Manufacturing method of products of type stepped shaft by cross-wedge rolling

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: it is implemented shaping of barstock by means of redistribution of metal lengthways the axis of blank by means of movable across axis at least two wedge-like tools. At least to tone wedge-like tool it is applied additional reciprocative transportation on-the-mitre from 0° up to 90° to direction of its main motion with amplitude of oscillation from 0.002d up to 0.02d and frequency more than 10v/(πd), where: d - diametre of barstock, mm, v - rolling rate, mm/s.

EFFECT: fatigue strength of shafts is increased, surface smoothness of shafts is also increased, effort of operation drive of mill is reduced and power consumption is reduced.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for details, mainly such as stepped shafts, by means of cross-wedge rolling.

A method of obtaining details from a rod by means of cross-wedge rolling, comprising a forming bar stock through the redistribution metal along the axis of the workpiece moving across the axis of the workpiece, at least two wedge tools [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the opening of the axial cavity, known as the Mannesmann effect, which is one of the main constraints on the process of cross-wedge rolling.

A known method of manufacturing products such as stepped shafts, which carry the cutting bar stock to length, heating billets and the cross-klinovuyu rolling of the workpiece with a cutting end waste. Before rolling device for hardening the pressure of the heated billet push communicated through channels for intense deformation shift. The method allows to increase the degree of deformation process and to expand the technological capabilities of cross-wedge rolling [2].

However, the known method does not allow to significantly reduce the probability of axial cavity opening when the cross-wedge rolling.

The problem is solved as follows. In a known method of manufacturing products such as stepped shafts of cross-wedge rolling, comprising a forming bar stock through the redistribution metal along the axis of the workpiece moving across the axis, at least two wedge tools, at least one clinovia instrument impose additional reciprocating movement at an angle from 0° to 90° to the direction of its working movement with amplitude 0,002d 0,02d and a frequency greater than 10v/(πd), where d is rolled diameter, v is the speed of rolling.

1 shows a diagram of the proposed method. Figure 2 shows the fields of slip lines obtained by the method of the graphics, and the relative distribution of hydrostatic pressure P/(P - hydrostatic pressure, plastic permanent) deformation zone in the cross-wedge rolling is proposed and in a known manner. Figure 3 shows the distribution of residual plasticity in the length of the part axis PSC-01.616 when rolling is proposed and in a known manner.

The method is as follows. Before artelino heated to the temperature of the rolled billet 1 (1), having a diameter D, rolled between the upper 2 and lower 3 wedge tools. The upper 2 and lower 3 V tools move across the axis of the workpiece 1 in parallel to one another towards each other with speed v. Both tools have sloping side faces that are forced to move excess metal towards the ends, thereby extending the workpiece 1, and the remaining part of the metal being rolled between the wedge tools 2 and 3, getting a profile receive details with rolled diameter d. To lower clinovia tool 3 imposed additional reciprocating movement in the direction ofangle φ relative to the direction of its working movement.

The angle φ is in the range from 0° to 90°. When φ=0° additional reciprocating movementsuperimposed on the vector of the labour movementand in the end lower the V-tool 3 performs a reciprocating movement with a predominance of movement during rolling. When φ=90° the labour movementconstantly, and the lower wedge tool performs oscillatory motion perpendicular to the direction of rolling. In the range of 0°<φ<90° both of the above what's moving the lower wedge tool 3.

The superposition of oscillatory movementan angle of 0°<φ<90° to the direction of its working movementon one of the V-tools provides a discrete deformation of a workpiece consisting of a set of local deformations with minor reductions, resulting in the reduction of the contact surface of the workpiece with the tool and changes the stress-strain state in the deformation zone: increase the accumulated deformation in the contact layer and increase the compressive hydrostatic pressure in the deformation zone.

The method of graphical construction of fields of slip lines constructed fields of slip lines and found the distribution of hydrostatic pressure in the deformation zone in the cross-wedge rolling of the proposed method (figure 2,a) and a known manner (figure 2,b). Clearly visible growth of compressive hydrostatic pressure when rolling the proposed method, resulting in reduction of the probability of axial cavity opening.

The amplitude of the reciprocating movement of the lower wedge tool 3 is in the range from 0,002d 0,02d. When the amplitude is less than 0,002d fluctuations wedge tool will be at the level of elastic deformation of the mill, and the positive effect will not be achieved. When the amplitude is greater than 0,02d hearth is iformatsii will penetrate to the axis of the workpiece, that will exclude the effect of increasing the compressive hydrostatic pressure and will not allow to achieve the purpose of the invention.

The magnitude of the oscillation frequency of the reciprocating movement of the lower wedge tool 3 must be greater than the value of the expression 10v/(πd). When rolling with a frequency less than the specified value will not occur reducing the contact surface, and the deformation zone will penetrate to the axis of the workpiece, which will eliminate the effect of reducing the probability of axial cavity opening and will not allow to achieve the purpose of the invention.

The proposed method of cross-wedge rolling by increasing the accumulated deformations in the contact layer leads to a change in the grain of the metal in this area of the workpiece and, consequently, to increase fatigue strength laminated shafts.

Due to the fact that the same areas multiple times locally deformed, increasing the purity of the surface of the laminated shafts.

Additional reciprocating movement of the wedge tool is carried out by installing an additional drive in the construction of the mill cross-wedge rolling. This allows you to redistribute required for deformation of the workpiece load, thereby to reduce the force of the working gear of the mill and, as a consequence, to reduce the pressure in the hydraulic drive, which will increase / min net is ü movement of the hydraulic cylinder and to increase the capacity of the equipment.

Reducing demand ductility of the metal billet lowers the temperature of the heating and consequently leads to the reduction of energy consumption of the process.

In GNU "physical and technical Institute of the NAS of Belarus" was tested on the example of cross-wedge rolling axis agricultural harvester (PSC-01.616). From a bar of steel 3 diameter of 25 mm cut-dimensional workpiece length 140 mm Billet was heated to a temperature K and rolled on the mill cross-wedge rolling flat wedge tool by a known method with the rolling speed v=500 mm/s and with an additional reciprocating movement at an angle of 45° to the direction of its working movement with amplitude of 0.01=0.25 mm and a frequency of 130-1. The resource of plasticity in different sections of the rolled blank is determined by rolling disc-shaped sample [1, str-128]. The results are presented in figure 3, which shows clearly that the resource of plasticity when the cross-wedge rolling of the proposed method is 18% higher than in the cross-wedge rolling in a known manner. Increasing resource of plasticity 18% reduces the probability of opening of the cavity several times.

Clean the surface of the laminated blanks on the proposed method increased to 0.6 Ra, when when manufacturing by a known method it is 12.5 Ra. starosta strength laminated shafts has increased in 2 times.

The proposed method for the manufacture of products such as stepped shafts of cross-wedge rolling will find wide application in the manufacture of parts such as stepped shafts at RUE "Minsk tractor plant", "MAZ", "BELCARD" (Grodno plant of cardan shafts and other machine-building plants of the Republic.

Sources of information

1. Shchukin WA Basics of cross-wedge rolling. - Mn.: Science and technology, 1986. - 223 C.

2. A method of manufacturing parts with the elongated axis: A.S. 997327 the USSR, MKI 5 B21H 1/18 / Antibitoic, Vasuki, Wasclosed, Weesatche, Namserver, Ethmalosa; Physico-technical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR. No. 2909885, Appl. 18.04.80 registered 14.10.82.

A method of manufacturing a stepped shaft cross-wedge rolling, comprising a forming bar stock through the redistribution metal along the axis of the workpiece by moving across the axis of at least two V-tools, characterized in that at least one wedge tool impose additional reciprocating movement at an angle from 0 to 90° to the direction of its working movement with amplitude 0,002d 0,02d and a frequency greater than 10v/(πd), where d is the diameter of the bar stock, mm; v - the rolling speed, mm/s



 

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