus are transmitted with much greater intensity than required for transmission speeds of decoding the media stream. Due to the temporal separation can be achieved considerable savings in power consumption compared with the receiver, in which radiobee is nick always remains active.

The scheduler 1.8 monitors outgoing packets MPE sections so that each package MPE section would be delivered at the right time in accordance with the applicable schedule process. The order in which can be transferred packets MPE sections, for example, such that all source packages MPE section one FEC block is transmitted before the repair packets. However, it is obvious that can be applied to the order, other than this. For example, the source packets MPE sections and repair packets can be interleaved.

The scheduler 1.8 transmits packets MPE sections as packets of a transport stream (TS) of MPEG-2. In other words, packets MPE sections are segmented into packets MPEG-2 transport stream. When required transport Protocol conversion is made, packets can be transmitted in channel 2 transceiver 1.13 device 1. The transmission can be wireless or wired, or both can be used in different transmission channels. The transmission channel may include one or more nodes, base stations, etc. through which is passed a stream of packets. The details of the transmission channel and the transmission method is known, and there is no need to describe them here in more detail.

The packages need not be passed after the execution of the planning process, it is possible that the packets are stored in memory, for example, in the form of a file. The file can also be sabiedrotajai information.

In the system according to the present invention, the packets of the transport stream MPEG-2 are also transmitted in the hypothetical decoder 1.9 (data flow D9a). The work of the hypothetical decoder 1.9 described in more detail hereinafter. Hypothetical FEC decoder can control the speed of transmission planning, the number of repair packets per FEC block) and the number of source packets MPE sections (IP datagrams) in each FEC block. These control operations are shown by dashed lines in figure 1.

Next, a more detailed description of the operation of the receiving device 3. Receiver 3.1 receives signals that carry the transmitted packet stream, and performs demodulation, the output of receiver 3.1 demodulated information is in block 3.2 scheduler reception. The scheduler 3.2 determines when the receiver must be activated for receiving divided by time packets of signals. In box 3.2 scheduler demodulated information is converted into a stream of packets MPE sections. Box 3.2 scheduler can run when you need some Protocol conversion and decoding to recover the packet stream MPE sections (data flow D13). The block scheduler sends MPE sections in the buffer 3.4 FEC decoding.

If the FEC block has at least one lost the original packet, the receiving device 3 will try both the loss as follows: FEC decoder 3.6 uses the appropriate FEC decoding algorithm to recover lost source MPE sections and store them again in the buffer 3.4 FEC decoding.

Unit 3.7 Multiprotocol decapsulate receives packets MPE sections of the buffer 3.4 decoding FEC. In block 3.7 Multiprotocol decapsulate the packet RTP/UDP/IP is generated by extracting the payload MPE sections and, if necessary, reassembly RTP/UDP/IP from multiple MPE sections. After this operation, the packet stream of datagrams RTP/UDP/IP data flow D19) corresponds to the specification payload of mediaformat and can be passed to the decompressor 3.8.

Extraction 3.8. handles the packet stream of datagrams RTP/UDP/IP and separates the payload from the source packets, datagrams RTP/UDP/IP in accordance with the specification payload of mediaformat. The result is a bit stream or the stream of data blocks of the application (ADU, the data stream D20). The block of application data is an elementary block format mediacoverage, such as block Abstract Network layer (NAL) standard H.264/AVC encoding or encoded audio frames. Then the media stream of bits or the ADU flow can be decoded for further processing.

Hypothetical decoder

Next, a more detailed description of the work of the hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9. Hypothetical receiver contains buffers depicted in Fig.6. It is assumed that the hypothetical FEC decoder consists of the transport buffer 611, buffer 612 Multiprotocol decapsulate and buffer 613RTP decapsulate. It is considered that the hypothetical MediaCoder consists of buffer 614 coded data and buffer 615 decoded data.

Transport buffer 611 (6) receives packets of MPEG-2 TS and removes duplicate packets. This operation is similar to the described in the specification ETSI EN 301192 and used in MPEG-2 systems. Buffer 612 Multiprotocol decapsulate used for the virtual decoding FEC and decapsulate MPE to IP datagrams. The buffer 613 RTP decapsulate is used to decapsulate RTP and payload headers of the RTP and to smooth out pulsations in the temporary separation until a uniform data stream for input MediaCoder. Buffer 614 coded data and the buffer 615 decoded data defined in the specifications MediaCoder.

One transport buffer 611 for each multiplexed stream 702 MPEG-2 TS, one buffer 612 Multiprotocol decapsulate each elementary stream 704, one buffer 613 RTP decapsulate each IP stream 705, one buffer 614 coded data for each elementary media stream, a portable IP flow, and usually one buffer 615 decoded data for each elementary media stream, a portable IP stream.

Model buffer Multiprotocol decapsulate (MDP) is used to split time elementary streams 704 carrying IP flows 705. The value of the element time_slicing time the aqueous separation and the identifier of the FEC can be equal to the unit divided by time elementary streams.

The MDP model of the buffer is defined as follows. MDP buffer 612 is initially empty. The data transfer starts with the first batch of MPEG-2 TS in the order of transmission in the time interval. Each packet MPEG-2 TS, released from the transport buffer 611, is introduced into the MDP buffer (without header of the TS packet). When the value of the element mpe_fec time frame and FEC ID equal to 00b, the packet MPEG-2 TS completes the MPE section, and completed MPE section completes the datagram (i.e., the value of the last partition number is equal to the value of the section number in the header of the MPE section). MPE section is removed from the MDP buffer 612, and the datagram carried in MPE sections is displayed. When the value of the element mpe_fec time frame and FEC ID equal to 01b, and the packet MPEG-2 TS in the first time interval, the frame MPE-FEC is formed in the MDP buffer in accordance with the specification paragraph 9.3.1 ETSI EN 301192 v.1.4.1. When the value of the element mpe_fec time interval and FEC identifier is equal to 01b, each packet MPEG-2 TS is inserted in the frame MPE-FEC in MDP buffer 612 in accordance with the specification paragraph 9.3.1 ETSI EN 301 192 v.1.4.1. When the value of the element mpe_fec time frame and FEC ID equal to 01b and the packet MPEG-2 TS for the last frame MPE-FEC in MDP buffer 612, then the datagram carried in MPE sections of the frame MPE-FEC is displayed, and the frame MPE-FEC is removed from MDP buffer 612.

Buffer RTP decapsulate

Model buffer RTP decapsulate the use of AESA to datagrams derived from the buffer Multiprotocol decapsulate 612 and containing RTP packets. Model buffer RTP decapsulate characteristic of the IP stream.

The buffer 613 RTP decapsulate initially empty. Each RTP packet is queued in the buffer RTP decapsulate without UDP and IP header, but with an RTP header, immediately after the release of MDP buffer 612. RTP packets are not removed from the buffer 613 RTP decapsulate before signalling the end of the delay buffering (since the premise of the first RTP packet). Way of signalling the end of the delay buffering hereinafter defined. Blocks of application data (ADD) are outputted from the buffer 613 RTP decapsulate in decoding order. For streams standard H264/AVC ADU is defined as the NAL block, and the order of decoding is defined in RFC 3984. For streams AAC ADU is defined as the unit of access is defined in RFC 3640. The first ADU in the order of decoding is output immediately after the delay buffering. Every next ADU in the order of decoding is output when it becomes available in the buffer 613 RTP decapsulate, and when was the next time (in seconds) since the removal of the previous ADU: 8*(size of the previous ADU in bytes)/(1000*(the value of the "b=AS" SDP attribute flow). RTP packet is removed from the buffer RTP decapsulate when all ADU, which it contains, is derived.

Alarm time delay is the primary buffering

The delay in initial buffering adjusts the delay (in milliseconds) from the premises of the RTP packet in buffer 613 RTP decapsulate before the first decoding ADU can be output from the buffer 613 RTP decapsulate. Adjustable time delay ensures that the decoding and playback without pausing. The value is an unsigned 16-bit integer in the byte order of the network.

Next, you will be presented some details of the example of the semantics and syntax of the primary alarm buffering.

Extended message (XR) of the RTCP Protocol, described in RFC 3611, is the extension mechanism of the portable message Protocol (RTCP beyond the reports of the sender and recipient. Seven types of message blocks RTCP XR presented in RFC 3611, and provides an extension mechanism to enable additional types of message blocks. A new type of message block types RTCP XR can be specified for the transmission delay of the buffer.

Message RTCP sender must be passed in each MPE-FEC frame to ensure the correct audio-video synchronization in the receiver, who begin receiving MPE-FEC frame. The proposed expanded message about the delay in initial buffering may be combined in the same RTCP packet as the message sender. Therefore, for transferring information primary BU is erinacei not required utility signals section of the UDP/IP/MPE.

Alternatively, the delay elements of the primary buffering may be presented in a RTR package, as shown below. When the delay element primary buffering is not represented in the RTP packet, applies the previous value of the delay buffering. If there is no previous value, the delay in initial buffering is assumed equal to zero. When complementary bit in the RTP header is set to 1, the value of the last octet in addition more than 2, and the value of the octet preceding the last octet in addition, equal h, there is an element of delay buffering. The delay value of the primary buffer is preceded by the last two octets RTP additions.

As an alternative, an additional field delay buffering specified in the ID, which is multiplexed in the transport stream MPEG-2.

As an alternative, specified the structure of the new MPE section or structure existing MPE or MPE-FEC section is supplemented to include the delay element of the primary buffer.

The generation of the FEC block

Frame MPE-FEC is organized as a matrix with 255 columns and a variable number of rows. Currently define the size of the rows in 256, 512, 768, 1024 bytes. Figure 3 shows the frame structure for MPE-FEC. Each position in the matrix contains a byte of information. The first 191 columns you is Elena for MPE sections, carrying IP datagrams, and possible additions. This part of the frame MPE-FEC is called a data table application (ADT). The following 64 column frame MPE-FEC is reserved for information FEC codes parity reed-Solomon (RS) and called the RS data table (RSDT).

ADT can be completely or partially filled with datagrams. The remaining columns when ADT partially filled, padded with zero bytes and columns are called supplements. Addition is also done when the frame MPE-FEC is no space left to fill following the whole datagram. RSDT is calculated for each row ADT, using FEC codes RS (255, 191). Figure 5 illustrates the procedure for calculating the RSDT.

There is no need to fully calculate all 64 columns RSDT, and some of the rightmost column can be completely discarded, this procedure is called gouging. Added and deleted columns are not sent in the transmission channel.

Compliance

The transmitting device 1, such as the IP encapsulator, verifies that the employment of a hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9 is not beyond the bounds of the desired buffer size. If necessary, the hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9 can control the stream generator 1.0 to change some parameters affecting the employment buffer. For example, the hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9 can control is their frequency and/or number of generated media packets, the frequency and number of generated maintenance packages and/or schedule the transmission of media packets and repair packets. In addition, the transmitting device 1 must be performed so that the output signal of the hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9 conforms to the specifications of media formats for the payload and decoding.

In some implementations, the buffer size of the decoder can be fickle and can change in accordance with the needs. Hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9 can determine the necessary size of the buffer for decoding the FEC. This particular size can then be specified receiving device 3, which reserves enough memory to buffer.

Hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9 may include a controller (not shown) for performing the above described operations, or the controller 1.14 transmitting device can be used as a controller hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9.

When applied the model presented buffering containing buffers Multiprotocol decapsulate and RTP decapsulate, the sending device checks to see if any divided by time elementary stream carrying IP flows, consistent with the models presented buffering and the following requirements.

For any elementary stream level employment buffer 612 Multiprotocol DECAP is ulali should not exceed the value of the first parameter (A), indicates the first number of bytes.

For any IP stream transmitted in the elementary stream, the output buffer RTP decapsulate must meet the specifications of mediaformat to decode.

For any IP stream transmitted in the elementary stream, the level of employment buffer 613 RTP decapsulate should not exceed the value of the second parameter (In) specifies the second number of bytes.

The value of the first parameter and the second parameter is proportional to the size of the frame MPE-FEC. A certain reserve to smooth out variations in the speed of transmission and the interval of time-division should be taken into account when determining the value of the second parameter Century

The receiving device 3, such as a client digital TV broadcasting (DVB-H, must be capable of receiving the transport stream MPEG-2 in accordance with the hypothetical FEC decoder 1.9.

In addition, when the receiving device 3 meets the requirements of the decoding of the transport stream packet MPEG-2, it should be able to unpack and decode the packets of the transport stream MPEG-2 and to output the decoded data at the correct speed.

1. The way buffering packets of a media stream, including the formation of packets being transmitted from at least one kind of media information stream generator; generating painted shall I send for the transmitted packets; the first hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of the program, including buffering of transmitted packets in accordance with the schedule transmission in the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and the output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission; the second hypothetical decoding, including buffering of packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; managing the employment level of the first buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the first value; and control the employment of the second buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the second value.

2. The method according to claim 1, comprising managing at least one of the following: work stream generator; generating at least one frame of the transmission; the upload schedule.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, including the formation of data for forward error correction on the basis of the media packets; forming one or more repair packets based on data for forward error correction; the inclusion of at least one of repair packets in packets for transmission.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, comprising setting initial buffering delay of the second hypothetical decoder is for after you enter the first packet in the second buffer hypothetical decoding.

5. The method according to claim 4, where the second hypothetical decoding, in addition, includes the removal of one elementary media from the second buffer hypothetical decoding, when the value of the initial buffering delay of the second hypothetical decoding expires.

6. The method according to claim 3, where the buffer size of the hypothetical decoding is previously defined, the method includes such a control that the employment of the buffer does not exceed a predetermined value by controlling at least one of the following: frequency generated media packets, the number of generated repair packages and schedule transmission of media packets and repair packets.

7. System for buffering the media stream for transmission containing a device for transmitting and receiving equipment in which the transfer device includes a stream generator configured to generate media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream and for forming the transmitted packets; and a hypothetical decoder that is configured to perform a hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including a first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; the output of packets from the first buffer hypothetica the who decoding on the basis of a frame transmission; the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding, but such a transfer device configured to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the first value, and control the employment of the second buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the second value.

8. The system according to claim 7, in which the specified controller configured to control the level of employment in the buffer by controlling at least one of the following: work stream generator; generating at least one frame of the transmission; the upload schedule.

9. The system according to claim 7 or 8, in which the specified stream generator includes a first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream; the generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets; a second driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission and the scheduler to generate a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets.

10. The system according to claim 7 or 8, including driver error-correction code for the formation of Dan who's direct error correction on the basis of the media packets, while specified second driver packages configured for forming one or more repair packets based on data direct error correction, where the system is configured to include at least one repair packet in the packets for transmission.

11. The system according to claim 7, comprising setting the value of the initial buffering delay of the second hypothetical decoding after entering the first packet in the second buffer hypothetical decoding.

12. The system according to claim 11, where the hypothetical decoder is adapted to the removal of one elementary media from the second buffer hypothetical decoding, expires when the value of the initial buffering delay of the second hypothetical decoding.

13. The system of claim 10, in which the buffer size of the hypothetical decoding is previously defined, with a hypothetical decoder adapted for such a control that the employment of the buffer does not exceed a predetermined value by controlling at least one of the following: frequency generated media packets, the number of generated repair packages and schedule transmission of media packets and repair packets.

14. Device for transmission control, comprising a buffer for buffering the media stream for transmission from the specified device to the receiving device, streaming generate the R, configured for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream and for forming the transmitted packets; and a hypothetical decoder that is configured to perform a hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including a first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; the output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission; the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output of the first buffer hypothetical decoding; however, the specified device for transmission control configured to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the first value, and control the employment of the second buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the second value.

15. The device according to 14, wherein said controller is configured to control the level of employment in the buffer by controlling at least one of the following: work stream generator; generating at least one frame of the transmission; the upload schedule.

16. The device 14 or 15, wherein said thread is the first generator includes a first driver packages for generating media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream; the generator frame to generate at least one frame of the transmission on the basis of the transmitted media packets; a second driver packages for the formation of the transmitted packets from the at least one frame of the transmission and the scheduler to generate a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets.

17. Server multimedia services broad/multicast, broadcast, including a buffer for buffering the media stream for transmission from the server to the receiving device, the server also includes a stream generator configured to generate media packets from at least one kind of media information of the media stream and for forming the transmitted packets; and a hypothetical decoder that is configured to perform a hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including a first buffer hypothetical decoding buffer packets being transmitted in accordance with the schedule of transmission; the output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission; the second hypothetical buffer for buffering packets formed on the basis of the output data from the first buffer hypothetical decoding; however, the specified server is configured to control the employment of the first buffer hypothetical decoding so that it n is exceeded first value, and control the employment of the second buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the second value; a transceiver for transmitting packets to the receiving device.

18. Computer readable medium, the medium on which is recorded a computer program comprising executable steps performed by the machine for buffering packets of a media stream by forming the transmitted packets from at least one kind of media information stream generator transmitting device; generating a schedule for transmission of the transmitted packets; performing a first hypothetical decoding in accordance with the schedule of transmission, including running machine steps for buffering packets for transmission in accordance with the schedule transmission in the first buffer hypothetical decoding; and output of packets from the first buffer hypothetical decoding on the basis of a frame transmission; the second hypothetical decoding, including buffering of packets formed on the basis of the output data from the first buffer hypothetical decoding; managing the employment level of the first buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the first value; and control the employment of the second buffer hypothetical decoding so that it does not exceed the second value./p>

19. Computer readable medium medium according p in which the specified control includes executable machine steps to control at least one of the following: work stream generator; generating at least one frame of the transmission; the upload schedule.

20. Computer readable medium medium according p or 19, in which the specified control includes executable machine steps to generate the data direct error correction on the basis of the media packets; forming one or more repair packets on the basis of data direct error correction; on at least one of repair packets in packets.



 

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27 cl, 115 dwg, 20 tbl

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19 cl, 4 dwg

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22 cl, 11 dwg

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16 cl, 6 dwg

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14 cl, 7 dwg

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45 cl, 4 dwg

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31 cl, 8 dwg

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24 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: physics, communications.

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18 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: physics, communication.

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24 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer technology.

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10 cl, 4 dwg

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35 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: physics; communications.

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EFFECT: possibility of simultaneous reception data broadcast from two or more broadcast channels for playback or storage.

53 cl, 18 dwg

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