Rotating pyrolysis chamber for solid waste

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in thermal decomposition of solid waste. Waste is fed to pyrolysis chamber volume by auger 10. Heating of carbon-containing waste is implemented by contact of solid waste to heating pipe 4 surface. Pyrolytic gas is discharged through pipe 13, and hot solid waste is poured from pipe 12 to lower part of discharge device 8 to cooling chamber 14 where it begins to cool down. When a certain solid waste level in discharge device 8 is achieved, level sensor signal activates star valve 15 of upper gate unit. As solid remainders discharged to cooling chamber 14 cool down, thermal sensor 25 generates signal for activation of star valve 16 of lower gate unit.

EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency of pyrolysis chamber.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of utilization of carbon-containing waste (PP), which can include paper, wood, rubber, textiles, plastics and other combustible components by thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) using the method of sulemania (semi-coking) and obtain pyrolysis gas and solid residue of pyrolysis.

The prior art plant for thermal waste disposal (by way of sulemania)containing the camera sulemania (pyrolysis reactor)designed to convert solid waste into energy-dense pyrolysis gas and the residual substance pyrolysis. As the camera sulemania used made with the possibility of rotation around the longitudinal axis of the drum sulemania with heating pipes through which recyclable materials (waste) heat and pyrolized (see EP NO. 0302310 BUT, 1989).

Also known pyrolysis chamber for thermal processing of waste with the possibility of rotation around its longitudinal axis and having a lot of heating pipes, equipped with shock-reflective membranes, in its internal space, and the pyrolysis chamber is additionally equipped with an internal heated cowling installed with a clearance with respect to the ring housing rotating pyrolysis chamber, and in the boom end plates are open for passage of fluid, on the outer side of the inner shell is made of spiral channels for efficient heating of the inner shell in contact with the processed solid materials. To reduce heat losses and improve efficiency of heating on the inner side of the shell camera deposited insulating layer (see EN NO. 2258077, SV 1/10, 2003).

The closest analogue, selected as a prototype of the claimed invention, is turning the camera pyrolysis containing a cylindrical housing with inlet and outlet chambers gaseous heat carrier, as well as loading and unloading device. Turning the camera pyrolysis equipped with heating pipes and is made to rotate around its longitudinal axis located at an angle to the horizon. Heating pipes with hollow impact shell, made in the form of grooves located on the portion of the total length of the heating pipes to protect them from mechanical damage (see EN No. 2125584, M. CL. SV 1/10, 1999).

In these analogues, including the prototype, not disclosed the construction of the discharge device, which is required by the site to ensure uninterrupted and efficient operation of the pyrolysis chamber as to prevent ignition of hot solid residue (THE) PR is exposed to air, the necessary stage cooling, which must be made before the discharge of the discharge device. As a consequence, the accumulation in the discharge device, the pyrolysis chamber is necessary to periodically stop for cooling and discharge of the accumulated cooled, which reduces the efficiency of these cameras pyrolysis.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, is to increase the efficiency of the pyrolysis chamber by continuous operation.

The solution of the stated problem provided that the rotary camera for pyrolysis of solid waste containing a cylindrical housing with inlet and outlet chambers gaseous fluid connected to the heating pipes located in its inner space, and the loading device and the unloading device, provided in the upper part of the pipe outlet of the pyrolysis gases, according to the proposed invention, the unloading device is additionally equipped with airtight system of accumulation, cooling and unloading, consisting of upper and lower gateway nodes, made as a star valve, is in communication with the cooling chamber connected to the lower part of the discharge device through the upper gateway node connected the level sensor on the bottom is part of the unloading device above the upper gateway node, at the output of the cooling chamber is set lower gateway node connected to the temperature sensor located in the exhaust part of the cooling chamber whose volume is at least 1.5 times the volume of the lower part of the discharge device and in direct proportion depends on the performance of rotating cameras In the embodiment, the lower gateway node can be in the form of upper and lower gate valves.

Equipment handling device system of accumulation, cooling and unloading of solid paralizovannoj balance ensures the operation of the camera in continuous mode, which increases the efficiency of its work.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view of the proposed camera pyrolysis (longitudinal section); figure 2 is a fragment of figure 1 with the option of performing the unloading device; figure 3 is a longitudinal section star valve.

Turning the camera pyrolysis comprises a cylindrical housing 1 with an inlet 2 and outlet 3 cameras gaseous fluid connected to the multiple heating tubes 4 arranged in its interior space and mounted on the end plates 5 and 6, as well as the boot 7 and unloading 8 devices. On the boot device 7 is placed crusher solid material 9 with the drive and nutritious šnē the 10 with the actuator 11. On the terminal plate 6 and the exhaust device 8 is fixed pipe 12 to output the gaseous pyrolysis products and THEN. The upper part of the discharge device through the pipe 13 venting gaseous pyrolysis products connected to the system processing the gaseous products of pyrolysis (not shown), and the lower part is connected to an airtight storage system, cooling and unloading of solid paralizovannoj residue made in the form of the cooling chamber 14 with the upper and lower sluice nodes in the form of stellate valves 15 and 16 (with the appropriate actuators (not shown)). The design is similar to the stellate valves are widely known (see, for example, the description of U.S. Pat. RU # 2227251, M. CL. F23G 5/027, 2000, which starred the valve is indicated by the position 32). Structurally similar to the stellate valves are (see figure 3) drum casing 17 with the boot 18 and outlet 19 holes that hosts divided into public sector section of the drive pulley 20. When the valve pie section of the drum 20 are periodically combined with the boot 18 and outlet 19 holes of the drum casing 17, which is periodically dosed filling and emptying (under the weight of the bulk material) sectoral sections of the drum 20 and the transportation of bulk material in the direction of the SV is the Rhu village, it is down thus the flow area permanently covered pie sections, which eliminates breakthrough air. In an embodiment (see figure 2) the lower rotary unit is designed in the form of two gate valves 21 and 22. In addition, the heating pipe 4 can be equipped with shock-reflective membranes 23. To intensify the process of cooling the cooling chamber 14 can be fitted shirt 24 using as a cooling agent is water or air. To exclude the possibility of issuing burning material in the output of the camera 14 is installed, the sensor 25 connected to the valve actuator 16 or flaps 21, 22, which can only be enabled by the signals of this sensor. To avoid overflow discharge device therein below the outlet pipe 12 is installed level sensor 26, the signals of which are included in the work stellate valve 15. To ensure the smooth operation of the pyrolysis chamber, the volume of the cooling chamber 14 should at least 1.5 times the volume of the lower part of the discharge device. The smaller the cooling chamber 14, it may be an overflow of hot pyrolysis residue with the emergency situation. In General, the size of the cooling chamber 14 in direct proportion depends on the performance of rotating cameras, while the more calculated roizvoditelnost, the greater the volume of the cooling chamber.

Turning the camera pyrolysis operates as follows.

Solid carbon-containing waste, such as wood waste, used tires, plastic, crushed-defined process faction on the crusher 9 and fed to the loading device 7, where by means of the screw 10 are fed into the cavity of the pyrolysis chamber. Heating the carbon-containing waste is the result of contact between the solid material with the surface of the heating tubes 4, which are heated due to the passage of fluid through the chamber 2, the heating pipe 4, where the coolant enters the discharge chamber 3. Due to the rotation of the housing 1, the contact material with the heating surfaces is constantly updated, which intensifies the process of pyrolysis by mixing solid materials. Due to the high temperature heating carbon-containing wastes are decomposed by pyrolysis gas, liquid fraction and zakochany solid residue with mineral and metal components. Pyrolysis gas is discharged through pipe 13, and THE hot out of the socket 12 is poured into the lower part of the discharge device 8, where it starts cooling. To improve efficiency it is advisable that the temperature of the pyrolysis process in the backpass pyrolysis would the and sufficient for transfer of the liquid phase into the vapor. This allows to obtain at the outlet of the discharge device 8 in dry form, which simplifies the further processing, such as sorting and shredding. When reaching a set level in the discharge device 8 by the signal of the level sensor 26 is activated stellate valve 15, which moves THE hot discharge device 8 in the cooling chamber 14, where the material is cooled without contact with air and without fire. As the cooling submitted to the chamber 14 of the sensor 25 outputs a signal to actuate the valve 16 or slide valves 21, 22, through which the cooled material is discharged into the discharge device, such as a trolley 27. Volume of the chamber 14 must correspond to the rated capacity of the rotary camera pyrolysis to ensure its continuous operation.

The valves 15, 16 and gate valves 21, 22 in the periodic mode reduces operational energy costs. In General, the advantage of the proposed design swivel camera pyrolysis is providing opportunities for continuous mode of its operation with the exception of the ignition of the solid pyrolysis residue when in contact with air, which significantly increases the productivity and efficiency of processing of carbon-containing waste.

1. Rotary camera for pyrolysis of solid waste, the content is Asa cylindrical housing with inlet and outlet chambers gaseous fluid, connected to the heating pipes located in its inner space, and the loading device and the unloading device, provided in the upper part of the pipe outlet of the pyrolysis gases, characterized in that the discharge device is additionally equipped with airtight system of accumulation, cooling and unloading of solid paralizovannoj residue, provided with upper and lower sluice units, made in the form of a star valve, is in communication with the cooling chamber connected to the lower part of the discharge device through the upper gateway node connected to the level sensor, located in the lower part of the discharge device above the upper gateway node at the output of the cooling chamber installed the lower gateway node connected to the temperature sensor located in the exhaust part of the cooling chamber whose volume is at least 1.5 times the volume of the lower part of the discharge device and in direct proportion depends on the performance of rotating cameras.

2. Turning the camera according to claim 1, characterized in that the lower rotary unit is designed in the form of upper and lower gate valves.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: environmental science.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental science, precisely to method of nongrade pecticide detoxication by using thermochemical method and useful plant model of plasma chemical utilisation of pesticide wastes. Method of pesticide detoxification includes pesticide supply to a rotating furnace for detoxification, thermal action in the rotating furnace with extracting active substance in gaseous phase receiving solid calcine which is withdrawn from the furnace, afterburning of produced gases providing decomposition of complex substances of gas flow to simple on and refining of afterburning products. Thermochemical treatment over pesticides in the rotating furnace is carried out at the temperatures to 1000°C by oxygenising, decomposing and subliming. Produced gases are withdrawn from the rotating furnace from the side of pesticide load. Afterburning is carried out at the temperature now lower than 1200°C in a reactor with plasmatron, plasma-supporting working body of which is aqueous vapor deriving in steam generator. Refining from nitrogen oxides in the reactor is carried out by neutralising when delivering urea in its bottom part. Thereafter, gaseous products derived in the reactor are delivered in a quenches for rapid cooling till the temperature not higher than 100°C and for partial neutralising and absorption of toxic matters due to interacting with coolant fluid - alkali water or water with further supplying in absorption device for additional refining before exhausting in atmosphere.

EFFECT: decrease of toxic matter content in exhaust gases.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for processing of metal/organic laminate that contains metal laminated with organic substance, pyrolysis of organic substance. Method includes creation of reactor 1, comprising the first chamber 2, which contains the first layer of substance in the form of particles, which absorb microwave radiation and the first rotation mixer 4, and the second chamber 3, which contains the second layer of substance in the form of particles, which absorb microwave radiation and the second rotation mixer 5, besides specified second chamber 3, comprises outlet of reactor 7; introduction of laminate and additional substance in the form of particles that absorb microwave radiation, in the first chamber 2, comprising the first layer of substance in the form of particles, which absorb microwave radiation; mixing of substance in the form of particles that absorb microwave radiation and laminate in the first chamber 2, with application of the first rotation mixer 4 and application of microwave energy to mixture of substance in the form of particles, which absorb microwave radiation, and laminate in the first chamber 2, for heating of substance in the form of particles that absorb microwave radiation, in mixture up to temperature sufficient for pyrolysis of organic substance in laminate; transfer of mixture part from the first chamber 2 in the second chamber 3, which comprises the second layer of substance in the form of particles, which absorb microwave radiation by means of rotation mixers 4, 5, which describe colliding trajectories of motion, by means of which as a result of rotation mixers 4, 5 action, part of substance is displaced in the form of particles that absorb microwave radiation, from the first chamber to the following chamber, mixing of mixture in the second chamber 3, using the second rotation mixer 5 and applying microwave energy to mixture in the second chamber 3 for heating of substance in the form of particles that absorb microwave radiation, in mixture up to temperature sufficient for pyrolysis of organic substance that remained in laminate, as a result of which laminate or exfoliated metal migrates in direction of upper surface of mixture and floats on mixture surface in the second chamber 3, besides specified second rotation mixer 5 is arranged in the form of blade extended in horizontal direction, which rotates around vertical axis, located in its middle, upper edge or upper surface of blade is inclined down from specified middle relative to end parts of blade, by means of which gas-liquid mixture is created so that surface of gas-liquid mixture has radial profile, which makes laminate or exfoliated metal floating on surface of gas-liquid mixture, to come outside in radial direction; transfer of mixture part from the second chamber 3 to outlet 7 of reactor 1; and metal processing at the outlet from reactor 1.

EFFECT: provision of opportunity to continuously process metal/polymer laminates on a commercial scale.

27 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention can be used for reprocessing whatever worn-out tires without their preliminary powdering, including tires of BelAZ large trucks, and whatever industrial rubber products. The proposed method of thermal reprocessing of aforesaid products comprises feeding them into chamber for pyrolysis to be carried out by SHF-heating at 2.45 GHz-microwave frequency for 3 to 5 minutes at 400 to 500°C. Pyrolysis is carried out in atmosphere of super-heated steam to be fed into the pyrolysis chamber when its inside temperature reaches 100°C. In pyrolysis, excess pressure of up to 5 kPa is maintained by adjusting the flow rate of formed gaseous products. Note that the standing-wave condition is maintained inside aforesaid chamber, along with uniform distribution of SHF-field. Note also that aforesaid process runs with cyclic feed of tires and rubber products and with cyclic unloading of solid remnant, as well as with continuous discharge of gaseous products.

EFFECT: reduced power consumption, simpler reprocessing, its higher efficiency, which results in on-test gaseous products, high-quality sorbent and alloyed steel scrap.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: heating, fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices designed to convert organic stock into fuel components by pyrolysis. The proposed unit incorporates the pyrolysis reactor with reaction chamber, loading device, loading gateway, heating chamber with burner and gas and air feed lines, outlet gateway and steam-gas mix separation system comprising consecutively mounted gas duct, cyclone and condenser column. The loading device represents belt conveyor to deliver stock from storeroom into the loading gateway. The latter comprises vertical cylindrical hollow housing with stock receiving inclined chute. The piston is arranged at the housing top, hydraulically driven and reciprocating. The check valve is arranged at the housing bottom to reciprocate horizontally. The pyrolysis reactor outlet gateway comprises a horizontal hollow housing with intake and discharge holes, spaced apart, plunger with seals furnished with vertical duct to discharge solid products of pyrolysis. Note that the plunger can horizontally reciprocate, driven hydraulically. The reactor has the water-cooling jacket. The discharge hole communicates with the separator designed to separate metal inclusions from carbon. The heating chamber is installed isolated from the pyrolysis rector reaction chamber, its inner chamber communicating with the chimney and being furnished with tube bundle to heat return gases to 500…600°C. The said are fan forced from the condenser column, via fire-gate, into previously mentioned bundle and heating chamber burner. Air feed line communicates with air blower. The steam-gas separation chamber has the cyclone bottom dust outlet communicates, via auger feeder, with the reactor reaction chamber. The condenser column bottom outlet communicates with the intermediate collector of fluid products. The latter has its outlet communicating with fuel element cistern that incorporates the water level pickup, the 1st outlet connected, via shut-off element controlled by aforesaid pickup, to the mud collector. It has also the 2nd outlet communicating, via the pump, control valve and cooler, with sprayer. The latter is mounted inside the condenser column top part. There is an outlet arranged between the pump and control valve to discharge fluid products via the shut-off valve.

EFFECT: higher reliability and safety of automated processes, reduced environmental release of pyrolysis products, increased yield of useful products.

1 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for recycling of industrial and household wastes and provides for reduction of power inputs, reduction of hazardous emission into environment and increased quality of wastes recycling products. Method for recycling of rubber wastes includes their pyrolysis in reactor in coolant medium, separation of pyrolysis products into gaseous and solid phases, cooling of solid phase by means of water supply, separation of liquid phase from gaseous phase by means of condensation, burning of gaseous phase for coolant heating in heat exchanger. Solid phase is supplied in mill, where water is simultaneously sprayed, and wet grinding of solid phase is carried out to prepare suspension, and the first fraction of liquid phase is separated from gaseous phase by means of condensation, afterwards by means of condensation the second phase of liquid phase is separated, and then water is separated from the second phase, and the first fraction is mixed with suspension, and mixture is exposed to mechanical and mechanical activation by means of cavitation excitation. After separation of the second fraction of liquid phase part of gaseous phase is burned, and remaining part of gaseous phase is mixed with reheated water vapor and used in the form of coolant. Water used to prepare suspension is water separated from the second fraction. Device for processing of rubber wastes by method according to invention is characterised by heater installation with furnace in working chamber, use of heater in the form of shell and tube heat exchanger of rectangular cross section and installation of loading chambers on opposite sides of working chamber, and loading chambers are combined with cooling chambers.

EFFECT: invention discloses quantitative parametres of modes and operations of methods.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste processing industry. The device for power production from waste combustion contains calciner and tertiary air supply channel. It includes one or more combustion chambers representing calciner in tertiary air supply channel. In addition, the first channel is provided with a water-cooled retainer that can be opened to retain wastes in combustion chamber until they are burnt out completely by using part of tertiary air. The above water-cooled retainer makes the combustion gases and air flowing through it. In addition, the device is provided with one or more supply units. Each of them is linked with the combustion chamber to supply wastes to combustion chamber. The power generation method from waste combustion using hot tertiary air at the temperature from 650°C to 900°C to be used in rotating furnaces includes: waste combustion in combustion chamber made in tertiary air supply channel. If part of tertiary air is used, the wastes are retained during 80 to 120 seconds ensuring complete combustion of wastes and discharge of hot combustion gases to tertiary air channel. The remaining waste material is unloaded to tertiary air channel and included into cement clinker.

EFFECT: simple device and reduced consumption of oil coke.

28 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: heating, burning.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal processing of condensed fuels. Method of carbon-bearing condensed fuels gasification implies passing oxygen-containing gasifying agent through the fuel layer in counterflow, maintaining gasification process in the fuel layer. Value of the maximal temperature in the gasifier is restricted by the prescribed limits, solid and gaseous processing products are removed from the gasifier. Additionally, fuel consumption values are aligned according to the gasifier cross section, the fuel layer is broken and zone of maximal temperature is kept below the above breakdown. The device for carbon-bearing condensed fuels gasification comprises a shaft-type overload gasifier fitted with means for loading the fuel into the gasifier working zone, means for supplying oxygen-containing gasifying agent, means for removing produced gas, means for taking out solid processing products from the gasifier working zone as well as means for controlling temperature in the working zone. Additionally, the device comprises means for aligning fuel consumption values according to the cross section of the gasifier working zone with its outlet located at the distance Lo=(0.2-0.75)Lwz from the lower boundary of the gasifier working zone, where Lwz stands for the length of the gasifier working zone.

EFFECT: increasing uniformity of distributing temperatures in the fuel layer and increasing the process controllability.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating, burning.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid waste utiliszation, preferably solid domestic waste, by its burning. Method of thermochemical solid waste processing involves supplying air and waste to the burning zone, sequential drying of the waste, pyrolysis and burning of coke, disposal and processing of the refuse burnout produced. Air is supplied into the coke burning zone from top to bottom and solid waste - from bottom to top. Pyrolysis of solid waste is carried out by heating predried solid waste bulk with coke burning products. Drying of solid waste is carried out by heating solid waste with the mixture of coke burning products and pyrolysis gases produced. The mixture of burning products, pyrolysis gases and water vapours is burned by mixing with excessive air volume regeneratively heated up to the temperature exceeding the temperature of dioxin decomposition. The refuse burnout produced is treated with water and flue gases are passed through the refuse burnout wetted in this way.

EFFECT: high efficiency of waste incineration, in particular, due to providing for continuous supply of solid waste to the burning zone.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Wood pyrolyser // 2346023

FIELD: heating systems, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used when utilising industrial wood residue. Dried raw material is put into pyrolysis chamber 1. Into drying chamber 2 live wood is put. Industrial wood residue supplied to silo 26 is fed to gas-generating furnace 5 with screw feeder 14. Gases generated in gas-generating furnace 5 are supplied via gas duct to pyrolysis chamber 1. At wood warming-up stage there supplied is generator gas, with the help of gas blower 4, from pyrolysis chamber 1 through outlet branch pipe 27 and condenser 3 to burner device 7, where it is burning. Flue gases appearing during generator gas burning provide for an additional heating of raw material through pyrolysis chamber 1 wall. After that flue gases are supplied to drying chamber 2 through outlet branch pipe 31 of combustion chamber 6.

EFFECT: improving process efficiency and reducing operating costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to recycling of household and industrial carbon-bearing wastes and may be used in communal services for recycling of rubbish with preparation of useful products, such as liquid fuel and oil fractions. Gasifier for plant of thermal recycling of carbon-bearing wastes contains cylindrical casing with sealed reaction space, loading unit installed in the top part of casing, combustion chambers for supply of high-temperature gasifying agents into gasification area of reaction space, tapered exhaust part of casing equipped with facility for outlet of gasification products. One of combustion chambers is installed into inlet part of gasifier so that jet of high-temperature gasifying agent that outflows from it may affect the wastes that come from loading unit. Along the height of reaction space gasification area flow-through sections are provided, which are formed by deflectors in the form of alternating central disk and peripheral annular screens. Central disk screens are fixed on the central body that is common for all sections and is coaxially installed. Annular screens are fixed on internal surface of gasifier with formation of through gaps between disk and annular screens. On casing external surface, in the area of flow-through sections, collector is installed with combustion chambers, which is communicated via tangential nozzles to flow-through sections. Under tapered outlet part of gasifier semi-open channel is made, which is connected to facility for exhaust of gasification products in the form of Venturi scrubber and smoke exhaust. On the dead end of semi-open channel combustion chamber is installed for ejection of gasification products from outlet part and their supply to Venturi scrubber. Method is described for thermal recycling of wastes in this gasifier.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of carbon-bearing wastes gasification.

6 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: furnace for wood waste pyrolysis includes burner, retort, heat supply and furnace gas outlet pipes. The retort is enameled from inside.

EFFECT: reduced heat exchange of retort with environment, accelerated pyrolysis process, improved performance of wood carbonisation furnace.

1 dwg

Wood pyrolyser // 2346023

FIELD: heating systems, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used when utilising industrial wood residue. Dried raw material is put into pyrolysis chamber 1. Into drying chamber 2 live wood is put. Industrial wood residue supplied to silo 26 is fed to gas-generating furnace 5 with screw feeder 14. Gases generated in gas-generating furnace 5 are supplied via gas duct to pyrolysis chamber 1. At wood warming-up stage there supplied is generator gas, with the help of gas blower 4, from pyrolysis chamber 1 through outlet branch pipe 27 and condenser 3 to burner device 7, where it is burning. Flue gases appearing during generator gas burning provide for an additional heating of raw material through pyrolysis chamber 1 wall. After that flue gases are supplied to drying chamber 2 through outlet branch pipe 31 of combustion chamber 6.

EFFECT: improving process efficiency and reducing operating costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: woodworking.

SUBSTANCE: declared group of inventions concerns method of wood biomass treatment in the form of combustive chips with receiving of bio-oils and wood coal, including drying, pyrolysis of wood biomass, wood coal tempering, selection of bio-oils from gas-vapor pyrolysis and coal in a one module, withdrawal of forming gas-vapor mixture of pyrolysis volatile products, at that formed pyrolysis gas-vapor with minimal temperature is withdrawaled from the area of active thermal decomposition with selection of bio-oils and directed to combustion chamber simultaneously to fed air, which is necessary for burning of deresined gas-vapor, at that fuel gases, formed during burning of deresined gas-vapor, at first dispose its heat for wood coal tempering, process of raw materials pyrolysis and then is directed for blending and forming of raw drying heat carrier, and also to the drying- retort module for wood biomass treatment in the form of combustive chips with receiving of bio-oils and wood coal, containing vertically installed body, divided by overclampings for drying chamber, chamber of wood biomass pyrolysis, mounted in top and bottom parts of facility body for charging of raw materials and discharge of coal, combustion chamber, unit of bio-oils selection and the first gaseous circuit in the form of gas flue with gas blower for feeding of gas-vapours pyrolysis chamber of wood biomass and coal tempering into combustion chamber, located in pyrolysis area of wood biomass and coal tempering, at that module is additionally outfitted by blending chamber for forming of drying heat carrier, connected through the gaseous circuit to combustion chamber, and the second gaseous circuit in the form of gas flue with regulating cap for feeding of smoke fumes from combustion chamber to the bottom part of drying area of wood biomass.

EFFECT: usage of mentioned above inventions provides increasing of utilisation level of wood refuses with receiving of bio-fuel with high energy density, increasing of method dedicated throughput and module and providing of ecology at the expense of toxic discharges into environmental absence.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of power stations operated from carbonaceous refuse, and can be used for construction of lower-power power stations using plant refuse as fuel (wood chips of dry and sick trees, milled root crops, canes, branches, grapevine, wood processing refuse). Biopower station contains pyrolysis plant and gas-operated power facility, equipped with moisture separator and gasholder. Pyrolysis plant comprises inclined gasproof thermal enclosure with in-built angularly 45-50° hermetically sealed ribbed pipe retorts connected to vertical hermetically sealed loading and unloading box-type feeders. Upper part of retorts is attached to gas pipelines connected through moisture separator and gasholder with power facility. Exhaust pass of power facility is connected with thermal enclosure in its bottom section. Biopower station is additionally equipped with starting combustor and recovery boiler.

EFFECT: development of nonwaste technology of thermal refuse utilisation.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; medicine; woodworking industry; methods and devices used for production of the charcoal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the wood pyrolysis in the retorts. The invention provides for, that on the charging platform the retorts are loaded with the raw, for example, the raw wood. Then the first retort is placed in the chamber with the minimum heating temperature of 200°С and kept there till the complete removal of the water. At the following stage the first retort is moved in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and on its place the second retort is located. At the second stage the separation of the wood gas, resins, acids and alcohol is exercised. In the second half of the second stage the first retort is placed back into the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С, and the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 400°С. Then the first retort is relocated into the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 550°С. At that they exercise separation of the mixture of the gases and the solid fractions of the product, the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and the third retort - in the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С. Upon termination of the process the first retort is placed on the site for cooling. The rest retorts are relocated according to the above mentioned scheme. After cooling the first retort is placed on the turnover device, where the retort contents moved to the receiving hopper. The invention allows to improve the quality and to increase output of the charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and increased output of the charcoal.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon stock processing that can be used in production of activated carbon comprises preliminary thermal treatment thereof using gaseous heat carrier followed by processing at 200-900°C in reactor under reductive gas atmosphere in presence of saturated steam supply, cooling, and discharging activated carbon. Reductive gas is generated by combusting hydrocarbon fuel with air consumption ratio below 1.0 and then mixed with thermochemical processing gases in proportion 1:(0.1-10). In order to control temperature conditions, reductive gas is fed to at least three reaction zones and, prior to be fed to each individual reaction zone, reductive gas is preliminarily mixed in proportion ensuring specified temperature conditions in different zones, whereas process is carried out according to known temperature regimes in production of products with specified parameters.

EFFECT: expanded process possibilities due to enabled temperature conditions control, increased accuracy in achieving specified parameters of product, and reduced power consumption.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises furnace, heating chamber, plate, vertical removable retort tightly mounted on the plate for permitting pyrolytic gases to be discharged in the bottom section of the retort, and gas duct for supplying gases to the furnace. The plate is made of heat-resistant material and has opening that receives unmovable device for discharging pyrolytic gases to the gas duct. The plate is provided with gate valve made of a heat-resistant loose material . The retort is tightly mounted on the valve gate. The device for discharging the pyrolytic gases is made of a section or two sections of a pipe. The plate is made of a heat-resistant steel.

EFFECT: improved environmental protection.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Ablative reactor // 2281313

FIELD: chemical mechanical engineering; reactors for fast pyrolysis of wood and peat.

SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has pyrolizer equipped with rotor made in form of hollow cylinder with blades rigidly secured on its lateral surface and located at equal distance relative to one another for smooth heating of its lateral surface; reactor is also provided with loading bin. Pyrolizer is provided with turbine mounted under rotor; turbine has several blades rigidly secured on its shaft. Turbine shaft and hollow cylinder of rotor are rigidly interconnected. Loading bin is engageable with hollow cylinder. Pyrolizer is made in form of truncated cone whose larger base is directed upward; it is mounted in housing for rotation about its axis. Rotor is located in upper part of pyrolizer coaxially relative to it for rotation around its axis in direction opposite to direction of rotation of pyrolizer at rate equal to rate of pyrolizer. Blades of rotor and turbine are made in form of right-angled trapeziums whose large bases are directed upward.

EFFECT: high yield of vapor-and-gas product.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Charcoal kiln // 2256686

FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

1 dwg

The invention relates to the field of pyrolysis of wood and its waste and other raw materials containing organic substances

Charcoal kiln // 2256686

FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

1 dwg

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