Fire-heat-shielding coating and installation for producing such shielding

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fire-heat-shielding coating and can be implemented in rocket engineering at applicating coating on interior surface of nozzle of rocket engine. The installation for coating application consists of a high pressure chamber for electric-arc sputtering of graphite containing electrodes, of a shaft and of anodes secured on the shaft by means of telescopic pistons. Anodes consist of one or more sectors made out of mixture of carbon and metal-catalyst capable to encapsulation of carbon nano-particles inwards. Treated nozzle is used as cathode. Coating is made in form of nano-structural material and contains a porous frame formed with carbon nano-tubes or nano-cones, or fullerenes and atoms of metal or metals with various physic-chemical properties encapsulated in them.

EFFECT: decreased weight of coating at maintaining indicators of heat efficiency and facilitation of automation of coating application process.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to rocket technology and can be used in a supersonic parts of the nozzles of rocket engines solid fuel gas generators for various purposes.

Known active thermal protective coating to external ash mass, representing subliminale coating consisting of a mineral filler (for example, mineral salts such as Mg3N2, SI3N4, AIN, NH4F, NH4C1, AlF3, ZnO, CdO, etc) and organic ligaments (e.g., phenolic, epoxy, silicone resins). Known active HRC with a combined ash masses, which are composite materials containing fly (decaying) filler filling the space inside the frame formed by bonding material [Lipanov A.M., Aliyev AV Designing rocket engines solid fuels: a Textbook for University students. M: engineering, 1995, str].

Known also active thermal protective coating with internal ash mass, representing a refractory porous material impregnated with refrigerant - metals, minerals or organic compounds with a low melting temperature and evaporation, but with a high heat of fusion and evaporation, in which the porous framework can be used metals: tungsten, molybdenum, etc. [Lipanov A.M., Aliyev AV Design of the rocket motor the indices of solid fuels: a Textbook for University students. M: engineering, 1995, str].

The disadvantages of the known coatings are: high density porous material of the frame (tungsten - 19380 kg/m3, tantalum - 16610 kg/m3the molybdenum -

10240 kg/m3), which limits their use in thermal protection nozzles of rocket engines; relatively low permissible operating temperature (tungsten - 1970-2370 To, tantalum - 2350 K, molybdenum - 2320).

Known installation of electric arc sputtering of graphite and graphite-containing cylindrical electrodes. [W. Kratschmer, L.D. Lamb, Fostipopoulos K., Huffman D.R.//Nature. 1990, 347, str]. These settings apply to installations serving for the production of carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures. In these settings are used graphite and graphite-containing electrodes of cylindrical type with a diameter of up to 15-30 mm and a length of 100-200 mm

The disadvantages of installing arc sputtering of graphite and graphite-containing cylindrical electrodes are: inability to obtain a uniform thickness of material on a flat surface and regulating the layer thickness along the longitudinal coordinate; the high cost of electricity during the installation.

The objective of the invention is to: 1) reduce the mass of the heat-resistant coating while maintaining the performance of thermal efficiency; 2) automation of the process of applying this coating on the inner wall with the gross block of the rocket engine solid fuel.

The task is achieved by the fact that the coating is performed in the form of a nanostructured material, which includes a set of metal atoms or metal encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes and/or other nanoparticles, forming a porous skeleton. Automation of the process of applying thermal barrier coatings is achieved by using the anode node setup, consisting of one, two or more parts (sectors)made from a mixture of carbon and metal catalyst. As the cathode is used conductive substrate.

Graphite-containing anode consists of a mixture of graphite and powdered metal-catalyst. Metal for use as an electrode depends on its ability to encapsulate inside carbon nanotubes and/or other nanoparticles and the necessary thermophysical and physicochemical properties of the obtained heat-resistant coating. Experiments on arc spraying of rare earth metals (Sc, Y, La, CE, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu) showed that they capsulised in the form of carbides, in addition to metals, Sm, Eu, Yb [M Tomita, Y. Saito and T. Hayashi. LaC2 encapsulated in graphite nanopartical. Jap. J. Appl. Phys., str (1993); Y. Saito. Nanoparticals in filled nanocapsule. Carbon, 979, p.33, (1995)]. Spraying of metals of the iron group (Fe, Co, Ni) shows the encapsulation of these materials inside carbon nanotubes [Harris Carbon nanotu the CI and related structures. New materials for the XXI century. TRANS. from English. and with the addition Lagernosadskoj. - M.: Technosphere, 2003. - 336 S., s-197]. Mass fraction of metal in the graphite-containing electrode is chosen such that the degree of filling of carbon nanotubes and/or other nanoparticles was optimal and provided a set of thermophysical properties of thermal barrier coatings. Mass fraction of metal is 15-35% by weight of graphite-containing electrode. Before installing anodes must be done by them degassing in vacuum at a temperature of 1100-1400? [Novakova A., Kiseleva T.U., Tarasov B.P., and other Carbon nanostructures obtained on Fe-Ni catalyst // International Scientific Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology. ISJAEE№3(11) (2004)].

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the plant for producing heat-resistant coating. Figure 2 (side view) and figure 3 (right side view) shows a nanotube filled with metal atoms and used in the inventive heat-shielding coating. Figure 4 shows the carbon fullerene filled with metal atoms. Figure 5 shows the carbon nanocones filled with metal atoms.

The inventive heat-shielding coating works as follows. The high temperature from an external source leads to an increase in the internal energy of the entire system of atoms (the carbon atoms of nanocat the IC and metal atoms, encapsulated inside the nanoparticles). Upon reaching the surface temperature of the heat-shielding cover certain value, at which occur the destruction of the crystal lattice of the metal and move it in the molten state, is the phenomenon of release of metal atoms from the open nanotubes and nanoparticles; when the metal atoms of the nanotubes and nanoparticles, the total energy of the whole system decreases, which is accompanied by a decrease in its temperature. Numerical calculations showed a decrease in the temperature of the system nanotube-metal at the departure of metal atoms on average 150-C.

The inventive installation for applying thermal barrier coatings consists of the following components: 1 - motor; 2 - gear, 3 - pan under the gearbox and motor, 4 - coupling, 5 - holes for supplying helium, 6 - unit body 7 to the cathode, 8 - telescopic pistons, 9 - Val, 10 : substrate, 11 - body billet bell nozzle, 12 - duct, 13 - tank high pressure, 14 - tracks, 15 - hole to release helium, 16 - train wheel.

On the inner wall protected from heat exposure design nozzle unit rocket engine solid fuel layer coating the substrate 10 with high conductive capacity, good plastic properties and high adhesion parameters to m is the material of the protected structure. Inside the workpiece nozzle unit rocket engine solid fuel is placed in the shaft 9. Set up on the shaft graphite-containing electrodes - the anode 7, which has the shape of sectors of a cylinder or truncated cone. The number of electrodes depends on the design of the facility, its dimensions and the mass of the electrodes required to obtain coverage given thickness on a given area of the inner wall of the nozzle block. The change of the distance between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the nozzle unit is via a sliding mechanism, consisting of a telescopic piston 8. Harvesting of the nozzle unit of the rocket engine solid fuel deposited on the inner surface layer of the substrate material is placed inside the body arc spraying 6. One end of the shaft is attached by a coupling 4 to gear 2. The gearbox is in turn connected to the motor 1, which, by converting electrical energy into mechanical energy, by means of shaft transmits rotary motion with a given angular velocity on graphite-containing electrode. With the optional engine is set to linear translational movement of nozzle unit relative to the linearly non-roaming anode. Thus, the translational-rotational movement of the graphite is aderrasi anodes with respect to the workpiece nozzle block. After the establishment of the workpiece nozzle block inside the installation and close the cover installation 6 in the camera is supplied purified helium until then, until it reaches the pressure in the chamber 550-600 ATM.

The purified helium gas is supplied through openings in the building installation for arc spraying. Through similar holes at the other end, is the removal of helium to the pump. This creates a circulation of helium, but the camera provides a high pressure. The helium pressure in the evaporation chamber plays an important role in obtaining a good yield of nanotubes of high quality. The increase in the number of nanotubes was observed with increasing pressure. When the pressure is higher than 550 ATM is not observed no obvious changes in the quality of the sample, but there is a decline in total output.

Then the activation of the motor 1 and the anode 7, mounted on the shaft 9 begins to rotate with a given angular velocity.

The position of the anode software adjustable from the outside of the camera through a telescopic piston so as to maintain constant the gap between the electrodes during arc evaporation. In the setup used, the power supply is stabilized voltage to 20 volts, which is supported discharge. The amount of current depends on the size of the rods, between them, the pressure ha is and etc. The amount of current must be maintained as low as possible, appropriate to maintain a stable plasma, but is selected in the range of 50-100 A. Voltage must be switched on when the pressure is stabilized. At the beginning of the experiment, the electrodes should not touch each other, so that no current. Then the anode gradually move closer to the cathode until it glows arc. After establishing a stable arc gap between the electrodes must be maintained about 1 mm or slightly less. The surface of the anode is typically burns at a rate of several millimeters per minute. As soon as the rod will burn out, the power supply must be stopped, and before opening the camera leave to cool.

In the space below the telescopic pistons 8 on the shaft - the duct 9 is used to supply air under pressure is required to move the anode 7. Upon reaching the surface of the anode a distance of 1 mm to the surface of the substrate 10 is used to supply electricity to the anode 7. The supply of electricity through an electric wire with a given cross-sectional area, which is located inside the duct. When arcing occurs, the condensation of the anode material on the surface of the substrate 10. The uniformity of deposition of thermal barrier coatings in thickness along the axis of the workpiece on the inside on Ernest nozzle block is provided to a linear displacement graphite-containing anodes 7 along the axis of the nozzle block. In the arc evaporation on the inner surface of the nozzle block of the rocket engine solid fuel is formed of heat-shielding layer consisting of a refractory porous skeleton (carbon nanotubes and/or other nanoparticles) and refrigerant (metals with a low melting point and high heat of fusion and evaporation). Part of the nanotubes and/or nanoparticles are filled with metal catalyst. After interruption of the power supply to the electrodes and the cooling chamber cover installation is removed, the shaft is disassembled and removed, to allow the unit printed on its surface in heat-insulating coating is removed from the installation.

Thanks to the use as a porous fundamentals of thermal barrier coatings nanoparticles may increase the erosion resistance of the coating in comparison with analogues when exposed to a high-speed high-temperature gas flow. The increase in erosion resistance of the coating provides good adhesion between the layers of thermal barrier coatings (layers of carbon nanotubes and/or other nanoparticles). This is due to van der Waals interactions between the metal atoms, prisoners in neighboring nanoparticles located in the neighbouring layers. In the prototype to heat the floor, generally used metals wolf the am and copper, and the heat-shielding layer is produced by powder metallurgy. Use the same installer for the application of the heat-shielding layer increases the safety of the production process. The use of thermal barrier coatings comprising carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles, as well as setting its application leads to the automation of the production process for heat protection. This reduces the number of jobs needed, and the whole process of application can control the operator of the machine with numerical control.

1. For ogneupornogo coating on the inner surface of the nozzle of the rocket engine, containing the high-pressure chamber for arc spraying, graphitemoderated electrodes, the shaft and mounted thereon by means of telescopic pistons anodes, the anodes consist of one or more sectors, made from a mixture of carbon and metal catalyst capable of encapsulating inside the carbon nanoparticles as cathode used machined nozzle.

2. Ogneopasno floor nozzle of the rocket engine, designed in the form of nanostructured material and containing a porous framework formed by carbon nanotubes or nano-cones, or encapsulated in fullerenes and their metal atoms is or metals with different physical-chemical properties.



 

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12 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

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2 cl, 7 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: increasing chemical stability, hardness, mechanical strength, longevity of coating.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

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