Method and device for generating radiation in required wavelength range and lithography device based on said method and device

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the generation of radiation at the desired wavelength.

In particular, the invention relates to a method of generating radiation in a given direction in the desired wavelength range, with the specified method includes:

- obtaining initial radiation using a radiation source, the wavelengths of which include the specified desired range;

filtering the specified initial radiation to essentially eliminate the rays of the initial radiation, the wavelength of which is outside the desired range.

The present invention relates also to a device for generating radiation in this way, as well as lithography device containing such a device.

The methods and devices of the aforementioned type is known from the prior art.

Example (not restrictive) associated with the generation of radiation of the desired wavelength for the optical system used for lithography on a photosensitive substrate.

Figure 1 schematically shows the optical system 100 that contains:

generator 10 of the radiation in the desired wavelength range;

system 11 of the lens receiving radiation from the generator 10 and converts this radiation (e.g., by the collimation and/or focusing its rays);

mask 1, receiving the converted radiation from the lens system and selectively passing only those rays that fall on the mask in the zone "transmissive" pattern 120, while the remaining part of the radiation is delayed mask;

the substrate 13, which receives the rays missed the mask, and the surface of which is exposed to this radiation contains a photoresist or photosensitive material.

Rays falling on the substrate, interact with the coating material and thus form, on the substrate surface pattern corresponding to the transmissive pattern of the mask.

The desired range of the given wavelength generator 10 can in particular be in the range of the ultraviolet region (UV) or vacuum ultraviolet spectrum region (VUV).

It should be clarified that in the text of the description, the term "VUV" conventionally referred to as VUV-rays, and soft x-rays.

VUV rays are of very short wavelengths (less than 100 nm, for example of the order of several tens of nanometers, and in one embodiment, the use of radiation corresponds to the wavelength of 13.5 nm). Such preference is given, in particular, for the implementation of photolithography, because the image formed by rays, respectively, have very small dimensions. This allows you to create more drawings on the substrate one is the same size.

However, the generator radiation must interact with the means for filtering radiation.

Indeed, in some cases, in particular for generators of radiation with a wavelength in the VUV region generator includes a source of radiation of the plasma type.

Such radiation sources, in addition to the required radiation, emit also:

radiation, the wavelengths of which is not in the required range; and/or

- solid fragments formed by the interaction between the plasma and the solid parts of the chamber in which the plasma (the target chamber walls and so on).

For the selection of the radiation emerging from the generator, only the rays of the desired wavelength is necessary to provide filtering at the output of the radiation source (for example, directly behind the source to avoid damage to the mask solid fragments).

As is known, such a filtration media contain multilayer mirror selectively reflecting the rays depending on their wavelength.

Such multilayer mirror works like a bandpass filter.

Of course, that it does not transmit unwanted pieces that can go from the radiation source, so the items that are means for filtering, not exposed to such fragments.

This re is giving allows you to filter the rays emerging from the radiation source, which may cause splinters.

However, a disadvantage of this known configuration is that coming out of the source particles may damage the mirror filtering tools.

Of course, it is possible to provide a variation in which the specified filtering feature far from the source, to reduce the possibility of damage to the mirror these filtering tools.

But in this case, significantly reduced the radiation flux falling on filtering, which will adversely affect the efficiency of the entire optical system.

Thus, it appears that the known solution for generating radiation of a given wavelength associated with disadvantages, if the radiation source can generate the fragments.

Moreover, this disadvantage applies, in particular, to the cases of application in which the required wavelengths are in the VUV region.

The present invention is to eliminate these disadvantages.

In this regard, the first object of the present invention is a method of generating radiation with a given direction of emission and in the desired wavelength range, with the specified method includes:

- obtaining initial radiation using a radiation source, the wavelengths of which include the specified desired range;

filtering the specified initial radiation, essentially, eliminating rays of the initial radiation, the wavelength of which is out of the specified range,

characterized in that the filtering is carried out by providing controlled distribution of the index of refraction in the field of management, which passes through the initial radiation, thus, to selectively deflect the rays of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and to pass the rays of the desired wavelength.

This method is characterized by the following distinctive, but not restrictive features:

- the specified managed the distribution of the index of refraction is carried out by controlling the density distribution of electrons in the field of management;

the management area is located in the plasma;

plasma containing the management area, is located in the cell associated with the radiation source;

- manage the density of electrons is carried out so that the electron density was higher on the distance from the Central line of emission of the primary radiation than the specified center line of emission of the primary radiation;

center line of emission of the primary radiation is a direct initial radiation, and initial radiation generated by the radiation source p is essentially with axisymmetric distribution is relatively straightforward initial radiation;

- to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the plasma is injected energy along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

the energy input is carried out by ionization of the plasma along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

- to implement the ionization perform the following operations:

serves voltage to the electrodes of the chamber containing the plasma, the electrodes are separated from each other along the direction defined by the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

enter the energy beam on the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

- for selecting rays of the desired wavelength output management post at least one window for selective transmission of the rays in the desired wavelength range;

- each window is placed on the center line of emission of the primary radiation with the curvilinear abscissa, corresponding to the intersection of deviation from the desired wavelength range with the center line of emission of the primary radiation;

- the desired wavelength range is in the interval [0-100 nm];

- the desired wavelength range is in the VUV region.

The second object of the present invention is a device for generating radiation is placed in a given direction and in the desired wavelength range, when the specified device contains:

the source of the initial radiation, the wavelengths of which include the desired range;

- filtering of the initial radiation, essentially eliminating rays initial radiation whose wavelength is outside the desired range,

characterized in that the filtering means include means to provide controlled distribution of the index of refraction in the field of management, which passes through the initial radiation, depending on their wavelength and for selecting rays of the desired wavelength.

Such a device is characterized by the following distinctive, but not restrictive features:

means to provide controlled distribution of the index of refraction of rays contain controls the electron density distribution in the field of management;

the management area is located in the plasma;

plasma containing the management area, is located in the cell associated with the radiation source;

- controls the electron density distribution provide such electron density, which is higher away from the Central line of emission of the primary radiation than on the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

Central l is of the initial radiation emission is a direct initial radiation, and controls the electron density distribution is made to the possibility of obtaining the electron density, almost axisymmetric with respect to the line of the initial radiation;

- controls the electron density distribution provide input into the plasma energy along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

tools of the input energy includes the tools of ionization along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

tools of the input energy includes the tools designed for:

the supply of electric voltage to the electrodes of the chamber containing the plasma, the electrodes are separated from each other along the direction defined by the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

input energy beam on the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;

- output management device includes at least one window for selective transmission of rays of the desired wavelength range;

- each window is placed on the center line of emission of the primary radiation with the curvilinear abscissa, corresponding to the intersection of deviation from the desired wavelength range with the center line of emission of the primary radiation;

- the device is in contains a multilayer mirror for additional filtering, interacting at least with some Windows;

the device contains multiple modules, each of which contains a source of primary radiation and filtering, and optical means for collecting the filtered radiation and direction outside of the device;

- optical means is a multilayer mirror, which provides final filtration of radiation;

- the desired wavelength range is in the interval [0-100 nm];

- the desired wavelength range is in the VUV region.

The object of the present invention is also a device for lithography containing a device for generating radiation, characterized by the above symptoms.

Other distinctive features, objectives and advantages of the present invention will be more apparent from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, in addition to figure 1, described above, on which:

figure 2 - schematic diagram of the radiation generator in accordance with the present invention;

figure 3 is a similar diagram showing the electron density distribution, which is controlled in a special way, in the context of the present invention;

4 is a view of the private options for performing the present invention with multiple radiation sources.

Figure 2 schematically showing the n generator 20 radiation in accordance with the present invention.

This radiation generator includes a camera 21, which, as a rule, perform closed, but one side 210 remains open to the transmission of rays from the camera.

The chamber 21 contains the source 211, which is able to create the initial radiation R0.

This is usually the source containing the plasma.

Initial radiation consists of rays, whose wavelength corresponds to the desired wavelength range.

In a preferred, but not restrictive embodiment, use of the present invention the desired wavelength range is in the interval [0-100 nm].

Thus, this desired wavelength range can be contained in the spectrum of VUV.

Thus, the camera 21 can generate the initial radiation, a substantial portion of the rays which corresponds to the desired wavelength range.

As already mentioned, at the emission source of the generated radiation can lead to undesirable effects:

- initial radiation may contain rays, wavelengths which do not match the specified range;

- together with the initial radiation source 211 may also emit some shards.

To prevent these unwanted effects generator 20 includes means for filtering the initial radiation.

These filtering tools can create manipulated the th distribution of the index of refraction in the field of management 212, which passes through the initial radiation, thus, to selectively deflect the rays of initial radiation depending on their wavelength.

After that, select (in particular, by means which will be described below) rays of the desired wavelength.

Thus, the use of physical principle, similar to that which leads, for example, the deviation of light rays in the presence of a gradient of the refractive index of air (in particular, air, characterized by large temperature gradients).

In this case, as shown in figure 2, the control area is located within the chamber 21.

It is necessary to clarify that this management area may be located outside of the chamber 21 at its output on path initial radiation.

Managing the distribution of refractive index in the field of management can be performed by controlling the electron density distribution in this region of the control.

In this regard, you can apply the relation linking the refractive index η with electron density ne

η=(1-ne/nwith)1/2where nwith- critical electron density, above which light can pass, and that the value of nwithassociated with the wavelength of the considered beams.

Returning to the alternative implementation shown in F. the Data2, note again that the area 212 is inside the chamber 21, that is, the management area is located in the plasma associated with the source 211.

Management of the electron density distribution in the area can affect the trajectory of the different rays of initial radiation depending on the wavelength of these rays.

Figure 2 shows two main trajectories of two types of rays:

- ray with the first wavelength λ1. These rays pass through the path R1;

radiation with the second wavelength λ2, the smaller the wavelength λ1. These rays pass through the path R2.

Shown here, a preferred embodiment of the invention in the field of management to create the density distribution of the electrons so that the electron density away from the center line of emission of the primary radiation is higher than on the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

In the case shown in figure 2, the Central line of emission of the primary radiation corresponds to the straight line A. it is Necessary to clarify that in the present example, the camera usually has the shape of a circular cylinder, and the initial radiation is emitted essentially with axisymmetric distribution of rays around the line A.

The configuration of the required electron density distribution for presents the second example is shown in figure 3 in the form of curves of the electron density.

From figure 3 it is seen that the value of electron density is greater at the edges of the camera (distance from line a), than in the middle of the camera (next to the line.

It is also noted that the three curves shown electron density diverge in the peripheral region of the chamber. This phenomenon will be discussed below.

It should be noted that such a density distribution of electrons is opposite to that which is usually observed in the chamber of the radiation source.

Indeed in the chamber of a known type, as a rule, the higher density in the center of the chamber.

Thus, the configuration of the density shown in figure 3, is a specific and designed specifically for the described application of the invention. To create such a density distribution of electrons in the field of management in the plasma chamber 21 is injected energy along a specified line A.

This energy input can be performed, for example, using electron or laser beam aimed at the management area along the axis indicated by the line A.

Schematically this flow of energy is shown by an arrow E. It allows you to ionize the plasma in the management area along the line A.

Before this input energy to the electrodes of the chamber containing the plasma, serves voltage, and these electrodes are separated from each other in the direction generally defined by the decree of the Noah center line of emission of the primary radiation.

Figure 3 schematically shows such electrodes 2121 and 2122.

Thus, it is possible to create the electron density distribution, shown in figure 3.

It should be clarified that this distribution can be done, starting with the known density distribution in which the density is higher in the center of the chamber.

Indeed in this case the energy input and associated ionization allow "inversion" configuration density and to obtain a higher density near the walls of the chamber.

As mentioned, figure 3 shows three curves of the density distribution.

These three curves almost coincide in the Central area of the camera (near the line), but correspond to different values of the density near the walls of the chamber.

These three curves correspond to three consecutive state density distribution of electrons after ionization of the Central zone management.

As a result of this ionization electron density is already higher at the periphery of the field of management.

If the evolution of the ionized plasma is not stopped, then this configuration will be even more pronounced, and the density will be greater at the periphery. Indeed, the high electron density present in large quantities on the periphery of the chamber, will tend to melt the coating of the inner CTE is OK this camera layer by layer.

As a result of this melting on the periphery of the camera, the number of electrons increases, which further increases the electron density in this zone.

Figure 2 shows the window 222 located in the focal point of the ray path R2.

This window is a means of sampling rays with a desired wavelength among the beams of the initial radiation.

Already mentioned, different initial radiation rays R0 deviate in different ways depending on their wavelength due to the electron density distribution in the field of management.

This sampling variance makes the rays corresponding to the desired wavelength to converge to a precise point on the line, " let's call this point the "focal point".

Thus, the location of the focal point on the line (this position can be defined curvilinear abscissa marks associated with the specified line And depends on the wavelength corresponding to this focal point.

Figure 2 shows the focal points F1 and F2, corresponding to the ray paths R1 and R2.

Thus, the window 222 is located in the focal point F2. The function of this window is very rays reaching the line And almost at the level of the focal point F2 (i.e. rays with a wavelength of λ2). For this box 222 contains a hole 2220 preferably with the center line A.

So about what atom, this window is the preferred tool selection only rays given wavelength; it improves filtration of rays in the initial radiation.

Thus, you can position the window anywhere on the line And depending on the wavelength that you want to select.

It is clear that the invention can effectively allocate the rays of the desired wavelength (or, more precisely, the required wavelengths).

In the context of the present invention prevents contact with the filter tool, such as a multilayer mirror, shards, which can damage.

In the framework of the present invention the selection of the required beams in a precisely defined point, to which they deviate in itself can largely avoid possible falling debris coming from the source 21.

The use of such funds selection window allows to further reduce the number of these fragments.

As a result of this filtering debris does not remain or remains only a small amount.

It should be clarified that the focal point of sampled rays can be positioned means optical conversion beam, formed filtered rays.

Such optical conversion can be, in particular, the collimation or focusing.

Due to this, the selected beam can the be sent directly on the lithographic mask.

If necessary, you can also send the selected beam for extra filtering.

Such additional filtering may include multilayer mirror type mirror used in today's popular media filter.

Layers of such multilayer mirrors do so (composition and thickness)to mirror selectively reflects only the rays of this wavelength (depending on the so-called conditions of Bragg - Wolfe, linking the reflection coefficient of the mirror with the wavelength of the incident rays).

In this embodiment, using the serial number of the several filtering tools. Thus closest to the output means of carrying out selective deviation of the rays and their selection, protects most remote from the outlet means (multilayer mirror) from coming out of the source fragments.

Finally, it is necessary to clarify that the invention can be used in a device that contains many of the original sources of radiation, each of them interacts with the means to manage the distribution of refractive index in the corresponding area of the control.

Schematically the use case shown in figure 4.

Figure 4 multiple cameras 21i, similar to that already described chamber 21, emit according to dtweedie radiation along respective Central lines Ai, converging to the Central optical system 23.

The Central optical system can receive the rays emerging from one or more cameras 21i depending on which of these cameras is activated.

The distance between the optical system 23 and each camera is adjusted so as to select the wavelength of the filtered radiation corresponding to each active cell.

Thus, in the optical system 23 can be directed beams of different wavelengths coming from different cameras.

In any case, the optical system 23 is configured to send the received rays outward, for example, other means of optical radiation conversion (such as lithographic mask).

1. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the desired wavelength range, including:
obtaining initial radiation using a radiation source, the wavelengths of which include the desired range;
filtering the initial radiation so as to essentially eliminate the rays of the initial radiation, the wavelength of which is outside the desired range, and filtering is carried out by providing controlled distribution of the index of refraction in the field of management, which passes through the initial radiation, thereby to selectively about clonate rays initial radiation depending on their wavelength and select rays with a predetermined wavelength, characterized in that the controlled distribution of the index of refraction is obtained by control of the electron density distribution in the field of management.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control area is in the plasma.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the plasma containing the management area, is located in the cell associated with the radiation source.

4. The method according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the control of the density of electrons is carried out so that the distance from the Central line of emission of the primary radiation to obtain a higher electron density than the specified center line of emission of the primary radiation.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the Central line of emission of the primary radiation is a direct initial radiation, and initial radiation was produced using a radiation source with almost axisymmetric distribution around the specified initial direct radiation.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that to obtain the electron density distribution in the plasma is injected energy along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the energy input is carried out by ionization of the plasma along the Central line of emission of the original the initial radiation.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that for the ionization perform the following operations:
serves voltage to the electrodes of the chamber containing the plasma, the electrodes are separated from each other along the direction defined by the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;
enter the energy beam along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for selecting rays of the desired wavelength output management post at least one window for selective transmission of the rays in the desired wavelength range.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that each window is placed on the center line of emission of the primary radiation with the curvilinear abscissa, corresponding to the intersection of the rejected beams of radiation in the desired wavelength range, with the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the desired wavelength range is in the interval [0-100 nm].

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the desired wavelength range is in the VUV region.

13. The device for generating radiation in the desired wavelength range and a given direction, comprising:
the source of the initial radiation, the wavelengths of which include C is the given range;
filtering the initial radiation to essentially eliminate the initial rays of radiation whose wavelength is outside the desired range, and filtering tools provide a means to ensure
managed the distribution of the index of refraction in the field of management, which passes through the initial radiation to selectively deflect the rays depending on their wavelength and select beams with a desired wavelength,
characterized in that the means to provide controlled distribution of the index of refraction provides tools to control the density distribution of electrons in the field of management.

14. The device according to item 13, wherein the management area is located in the plasma.

15. The device according to 14, wherein the plasma containing the management area, is located in the cell associated with the radiation source.

16. The device 14 or 15, characterized in that the means for controlling the electron density distribution is made with the possibility of getting away from the Central line of emission of the primary radiation of higher density than the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

17. The device according to item 16, characterized in that the Central line of emission of the original and the aqueous radiation is a direct initial radiation, and means to control the electron density distribution is made with the possibility of creating electron density, almost axisymmetric with respect to the line of the original radiation.

18. The device according to 17, characterized in that the means for controlling the density distribution of electrons contain means for introducing energy into the plasma along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

19. The device according to p, characterized in that the means for introducing energy provides tools for ionization of the plasma along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

20. The device according to claim 19, characterized in that the means for introducing energy provides tools designed for:
the supply of electric voltage to the electrodes of the chamber containing the plasma, the electrodes are separated from each other along the direction defined by the Central line of emission of the primary radiation;
input energy beam along the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

21. The device according to item 13, wherein the output management device includes at least one window for selective transmission of the rays in the desired wavelength range.

22. The device according to item 21, wherein each window is located on the Central line emission p is roachling radiation with curvilinear abscissa, corresponding to the intersection of the rejected beams located in the desired wavelength range, with the Central line of emission of the primary radiation.

23. The device according to item 21 or 22, characterized in that it contains a multilayer mirror for additional filtering that is associated with at least some of the Windows.

24. The device according to item 23, characterized in that it contains many modules, each of which contains the source of the initial radiation and filtering tools, and the device has an optical tool used to collect the radiation transmitted filtering, and after which it outside of the device.

25. The device according to paragraph 24, wherein the optical means is a multilayer mirror made with the possibility of a final filtering of the collected radiation.

26. The device according to item 13, wherein the desired wavelength range is in the interval [0-100 nm].

27. The device according to p, wherein the desired wavelength range is in the VUV region.

28. Device for lithography containing a device for generating radiation in one of PP-27.



 

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The invention relates to a means for receiving x-ray radiation, in particular to the means intended for use in the study of substances, materials or devices

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.

EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.

30 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

11 cl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

8 cl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.

EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.

EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

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