Control means of cooling loop with internal heat exchanger

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: cooling loop (2) for circulation of coolant in preliminary specified direction of flow contains in the direction of flow heat-eliminating heat exchanger (4), throttle valve (8) of evaporator, evaporator (10), compressor (22), internal heat exchanger (16), "cold face" of which is located between evaporator (10) and compressor (22), sensor (24) of temperature on inlet, located between evaporator (10) and internal heat exchanger (16), and sensor (26) of temperature on inlet, located between internal heat exchanger (16) and compressor (22), and control device (28) for control of throttle valve (8) of evaporator on the basis of measurements by temperature sensors on outlet and inlet. Control device is implemented with ability of control by throttle valve (8) of evaporator on the basis of installation of temperature on outlet in sensor (24) of temperature on inlet and shift of temperature installation on outlet on the basis of measurement by sensor (26) of temperature on outlet.

EFFECT: providing of adaptation of cooling loop to different conditions of operation in winter and summer modes.

12 cl, 1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a refrigeration circuit for circulating refrigerant in a predefined flow direction, comprising in flow direction a heat exchanger, a throttle valve of the evaporator, the evaporator, the compressor, the indoor heat exchanger, the cold side of which is located between the evaporator and the compressor, and a control device for a throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of signals from a temperature sensor, given by the temperature sensor.

In refrigeration circuits of this type the temperature sensor is located between the evaporator and the internal heat exchanger, and they work in the desktop mode, which is called "prostopinije". The term "prostopinije" refers to the condition of the evaporator, instead of complete evaporation of the refrigerant in the evaporator provides at its output a mixture of gaseous and liquid evaporator, which has a very slight overheating. The internal heat exchanger will increase the overheating of this gaseous and liquid refrigerant, thereby vaporizing the remainder of the liquid refrigerant and to ensure reliable operation of the compressor that receives the refrigerant after the internal heat exchanger. As is well known, the liquid refrigerant at the inlet of the compressor can cause serious damage to the compressor.

To storyoftheyear heat transfer in the evaporator, at the outlet of the evaporator temperature sensor. Along with the measured pressure value is calculated, for example, the suction pressure, temperature, evaporation and overheating. On the basis of temperature or superheat at the outlet of the evaporator control device controls the throttle valve of the evaporator and, therefore, the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator. Depending on the specific cooling needs, desired consumer cold, you can maintain the optimal setting for the flow of refrigerant through the evaporator.

However, the system depends not only on the cooling requirements, but also on other parameters like ambient temperature, etc. for Example, in the operation mode in the summer, the condensing temperature rises to 47°C and can drop to 15°C in winter, to optimize the energy consumption of the refrigeration circuit. This will result in significantly reduced performance of the internal heat exchanger due to temperature differences in winter mode. As a result, the fluid in the gaseous refrigerant to enter the compressor, because the performance of the internal heat exchanger is too small. On the other hand, in summer mode, critical may be the temperature at the outlet of the compressor, which leads to the decomposition of the refrigerant and/or lubricant, which is usually prisutstvie the em in the refrigerant in a number.

Accordingly, the present invention is to develop a refrigerant circuit and a method of operating such a circuit, which provides the adaptation of such a circuit to different working conditions in winter and summer modes.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention this problem is solved due to the fact that provides a temperature sensor output between the internal heat exchanger and the compressor, and a control device for a throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor at the exit.

Thus, in accordance with the embodiment of the invention, the temperature or superheat at the exit of the internal heat exchanger is used to establish the degree of opening of the throttle valve of the evaporator, and this guarantees that the intended state of the refrigerant passing to the compressor inlet.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention the refrigeration circuit further comprises a temperature sensor at the entrance, which is located between the evaporator and the internal heat exchanger, and the control device is arranged to control the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurements in the temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet. Because of the wide range of conditions the ambient temperature control on the basis of the readings of the temperature sensor at the inlet may not be the optimal control for the refrigerant circuit in all this wide range. In particular, it may be preferable to switch between temperature sensor input temperature sensor output depending on specific conditions, such as ambient temperature. Such switching can be performed either manually or automatically. For example, switching can be performed immediately after condensing temperature falls below a predetermined value. You can also use measurements of the two values to determine or calculate the correct degree of opening of the throttle valve of the evaporator.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention, the liquid refrigerant passing to a throttle valve of the evaporator, can provide heat to superheat the liquid and gaseous refrigerant leaving the evaporator. To achieve this effect the "cold side" of the internal heat exchanger can be placed in the circuit between the evaporator and the compressor. Thus, the refrigerant passing to the evaporator, which is usually associated with the consumer cold, netgravity, and the refrigerant passing to the compressor overheats, both of these effects are beneficial for such a refrigeration circuit. In addition, the "hot side" of the internal heat exchanger can be connected with any suitable source is an infrared heat inside or outside of the refrigeration circuit. The presence of "hot side" between the heat exchanger and the receiver, respectively) and the throttle valve of the evaporator has the advantage of underheating of the refrigerant before the throttle valve of the evaporator, which leads to a reduced formation of instantly released gas circuit. Along with the suction gas overheating, i.e. the refrigerant passing to the compressor, it provides optimal thermal shift inside the refrigerant circuit.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention the refrigerant may be, for example, CO2and the cooling circuit can be performed in supercritical operation, and a heat exchanger may be configured to operate as a condenser and gas cooler. The term "supercritical refrigerant" refers to the refrigerant, which requires operation of the refrigeration circuit in the supercritical state, at least in some modes. For example, when a refrigerant is used WITH the2summer mode is typically supercritical and winter mode may be a normal operating mode, when the greatest pressure in the cooling circuit is below the critical pressure. In such a refrigerating circuit with supercritical refrigerant heat heat is obmennik is usually called a "gas cooler", and this means that the gas cooler is made with the possibility of cooling the gaseous refrigerant in the supercritical regime, and condensing the gaseous refrigerant in the normal mode.

Option of implementing the present invention relates to a refrigerating apparatus containing refrigerant circuit in accordance with any of the above embodiments offer the refrigerant circuit, in particular, when the evaporator is operating as a condenser CO2-cascade. Then CO2used as low - and high-temperature refrigerant. The refrigeration apparatus may be cooling apparatus for supermarket, etc. intended for cooling shelves, cabinets, etc. In the case of a capacitor with CO2-cascade "hot side" of the internal heat exchanger can be made with the possibility of impact on gas discharged from the low-temperature compressor (low-temperature compressors).

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention also provide a method of operation of the refrigeration circuit for circulating refrigerant in a predefined direction of flow in the flow direction of the refrigerant circuit includes a heat exchanger, a throttle valve of the evaporator, the evaporator, compare the SOR, the internal heat exchanger, the cold side of which is located between the evaporator and the compressor, the temperature sensor output between the inner heat exchanger and the compressor, and the control device, and the method includes the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor output and the measured pressure (suction). Generally speaking, the preferred implementation of the methods described below, can be used together with the variants of the implementation of the refrigeration circuit disclosed in this application.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention is provided a method of operation of the refrigeration circuit, optionally containing a temperature sensor at the inlet, located between the evaporator and the internal heat exchanger, which includes the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurements of the temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet and pressure measurements.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention the throttle valve of the evaporator includes a stage on which:

control the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of the set temperature at the entrance to the temperature sensor at the inlet and

move the temperature setting at the entrance to the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor is ihade.

The temperature setting at the input can also be defined as the installation of a temperature difference, i.e. the installation of overheating. Actual overheating can be calculated by subtracting the evaporation temperature, which can be calculated from the measured suction pressure, the temperature at the entrance. Similarly, you can define the installation overheating.

The terms "inlet temperature" or any other "temperature", "temperature measurement", etc. do not necessarily have to mean "temperature" in the strict sense of the word, and can display the value pointing to a specific temperature value. Similarly, it is sufficient that the temperature sensors generate data indicating a specific temperature, although they can also be sensors of the type which give the exact temperature. In accordance with this method the temperature sensor input, i.e. the temperature at the outlet of the evaporator, to control the degree of opening the valve of the evaporator, as usual. However, the adaptation of the unit for such control is carried out based on the temperature at the outlet of the internal heat exchanger. Thus, the temperature sensor output simply has an effect on the installation for regulation or control, and control is performed using the temperature measurements at the inlet to optimize the emission efficiency of the evaporator and the system as a whole.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the characteristic time constant for shifting the set temperature at the inlet or overheating is much larger than the characteristic time constant for controlling the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of the temperature at the entrance. This ensures that the inlet temperature or the temperature measurement at the entrance together with the evaporation temperature cause the throttle valve of the evaporator. Instead of using a larger characteristic time constant to shift the temperature at the inlet or overheating, you can define a relatively wide allowable range for measurement by the temperature sensor at the output, resulting in a shift of the temperature at the inlet or overheating is only when measuring the output temperature is out of range.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention a phase shift includes a stage on which to compare the measurement of the temperature sensor output with the installation of the outlet temperature or temperature range at the output and reduce the temperature setting on the input or overheating, if the measurement temperature sensor output exceeds the set temperature at the exit or ver the deposits limit the adjustment range of the outlet temperature, and increase the temperature setting on the input, if the measurement temperature sensor output is below the set temperature at the exit or lower limit of the adjustment range of the outlet temperature, respectively.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention stage throttle valve of the evaporator also includes a stage on which:

calculate a first degree of opening of the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor at the inlet and suction pressure;

calculate a second degree of opening of the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor output and, possibly, the suction pressure;

determine a smaller value of the first and second degrees of opening and

control the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of such lesser degree of opening.

When managing this type or measurement by the temperature sensor input or measurement by the temperature sensor at the outlet, possibly together with the measurement of suction pressure, provides control of the valves of the evaporator. You can either use a separate installation temperature or overheating or the temperature or overheating sensor temperature at the inlet and/or the temperature sensor output. Such a device or such a mode the zone temperature can be either fixed or fixed, or, alternatively, may be operated control device.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the characteristic time constant for control on the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor output is much larger than the characteristic time constant for controlling the throttle valve of the evaporator on the basis of measurement by the temperature sensor at the entrance. In addition, if the temperature sensor output, similar to that described above, can be used over a wide temperature range.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention to set an appropriate upper limit of the temperature range at the input of about 3 To greater than the temperature of saturated gaseous refrigerant at this location path.

Below, with reference to the accompanying drawing, provides a more detailed description of embodiments of the present invention, at the same time on a single drawing shows a refrigerant circuit in accordance with the embodiment of the present invention.

The drawing shows a refrigerant circuit 2 for the circulation of refrigerant, which consists of one or more components, as well as CO2in the pre-defined direction of flow.

2works as a gas cooler 4. After the gas cooler 4 CO2passes through the regulating valve high pressure and enters the receiver 6. The receiver 6 collects and stores the refrigerant for subsequent filing in one or multiple throttle valves 8 of the evaporator of one or many consumers 12 cold. In addition, the receiver 6 separates instantly generated gas, which passes through the regulating pressure valve and then passes into the suction pipe 30. With throttle valve 8 of the evaporator is connected to the evaporator 10. The output 14 of the evaporator is connected with the inner heat exchanger 16, the output 19 which is connected with the compressor node 20 that contains many of the compressors 22.

A throttle valve 8 of the evaporator may be an electronic expansion valve (EEV). The throttle valve of the evaporator can be carried out on the basis of measured values, such as temperatures and pressures. The throttle valve 8 of the evaporator may be provided by control unit 28. The controller 28 preferably is a control device UA300E company Linde. In some places between the output 14 of the evaporator 10 and the entrance within the indoor heat exchanger, and the output 18 of the internal heat exchanger and the inlet of the compressor unit 22 or the compressor, respectively, may be present thermometers or sensors 24 and 26 temperature, in particular the sensor 24, the temperature at the inlet and the sensor 26 of the outlet temperature. In the case of multiple refrigerant circuits consumers can be provided on a single sensor 26 of the outlet temperature for each refrigeration circuit-consumer. You can also use a single temperature sensor at the outlet in the common suction line 30, which belongs to all refrigeration circuits-consumers. Similarly, in the circuit can be gauges or sensors 27 and/or 27' pressure, designed to measure the suction pressure. The measured suction pressure is used to calculate the evaporation temperature in the evaporator 10. The suction pressure can usually be measured in place 27 and in place 27', receiving only minor differences between them, which can be taken into account when calculating the evaporation pressure.

Instead of a General control device 28 can use a variety of control devices for each refrigeration circuit-consumer or for each sensor 24, 26 temperature, etc.

When the work of the internal heat exchanger 16 superheat of the refrigerant flowing from the outlet of the evaporator 14, in order to guarantee the absolute dry gaseous refrigerant, i.e. "suction gas into the compressor 22. Suction gas is on the "cold side" of the internal heat exchanger 16, while the high-pressure refrigerant, the current pipeline 32, is on the "hot side" of the internal heat exchanger 16, so that heat is transferred from the "hot side" in the intake gas, located on the "cold side". As a consequence, the high-pressure refrigerant is subcooled". Underheating reduces the amount of gas that instantly formed after the throttle valve 8 of the evaporator. At the same time suction gas overheating, which guarantees the supply of dry suction gas into the compressor 22.

For regulating the throttle valve 8 of the evaporator on the basis of the measurement by the temperature sensor you can use proportional-integral (PI) or proportional-integral-differential (PID) control. Such management can be integrated to the control device 28. PI - or PID-control sensor 26 of the outlet temperature, are outside of the internal heat exchanger 16, provides control of the overheating or the temperature of the suction gas. The control device 28 or the corresponding individual control device can calculate in parallel the degree of opening of the throttle valve 8 of the evaporator, while a smaller degree determines Epen opening of the throttle valve of the evaporator or the electromagnetic expansion valve 8. In standard operating conditions, the expansion controlled by the sensor 24, the temperature at the entrance. If the temperature at the outlet 18 and the sensor 26 of the outlet temperature, respectively, lower than its setting, the control unit 28 starts to operate the throttle valve 8 of the evaporator on the basis of the degree of opening that is defined on the basis of that of the outlet temperature. The parameter PI control sensor 26 of the outlet temperature may be set so that it will be much slower than the PI - or PID-control sensor 24, the temperature at the entrance. For this reason, it is possible to reduce the risk of fluctuations in the system.

Alternatively, when using two sensors 24, 26 temperature, in particular the sensor 24, the temperature at the inlet and the sensor 26, the temperature at the outlet, you can move the installation overheating of the control unit on the basis of the sensor 24, the temperature at the entrance and depending on the temperature generated by the sensor 26 of the outlet temperature. In a preferred embodiment, the system has a design that causes the shift setup for the sensor 24, the temperature at the entrance is much slower than in the case of a PI - or PID control based on the temperature change at the input. Accordingly, without increasing the risk of fluctuations, which could begin in case, if management was founded tol is to the sensor 26, the temperature at the exit.

1. Refrigeration circuit (2) for the circulation of refrigerant in a predefined flow direction, comprising in flow direction a heat exchanger (4), throttle valve (8) of the evaporator, the evaporator (10), the compressor (22), the internal heat exchanger (16), the "cold side" which is located between the evaporator (10) and a compressor (22), the sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance, located between the evaporator (10) and the internal heat exchanger (16)and the sensor (26) of the outlet temperature between the inner heat exchanger (16) and the compressor (22), and a control unit (28) for controlling the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of measurements of the temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet, while the control device is configured to control the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of the set temperature at the entrance to the sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance, and shift the temperature settings on the entrance on the basis of a measurement sensor (26) of the outlet temperature.

2. Refrigeration circuit (2) for the circulation of refrigerant in a predefined flow direction, comprising in flow direction a heat exchanger (4), throttle valve (8) of the evaporator, the evaporator (10), the compressor (22), the internal heat exchanger (16), the "cold side" which is located between the evaporator (10) and compressor is (22), the sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance, located between the evaporator (10) and the internal heat exchanger (16)and the sensor (26) of the outlet temperature between the inner heat exchanger (16) and the compressor (22), and a control unit (28) for controlling the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of measurements of the temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet, while the control device is configured to calculate the first degree of opening of the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of the temperature at the input, calculating a second degree of opening of the throttle valve (8) evaporator on the basis of the output temperature, determine a smaller value of the first and second degree of opening, and a throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of such lesser degree of opening.

3. Refrigeration circuit (2) according to claim 1 or 2, in which the "hot side" of the internal heat exchanger (16) is located between the heat exchanger (4) and throttle valve (8) of the evaporator.

4. Refrigeration circuit (2) according to claim 1 or 2, performed in supercritical operation, and a heat exchanger (4) is arranged to work as a gas cooler and condenser, respectively.

5. Refrigeration apparatus containing refrigerant circuit (2) according to any one of claims 1 to 4.

2cascade containing refrigerant circuit (2) according to claim 4.

7. The method of operation of the refrigeration circuit (2) for the circulation of refrigerant in the pre-defined direction of flow, and the circuit contains in flow direction a heat exchanger (4), throttle valve (8) of the evaporator, the evaporator (10), the compressor (22), the internal heat exchanger (16), the "cold side" which is located between the evaporator (10) and a compressor (22), the sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance, located between the evaporator (10) and the internal heat exchanger (16)and the sensor (26) of the outlet temperature, which is between the internal heat exchanger (16) and the compressor (22), and a control unit (28), and the method includes the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of measurements of the temperature sensors at the inlet and exit through the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of the set temperature at the entrance to the sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance, and shift the temperature settings on the entrance on the basis of a measurement sensor (26) of the outlet temperature.

8. The method according to claim 7, in which the characteristic time constant for shifting the set temperature at the inlet is much larger than the characteristic time constant for the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of measurement Yes the chick temperature at the entrance.

9. The method according to claim 7, in which the phase shift includes a stage on which compares the temperature with the set temperature on the yield and reduce the temperature setting on the input, if the outlet temperature exceeds the temperature setting on the output, and increase the temperature setting on the input, if the outlet temperature is below the set temperature at the outlet, respectively.

10. The method of operation of the refrigeration circuit (2) for the circulation of refrigerant in the pre-defined direction of flow, and the circuit contains in flow direction a heat exchanger (4), throttle valve (8) of the evaporator, the evaporator (10), the compressor (22), the internal heat exchanger (16), the "cold side" which is located between the evaporator (10) and a compressor (22), the sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance, located between the evaporator (10) and the internal heat exchanger (16)and the sensor (26) of the outlet temperature, which is between the internal heat exchanger (16) and the compressor (22), and a control unit (28), and the method includes the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of measurements of the temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet by calculating a first degree of opening of the throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of the temperature at the input, calculating a second degree of opening of the throttle valve (8) ispar the indicator based on the outlet temperature, determine a smaller value of the first and second degree of opening, and a throttle valve (8) of the evaporator on the basis of such lesser degree of opening.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the characteristic time constant for control on the basis of a sensor (26) of the outlet temperature is much larger than the characteristic time constant for control on the basis of a sensor (24) the temperature at the entrance.

12. The method according to any of claims 7 to 11, in which the temperature at the outlet of about 3K higher than the temperature of saturated gaseous refrigerant at this point of the circuit (2).



 

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FIELD: heating; refrigerating or freezing plants.

SUBSTANCE: closed refrigerating circuit comprises compressor (1), condenser (2), evaporator (4), receiver (9), capillary tube (8) between condenser and receiver, capillary tube (10) between receiver and evaporator and thermal contact (11) between suction pipeline and receiver. Suction pipeline is oriented so that sucked gas passes through receiver from its lower part to upper part. Cooling agent in receiver flows from its upper part to lower part. There is thermal contact (12) between suction pipeline and capillary tube (8), which connects condenser and receiver.

EFFECT: superheating of sucked gas, prevention of water condensation in suction pipeline and increased efficiency factor.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: refrigerating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes setting the turbine outlet temperature and continuous measurement of pressure and temperature after air bleed stages of engine compressor. Air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are calculated by means of system modulating unit. Then, degree of reduction of pressure in turbine, present magnitude of corrected rotational speed of rotor and optimal magnitude of corrected rotational of rotor corresponding to maximum efficiency of turbine are determined. Braking torque of rotor is changed by acting on braking unit till optimal and present magnitudes of rotational speed of rotor get equal. In case rated magnitude of air temperature at turbine outlet exceeds preset magnitude, flow rate of purging air is decreased or increased till magnitudes get equal. When these temperatures are equal, consumption of fuel is determined for each bleed stage and is analyzed for obtaining minimum consumption of fuel. Then, air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are determined by means of sensors. According to results thus, obtained, above-mentioned parameters are determined and processes are repeated till optimal and present magnitudes of corrected rotational speed of turbine rotor and preset and measured magnitudes of air temperature at turbine outlet get equal after which actual consumption of fuel is determined.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel.

6 cl, 1 dwg

Gas compressor // 2249727

FIELD: refrigeration industry; cooling installations components.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of cooling installations equipment and may be used for production of air conditioning systems. The gas compressor contains a body and located in it two driving and two driven pistons. The body is made out of two hemispheres and contains two gaskets made out of an antifriction heat-insulating elastic-flexible material. Each piston is made in the form of ball-type sectors, on a spherical surface of each of which there is an elastic member. An aperture angle of lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driving pistons makes 86° - 90°, and an aperture angle of the lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driven pistons makes 42°-83°. A groove is made radial with trapezoidal cross-section and oriented perpendicularly to axes of the shaft of the compressor. The bases of the cross-section are in ratio of 1:2 - 1:5, and a lateral side is equal to the length of the smaller base. The elastic member is located on the bottom of each groove and its cross-section is an ellipse. The bigger diameter of the ellipse by 3-7 % is more than the length of the centerline of the trapezoidal cross-section of such a groove. On the elastic member there is the second elastic member of a rectangular cross section, the width of which by 2-5 % exceeds the length of the smaller base of the groove, and its length ensures formation of a ledge on the ball-type surface of the piston, the height of which makes 1-3 % of the smaller base of the groove. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the gas compressor.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the gas compressor.

6 dwg

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