Device to carry out chromatographic separation of gas-vapourt mixes

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to process engineering and can be used in deeper conversion of hydrocarbons, their cracking and reforming. Proposed device comprises three chromatographic columns, one for sorbent layer regeneration from the mix heavy fraction and the other two for mix separation and release of light fraction. Aforesaid columns are divided into sections, each filled with sorbent that moves forced by carrier gas. The latter is fed from the first section and withdrawn from the third section, via transition channels incorporating controlled switching elements. Each column communicates with the system of preparation of introduction of the mix to be separated and with fraction collectors. There is a sorption-desorption activator arranged in sample preparation and introduction line to destruct complex organic molecules and distill separated substance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device for separating a mixture of gases and vapors by gas chromatography and can be used in deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, cracking and reforming.

A device (1) for chromatographic separation of binary gas mixtures containing three chromatographic columns, one of which serves for regeneration of a layer of sorbent from the heavy fraction of the mixture, and the other two are for the separation of mixtures and output light fraction. The chromatographic column are connected to each other transitional channels that have switching elements, each of the columns of additional gas channels defined switching elements connected with a source of partial mixture and system receivers to collect fractions. The disadvantage of this device (1) is the use of chromatographic columns with a fixed bed of the sorbent at a given purity of the secreted product.

A device (2) for the chromatographic separation of mixtures of gases and vapors containing three chromatographic columns, one of which serves for regeneration of a layer of sorbent from the heavy fraction of the mixture, and the other two are for the separation of mixtures and output partial fractions, connected to each other transitional channels, which has a switching element is. Each of the columns of additional gas channels with installed managed switching elements connected to the dosing system and evaporation of the liquid sample partial mixture consisting of storage tanks, compressor, evaporator and heater carrier gas, and with a system of receivers to collect fractions. The column is divided into sections, each of which is filled with selective components shared substance sorbent, movable under the pressure of the carrier gas. Enter the carrier gas is carried out with the first section and the outlet from the last section in the idler channel passing through a column filled with a layer of stationary sorbent. The device can operate in combined mode with movable and fixed bed of sorbent.

The device (2) is the prototype of the offer. The drawback of the device (2) is overloading the initial sections of the chromatographic column due to the heavy fractions separable mixtures, reducing its performance. The aim of the invention is to improve the performance of preparative chromatographic columns. This objective is achieved in that the device for the chromatographic separation of gases and vapors containing three chromatographic columns, one of which serves for regeneration of a layer of sorbent from the heavy fraction of the mixture, and the other two to sec the population mix and output partial fractions, connected to each other transitional channels that have switching elements; each of the columns of additional gas channels, with installed switching elements connected to the dosing system and evaporation of the liquid sample partial mixture consisting of storage tanks, compressor, evaporator and heater carrier gas, and the system receivers to collect fractions, the column is divided into sections, filled selective components shared substance sorbent introduced in the first section, and the withdrawn with the last section on the idler channel passing through a column filled with a layer of stationary sorbent; between compressor and evaporator shared substance is installed activator sorption-desorption process, carrying out the degradation of complex organic molecules and partial distillation of the substance.

For example, the activator may be an apparatus of the vortex layer (3)having a rotating electromagnetic field in which to enter a partial dose of a substance and ferromagnetic particles.

The figure 1 presents a schematic diagram of a device. The device comprises a chromatographic column 1, 2, 3, separated nets in sections 4, 5, 6, each of which is filled with sorbent, allowing you to work in pseudo is eigendom mode, part of the cross section of the columns in the form of drainage channels 7, 8, 9, the last section of the column deduce a partial mixture through the transfer channels 10, 11, 12, which is equipped with switching elements made, for example, in the form of a compact diaphragm valves 13, 14, 15, operated by means of compressed air.

For the supply and withdrawal of gas flows in each column is provided by the channels 16 with the managed switching elements 17, such as diaphragm valves.

Adjustable flow of carrier gas from the collection of fractions 22, 23 are combined and fed through a manifold 40 to the compressor 24, being purified in installed on the discharge line 18 filters 26, thus forming a closed recirculation system the carrier gas. Possible loss of carrier gas by condensation allocated fractions are compensated by the flow of gas from the high-pressure bladder 33. The flow of carrier gas from a source 33 is regulated by the flow meter 34.

System preparation and input shared substance contains the metering device 27, the activator sorption-desorption process 35, consisting of inductor 36, reactor 37, chamber 38, the ferromagnetic particles 39, the treatment device 28 partial mixture, which may include an evaporator for the liquid (if a partial mixture of liquid) or a device for heating gas to the temperature of the column (if the partition is who controls the gaseous mixture).

Mounted on the metering device 27 sample partial mixture is introduced into the adjustable volume chamber 38 of the reactor 37.

The camera 38 is pre-filled with a certain amount of ferromagnetic particles. Turns on the inductor 36 activator 35, creating a rotating electromagnetic field. In chamber 38 of the reactor 37 ferromagnetic particles, together with a partial mixture start to rotate in a moving electromagnetic flow, forming a vortex layer in which appears a number of effects: cavitation, electrolysis, electric arc discharge, heat, resulting in degradation of complex organic molecules and partial fractionation of the mixture.

This allows you to eliminate the overload of the initial sections of the chromatographic column and to reduce the load on the evaporator 28.

At the initial moment of the flow of carrier gas (w2), supporting the sorbent in a fluidized bed mode of the common collector 18 is input to the chromatographic column 1, through its regeneration from the heavy fraction, with the transition channel 12 between columns 1 and 3 is blocked by the valve 15. With the last section of the column flow through the outlet channel 7 is returned to the beginning of the column and part of it (w1) is discharged into the reservoir 19 to collect the heavy fraction of the mixture. The remaining part of the flow (w2-w1) passes through the column 2 and 3 of the IP output column 3 is directed into a manifold 20 for collecting light fraction partial mixture.

Put a portion of the mixture, picked up by the flow of w2the carrier gas moves along the layer of sorbent in the column 3 in the direction of either a thread exit w2the carrier gas. At that time, when a certain section moving chromatographic strip will be half the length of the column 3, automatically switch the valves on the channels for the supply and withdrawal of gas flows, with designated input and output a carrier gas to move along the columns by a distance equal to the length of one column. In this position, the carrier gas (flow w2) is input to column 2, through its regeneration. The valve 13 in a transitional channel between columns 1 and 2 overlap, and the column outlet 3 is connected to the input of the column 1. In this part of the flow of carrier gas (w1after passing through the column 2 is discharged into the reservoir 19 to collect the heavy fraction of the mixture, and the remainder of the stream (w2-w1) passes through the column 3 and 1 and is displayed in the header 20 for collecting the light fraction of the mixture.

w1the flow rate of the carrier gas, corresponding to the beginning of fluidization of the adsorbent.

w2the flow rate of the carrier gas, corresponding to the end of fluidization of the adsorbent, and w2-w1≥w1.

Chromatographic strip, where there is a separation of the mixture components due to differences in / min net is Yah move them along the layer of sorbent, moves from column 3 to column 1 flow (w2-w1) carrier gas. When the average cross section of the chromatographic strip will pass through the column 3 and will move to column 1, enter a fresh portion of the mixture in this section. After the average total cross section of the chromatographic strip formed after two consecutive inputs portions of the mixture will be half the length of the column 1, move the insertion point and output a carrier gas along the columns by a distance equal to the length of one column. With the valve block 14 transition channel between the columns 2 and 3 and simultaneously the column outlet 1 connect to the input of column 2. In this position, the flow of carrier gas (w2is entered to the input column 3, through its regeneration, and part of w1flux is output from the output of the column in the reservoir 19 to collect the heavy fraction of the mixture, and the remainder of w2-w1that flow out from the column 2 in the manifold 20 for collecting the light fraction of the mixture.

Thus, at each phase of the cycle of the chromatographic strip through the three columns, one column at maximum speed in a carrier gas w2is regeneration from the heavy fraction, and the other two are used for the separation of mixtures and output light fraction. The chromatographic strip, the front of which is enriched light fraction shared the mixture, moves in the flow of the carrier gas along the layer of sorbent and gradually moves from column 1 to column 2. When the average cross section of the chromatographic strip, the concentration of the shared components, which is close to the concentration of the components in the original mixture, passed through the column 1 and starts to move in column 2, enter a fresh portion of the mixture in the transition channel.

The total chromatographic strip continues to move with the flow of carrier gas from the column 1 to column 2, and when the average cross-section it will be half the length of the column 2, mix points of input and output gas flows in the direction of movement of the chromatographic strip by a distance equal to the length of the column. Simultaneously with the shifting of the input and output gas flow outlet of the column 2 is connected with the inlet of the column 3, and the transition channel between columns 1 and 3 overlap. In this position, the carrier gas is fed to the input of the column 1, after passing through that part of w1flow, dropping into the reservoir 19 to collect the heavy fraction, the other part of w2-w1flow passes through the column 2 and 3 and is output from the column outlet 3 in collector for collecting light fraction.

From this point, the circuit is returned to its original state, and the cycle of movement of the points of input and output gas flows and cycles recharge chromatography eskay stripes fresh portions separable mixtures are repeated in the described sequence.

The process is carried out without selection of the partial components of the mixture as long as the total length of the chromatographic strip the layer of sorbent in the process of its circulation, accompanied by the expansion of her will not be equal to the length of the column. Starting from this moment, every movement of the locations of input and output gas flows in the direction of movement of the chromatographic strip is accompanied by a selection of the products with the end parts of the strip, enriched by shared components.

For example, if the schema is in the position at which the width of the chromatographic strip the layer of sorbent is greater than the length of the column, by that time the front part of the chromatographic strip, enriched in the light component, will take place column 2 and will be eliminated by the flow of carrier gas into the reservoir 20 for collecting the light fraction. Remaining in column 1 of the rear portion of the chromatographic strip, enriched in the heavy component in the next moment when the moving location of the input and output of the carrier gas will be discharged with a part of w1flow into the reservoir 19.

The time between the points of displacement of the input and output gas flows in the direction of movement of the chromatographic strip is equal to the time for which the average cross-section of the chromatographic strip passes a distance equal to the length of the column. It can be easily determined from prior experience is in on the periodic separation of portions of the mixture. The time interval between the moments move places the input and output flow of the carrier gas and the time of filing a fresh portion of the mixture in the middle section of the chromatographic strip is equal to half the time interval between two subsequent points of displacement of the input and output.

The processing oil in the vortex layer increases the exit boiling fractions of 20-30% (3), which, of course, increases the efficiency of a chromatographic separation process.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 309296, CL G01 N31/08.

2. Patent No. 2119159 to the invention the Device for the chromatographic separation of mixtures of gases and vapors", the application 97102466 from 17.02.1997, prototype.

3. One, Opheliac "the Intensification of technological processes in the apparatus with a vortex layer. Kiev, Tekhnika, 1976

Device for the chromatographic separation of mixtures of gases and vapors containing three columns, one of which serves for regeneration of a layer of sorbent from the heavy fraction of the mixture, and the other two are for the separation of mixtures and output light fraction, the column is divided into sections, each of which is filled with selective components shared substance sorbent, movable under the pressure of the carrier gas, the input of which is from the first section and the outlet from the last section in the idler channel passing through the column and C is accomplished by the fixed layer of the sorbent, the columns are connected to each other transitional channels with installed switching elements, each of the columns channels with installed managed switching elements connected to the system of preparation and sample introduction partial mixture, and the collected fractions, characterized in that in order to improve the performance of the proposed device in the line of preparation and introduction of samples into the chromatographic column is installed activator sorption-desorption process, carrying out the degradation of complex organic molecules and partial distillation of the substance.



 

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