Basement

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns construction, particularly building basements for industrial and civil facilities. Basement includes external shell widening in bottom part and holding filler material of varying material durability grade. Filler material of varying durability is laid in layers in horizontal and vertical directions.

EFFECT: reduced material cost of basement, enhanced reliability.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, in particular to the construction of the foundations of industrial and civil buildings. Known prefabricated foundations in the form of hyperbolic paraboloids, which is mounted on a specially leave the ground in the shape of the internal cavity of the shell. The void between the shell and fill with soil and inject cement [2].

The disadvantage of this Foundation is a great complexity of its construction and manufacture.

The closest technical solution to the proposed Foundation is a Foundation, comprising a vertical shell with filling materials during installation [1].

However, this Foundation not take in consideration the different stress state in the body of the Foundation and, accordingly, the strength of the filling material horizontally and vertically.

The stress state in the body of the Foundation is changed, it will be clamped vertically to the bottom of the Foundation, as the cross-section of the Foundation is increased, and horizontally it is reduced to the Central vertical axis of the base.

The purpose of the invention is reduced cost and material consumption of the Foundation.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the Foundation includes an outer shell with a widening at the bottom and placed in her filling material with the filling material has time the brand ranks on the strength of the material, and characterized in that the filling material different strength stacked layers on the horizontal and vertical direction.

Figure 1 shows the Foundation, vertical section; figure 2 a section a-a figure 1. The Foundation consists of a monolithic conical shell 1.

The conical shell 1 is filled with material horizontally 5 and vertically, 2, 3. To increase the stiffness of the Foundation in the lower part of the conical shell is arranged broadening 4. The upper part is made in two versions with a glass of under reinforced concrete columns and without glasses.

Filling the sheath material may be sand, clay, sludge, materials, mixed with binders, such as liquid glass, cement, bitumen and other

The production technology of the Foundation is carried out in the following sequence.

On an aligned basis set formwork internal element of the Foundation. In its cavity with a layer-by-layer seal is placed filler 2 to a certain point. Stand up Stripping strength and dismantle formwork. Then the scaffolding of the outer layer of filler. In its cavity with a layer-by-layer seal is placed first, the filler 3, and then the filler 5. Stand up Stripping strength and dismantle formwork.

Then install reinforcing ka the Cam shell and stack the concrete mixture with the subsequent consolidation. Upon reaching the desired strength, the formwork is removed. When the device formwork use inventory forms high turnover.

The proposed design of the base allows to reduce the consumption of the material of the inner block.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 933879, CL. 02D 27/42, 1982.

2. Terior A.P. "Design and construction of cost-effective designs." Kiev, Publishing house "Builder", 1975, 106 S.

The Foundation, which includes an outer casing with a widening at the bottom and placed in her filling material with the filling material has a different brand on the strength of the material, characterized in that the filling material different strength stacked layers on the horizontal and vertical directions.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, namely to erection of buildings and structures on freezing heaving soils. Foundation on freezing soil includes rigid body comprising foot and wall, with gasket from the side of foot inverted to soil and made of heat insulation material, for instance from foam polystyrene, and also additional heat insulation material installed outside foundation limits. Upper edge of additional heat insulation material is pulled from the side of foundation external edge in the form of broken inserts via rigid body of foundation and is connected to additional heat insulator of opposite external edge of foundation. Pressure on soil in foundation foot is accepted as not higher than value of design resistance of heat insulation material to compression, and relative area of broken inserts (β=Abr ins/A0) is defined from ratio β≤1-σmax/R, where Abr.ins is area of broken inserts section, m2, A0 is gross area of foundation section in place of inserts installation, m2, σmax is maximum tension in foundation material from external loads, MPa, R is design resistance of foundation material, MPa. Additional heat insulation material installed on external side of foundation foot is connected to heat insulation material of foundation external wall. Additional heat insulation material installed on internal side of foundation foot is connected to heat insulation material of foundation internal wall. Inserts of additional heat insulation material of foundation are connected to ceiling heat insulation material above foundation. Heat insulation material installed from external side of foundation wall is connected to heat insulation material of blind area. Heat insulation material installed on internal side of foundation wall is connected to heat insulation material of ceiling above foundation.

EFFECT: provision of possibility to install foundation above design depth of heaving soil freezing, increased level of soil protection under foundation against freezing.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundation construction technologies, and particularly, to reinforcing technology used for compressible foundation sections of detached or standard foundations in buildings and structures being erected under severe engineering and geological and hydro-geological conditions. Method of foundation bed construction by horizontal reinforcing with solid concrete components includes foundation pit mining and installation of horizontal stiff lengthy elements such as crossties. As soon as the foundation pit is developed to the designed depth, which is equal to the sum of foundation bed depth of installation and buffer layer thickness, and is bladed, foundation pit bottom is leveled. After that, foundation axes are broken down and longitudinal axes of future solid crossties are broken down against the established construction layout of the longitudinal axes of future solid crossties regarding foundation axes. The chaps for solid crossties are made mechanically or manually on foundation pit bottom along the marked longitudinal axis of the future solid crossties. Besides, the chap depth is equal to the cross section of the future solid crosstie. The chap bottom is cleaned and reinforced frameworks are laid down in the chaps. The chaps are then cemented together with the reinforced frameworks by means of concrete mix B15 with further compacting. To install horizontal reinforced solid elements in the chaps such as solid crossties are located on the foundation pit level. So, the crosstie distributing element is formed in the compressible section of the built structure foundation bed. In addition, the length of each solid crosstie must not exceed the distance between the external shapes of the utmost foundation edges of the building. The chaps for solid crossties installation are made in parallel to each other and at design distance from each other so that the area of crosstie distributing element overlaps foundations area completely. As soon as the concrete mix in the chaps will achieve the strength no less than 50% from the design strength, the buffer layer is laid down, leveled and compacted. The buffer layer is laid down to the level of built structure foundation bed. The buffer layer consists of sand, crushed stone from solid rocks or crushed stone from ferrous metallurgy wastes. The buffer layer thickness must not be less than 1/3 of solid crosstie width or cross section diameter. The maximum size of crushed stones must not exceed 1/5 solid crosstie width or cross section diameter.

EFFECT: improvement of soft ground foundations bearing capacity and reduction of material consumption.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundation construction technologies, and particularly, to reinforcing technology used for compressible foundation sections of detached or slab-shaped foundations in building and structures being erected under severe engineering and geological and hydro-geological conditions. Method of foundation bottom construction by horizontal reinforcing with precast concrete components includes foundation pit mining and installation of horizontal stiff lengthy elements such as crossties. As soon as the foundation pit is developed to the designed depth and is bladed, the foundation pit bottom is leveled and filled with sand or crushed stone generating underlying layer with the designed thickness being no less than 0.05 m. Then this layer is leveled and compacted. After that, foundation axes and longitudinal axes of crossties are broken down regarding foundation axes and against the established construction layout depending on the foundation type of the structure being built. The crossties are laid down above the underlying layer in such a way to produce crosstie distribution element in the compressible section in accordance with the designed construction layout of longitudinal crosstie axes with regard to foundation axes. The crossties are installed so that their beds coincide with the level of underlying layer of foundation pit. In addition, crossties are installed butt to each other so that total length of each crosstie exceeds the distance between the external shapes of the utmost foundation edges of the building. The crossties are laid parallel to each other at the design distance so that the area of crosstie distributing element overlaps foundations area completely. Then, inter-crosstie space is filled with sand and buffer layer is laid from above to the level of foundation bed installation with sand, crushed stone from solid rocks or crushed stone from ferrous metallurgy wastes. The buffer layer thickness must not be less than 1/3 of crosstie width or cross section diameter. Maximum size of crushed stones must not exceed 1/5 of crosstie width or cross section diameter. The foundation pit is mined to the design depth, which is equal to sum of future foundation bed depth, buffer layer thickness, crosstie cross section height or diameter and underlying layer thickness.

EFFECT: improvement of soft ground foundations bearing capacity and reduction of material consumption.

2 cl, 4 dwg

Basement // 2334054

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building and concerns creation of the basements - mesh envelopments for buildings and constructions. The basement contains the artificial basement with a curvilinear surface, supporters and envelopment located on the basement. Supporters are executed in the form of radial and ring tapes forming the mesh envelopment, laid and gummed on the concrete surface formed on a curvilinear surface of the artificial basement located in foundation ditch and turned bulge upwards. Radial tapes are attached by edges to a basic contour in the form of system of cross girders, which is sunk in the natural base.

EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable protection of the over-basement design, decrease of materials consumption.

1 dwg

Basement // 2334053

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building and concerns creation of the basements of radial envelopments for buildings and constructions. The basement contains the basement with a curvilinear surface, supporters and envelopment located on the basement. Supporters are executed in the form of radial tapes forming envelopment, laid on a curvilinear surface and turned by bulge upwards the artificial basement located in a foundation ditch or the natural basement. Radial tapes are attached by edges to a basic contour in the form of a basic ring which is established on the natural basement.

EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable protection of the over-basement design, decrease of materials consumption.

1 dwg

Basement // 2334052

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building and concerns creation of basements - mesh envelopments for buildings and constructions. The basement contains the artificial basement with a curvilinear surface, supporters and envelopment located on the basement. Supporters are executed in the form of radial and ring tapes forming the mesh envelopment, laid and gummed on the concrete surface formed on a curvilinear surface of the artificial basement located in foundation ditch and turned bulge upwards. Radial tapes are attached by edges to a basic contour in the form of a basic ring which is established on the natural base.

EFFECT: maintenance of effective and reliable protection of the over-basement design, decrease of materials consumption

1 dwg

Basement // 2334051

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building and concerns creation of basements - mesh envelopments for buildings and constructions. The basement contains the artificial basement with a curvilinear surface, supporters and envelopment located on the basement. Supporters are executed in the form of radial and ring tapes forming the mesh envelopment, laid and gummed on the concrete surface formed on a curvilinear surface of the artificial basement located in foundation ditch and turned bulge upwards. Radial tapes are attached by edges to a basic contour in the form of a basic ring which is established on the natural basement.

EFFECT: maintenance of effective and reliable protection of the over-basement design, decrease of materials consumption.

1 dwg

Basement structure // 2334050

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.

EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: constructional engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.

EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.

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EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.

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FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.

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9 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.

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EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.

2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.

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EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.

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EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.

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EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.

5 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.

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EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.

EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.

3 dwg

FIELD: constructional engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.

EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

Basement structure // 2334050

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.

EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.

8 cl, 8 dwg

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