Method of vegetable cultivation, mainly cauliflower, and soil cultivation machine for method implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves precedent removal followed by cutting narrow slits. Slits are cut at 0.35-0.40 m pitch to 0.35-0.45 m depth and 0.016-0.020 m width. Triangle-profile groove is made in alignment line of each narrow slit to the depth of 0.50-0.75 of arable layer with 0.15-0.20 m width in top part. Stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants are removed from field surface into triangle-profile grooves. Lime at 10-30 tons per hectare rate is applied in a strip over each groove on stubby remnants surface. 40-60% solution of natural bischofite mineral of the formula MgCl26H2O at 600-1200 litres per hectare rate is applied by fine dispersion on surface. Organic fertilisers are applied in late autumn period at 40-60 tons per hectare rate. In early spring period soil cultivation is performed, mineral fertilisers are applied, and seedlings are planted to open ground. Soil cultivation involves ploughing with full layer overturn, terrain leveling, pre-planting cultivation. 30-40% phosphor and potassium fertilisers are applied on surface. Cultivation machine includes frame, bearing wheel, suspension bracket and work tools. Groups of work tools are positioned in sequence on the frame along the machine course and with disposition sideways. Each tool group has slit-cutting strut, mouldboard for triangle-profile groove disclosure, and slanted cutter for shifting stubby remainders, drops, diseased and non-standard fruit of previous plants into the groove.

EFFECT: secured crops of high-quality cauliflower owing to technology and structure.

9 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, namely the intensive technology of cultivation of cauliflower in the vegetable crop rotation.

There is a method of cultivation of agricultural crops, including surface treatment of the soil with simultaneous planting, care and cleaning, in which, to improve productivity and reduce erosion processes, 3-6 days after sowing spend ploskoreznyh processing with the strip rolling with a ratio of depth of sowing and ploskoreznaja processing, equal(1:5)-(1:10); lane rolling is performed with the width of the bands is less than or equal to the width of the inter-row sowing crops, with a ratio of prokatannyh and loose strips of equal(1:1)-(2:1) (SU authorship No. 1172464. A. MCL4A01B 79/02. The method of cultivation of agricultural crops / Nigerianise, Antropov, Aestheticism, Avisou, Amy (USSR). - Application No. 3748356/30-15; Claimed 19.03.1984; Publ. 15.08.1985, bull. No. 30 // Open. Of the invention. - 1985. No. 30).

The disadvantages of the described method, applied to solve our problem of getting a guaranteed yield of cauliflower in the vegetable crop rotation are the presence of pathogenic organisms in the upper soil horizon, the full composition of agricultural pests in the bands, a slight decrease of erosion processes in the upper layer on the you.

There is a method of cultivation of herbs, including tape seeding into sod and caring for the crops, which, with the aim of increasing the yield of grasses at the expense of improving their growth and development, seeding is carried out in a mechanically destroyed the turf, and care is carried out by periodic different height cutting of natural vegetation and feeding grass fertilizers, feeds mowing of natural vegetation that perform cutting height not lower than the height of sown grasses, and between the tape - cutting height below the height of sown grasses, but not exceeding 8 cm; before planting herbs in parallel future tapes are cutting slits at equal distance from each other and care when using them as guide members for movement; the slits are cut from each other at a distance multiple of the distance between the axes of the strips; feeding herbs is carried out after the cutting by surface spreading of fertilizers in the movement of vehicles along the tape; on the slopes of the cutting slits carried out in autumn (SU inventor's certificate No. 1713465. A1. Ml5A01B 79/02, A01G 1/00. The method of cultivation of herbs / Addario, Vasilyev, Ammeter, Wpisujmy and others (USSR). - Application No. 4655647/15; No. 4655648/15; Claimed 27.02.1989; Publ. 23.02.1992, bull. No. 7 // Open. Of the invention. - 1992. No. 7).

The disadvantages of the described method is applied to solve the above problems relative to the tsya, despite a number of similar technological operations, does not provide conditions for the growth of cauliflower in the vegetable crop rotation and obtaining high-quality heads.

A known way of doing vegetable crop rotation, mainly for cultivation of cauliflower, including cleaning predecessor, the application of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers, spring tillage to a depth of 0.25-0.27 m, suppression of annual and perennial grass weeds making trichloracetate sodium rate of 60 kg/ha, making bird droppings normal 60-80 t/ha, preparation, seedlings, planting seedlings in the open ground in increments of 0.20-0.25 m in the aisle - 0.6 m, poslepechatnye watering, hoeing the rows, disease and pest control, root and foliar feeding, selective and continuous cleaning heads (see Nepoluchiv, Mavrogenis. Production efficiency of cauliflower. // Potatoes and vegetables. - 1979. No. 9. - P.20-22).

The disadvantages of the described technology are great material and money to make drugs against C. agricultural pests and diseases, most adult death of seedlings due to the presence in the soil of pathogenic organisms.

Information search conducted in accordance with the updated generic concepts - the cultivation of vegetables, mainly cauliflower, - who had, what is known is a method of cultivation of vegetable crops, mainly cauliflower, including cleaning predecessor, the application of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers, tillage and planting the seedlings in the open field (see, for example. Guide a young mechanic - vegetable. - M.: Higher school, 1978. - S, 194-196).

The described method we have adopted as the closest analogue in part of the claimed method.

It is known instrument for combating soil erosion, including the plough, in which at least one of the buildings made without blade, in which, to increase the efficiency of processing of soil by water and wind erosion by simultaneous formation on the surface of the field earthen ridges and adjacent stubble strips with drained tape over the rip plow sole, it has located relative to the plow from the raw field and set at an angle to the direction of movement of the disk battery working bodies, discs which are from one another with a step of transmitting the cut layer from one disk to the other side of the furrow formed by the plow body with pochvouglubiteley installed in front of the body without blade; a disk battery is attached to the frame of the plow with the possibility of independent copy of the soil surface (S, copyright certificate №396101. MCL A01B 13/16, A01B 49/02. A tool to combat soil erosion // Aignon, Ego, Aeabi (USSR). - Application No. 1723897/30-15; Claimed 10.12.1971; Publ. 29.08.1973, bull. No. 36 // Opening. Of the invention. - 1973. No. 36).

The disadvantages of the described tools, applied to the problem to be solved by us, are powerful (thick) layer of crop residues, which is formed by the battery disk working bodies and laid over a soft bottom plow ditch. Residue in the ditch after passing the final casing for the autumn-winter period, even with large amounts of liming are not subject to decomposition (mineralization) and rehabilitation.

Known also working body of the cultivator having a shape of a curved cutting knife with variable thickness, increasing from top to bottom along its length, in which, to improve the quality of loosening the soil and reduce traction resistance, the front working portion of the knife is designed with variable angle ranging from acute at the top of the knife to dull in its bottom part with a smooth transition between them (SU inventor's certificate No. 435764. MCL A01B 35/20, A01B 35/26. The working body of the cultivator / ST. Storchak (USSR). - Application No. 1749419/30-15; Claimed 18.02.1972; Publ. 15.07.1974, bull. No. 26 // Opening. Of the invention. - 1974. No. 26).

The disadvantages described of the working body in relation to solving our problem is e - obtaining a narrow slit with a large depth and smooth walls - are insufficient depth of processing, "torn" the surface of the wall, a large tractive resistance.

It is also known instrument for conservation tillage on slopes, including a frame on which is fixed plow body, and set before them the cutter with protective cover, in which, with the aim of improving the protection of soil from water erosion on slopes, the protective cover is equipped with set at an angle one relative to the other guides on the lower edges of which are secured plowshares, and their rear ends have a gap, and the top of the angle between the guide is placed in the gap between the plow body; one of the rails has a pivotally mounted wing with a mechanism for regulating the angle of rotation (SU inventor's certificate No. 1066472 A. MCL3A01B 49/02. A tool for conservation tillage on slopes / Addario (USSR). - Application No. 3487423/30-15; Claimed 24.08.1982; Publ. 15.01.1984, bull. No. 2 // Open. Of the invention. - 1984. No. 2).

The disadvantages described guns, despite the similarities in solving technological problems are mixing pathogenic microflora with crop residues, volunteers, patients and non-standard fruits of the preceding culture in vegetable crop rotation with the upper soil layer and the inability with the nation of the specified layer when laying on the bottom of the plow furrow.

The closest analogue in of the device to the stated object is a tool for erosion of soil containing the frame with the beam angled to the longitudinal axis, which is fixed to plow body, one of which at least made with a short blade, and set before him the case with pochvouglubiteley storage battery, having placed at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the gun supporting member with the disk working elements mounted on the support element by means of brackets, in which, to improve the quality of treatment and reduce energy intensity, the bearing element is located in front of the plow beam with the buildings and shifted forward with respect to it, and each disk is pivotally connected to the bracket by means of the rack, spring relative to the support member; each hour drive equipped with limiters angle of its rotation, mounted on a support element; spring has means for adjusting its tension; the hour is placed in its upper part an opening for a fastening of the spring; a supporting member disk of the battery connected to the frame guns can move along the beam and changes the angle of attack of the battery; each side bracket connected to the bearing element of the battery can move along it to change the spacing between the drive is mi (SU, copyright certificate №1796083. A1. Ml5A01B 13/16, A01B 49/02. A tool for conservation tillage / Aeabi, Aignon, Megaryef, Amorites, Pavorosa (USSR). - Application No. 4884607/15; Claimed 22.11.1990; Publ. 23.02.1993, bull. No. 7 // Open. Of the invention. - 1993. No. 7).

The disadvantages described instruments adopted us as naiblizhajshee analogue, are very energy intensive process, the impossibility of complete suppression of pathogenic microflora in stubble felling, excessive complexity of the design.

The essence of the claimed invention is as follows.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, is the receipt of the guaranteed yield of cauliflower in the vegetable crop rotation.

The technical result - increasing the yield of cauliflower and quality heads.

This technical result in the technological part is achieved by the fact that in the known method of cultivation of vegetable crops, mainly for cultivation of cauliflower, including cleaning predecessor, the application of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers, tillage and transplanting, according to the invention, after harvest of the preceding culture in increments of 0.35-0.40 m to a depth of 0.35-0.45 m cut a narrow slit width 0,016-0,020 m, open in alignment with the slit groove triangular about the île-to a depth of 0.50-0.75 m layer of arable horizon with a width in the upper part of 0.15-0.20 m, residue, volunteers, patients and non-standard fruits of the preceding culture shift with the surface of the field in the grooves of triangular profile, lime norm 10-30 t/ha contribute stripe above each groove on the surface of the residue, the solution 40-60% natural mineral bischofite formula MgCl26H2O make superficially the norm 600-1200 l/ha fine spray; in late autumn period scatter organic fertilization rate of 40-60 t/ha in early spring are plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, surface making 30-40% of estimated doses of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer pre-plant cultivation and transplanting of cauliflower in the open ground.

This technical result in part of the tool is achieved by the fact that in the known tillage implement for soil preparation in the vegetable crop rotation, comprising a frame, supporting wheels and attachments, according to the invention, the frame during movement of the tool and offset to the side of the consistently housed group working bodies: each in the form of stand scelerata, otwarcia for the opening of the groove of triangular cross-section and oblique knife to move in the groove crop residues, volunteers, patients and non-standard fruits of the preceding culture; each hour scelerata features a wear-resistant cutter in the form of five-Ugolini prism, one of the ribs which are aligned with a vertical plane of symmetry of the rack; mounting portion of each of the Stoics with the carrier frame beam carries through the l-shaped bracket; each ommalik to open triangular groove has a rack and fixed therein a segment of a cylindrical surface with the field, top, Borozdin and bottom edges, the bottom edge provided with a cutting edge; each oblique knife to shift to the side of crop residues has rack and fixed therein a segment of a cylindrical surface with the field, top, Borozdin and bottom edges, the bottom edge provided with a cutting edge; stand otwarcia and obliquely put the knife pairs are mounted on the longitudinal beam placed on the raw timber frame; rack otwarcia and oblique knife have the opportunity to reinstall the length and the height of each of the longitudinal beams.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

1 shows a General view of the tillage tools for management of vegetable crop rotation in the cultivation of cauliflower, type in the plan.

Figure 2 is a view As in figure 1, the arrangement of hours of scelerata through the l-shaped bracket on the support beam of the frame tillage tools and the ability to reinstall in the direction of the guns on the longitudinal oblique knife and italici is for the opening of the groove of triangular cross-section, rear view.

Figure 3 shows oblique knife to shift crop residues of the previous crops in the groove of triangular cross-section, left side view.

Figure 4 - same view in the plan.

Figure 5 is a view B figure 4 rear view oblique knife.

Figure 6 presents ommalik for opening grooves of triangular profile styling crop residues, rear view.

Figure 7 is the same, left side view.

On Fig - same view in the plan.

Figure 9 shows Salares for crafts narrow and deep slots, right side view.

Figure 10 is a view In figure 9, the placement of the cutter on the lower end of the rack scelerata.

Information confirming the possibility of implementing the claimed invention are as follows.

The way of doing vegetable crop rotation, mainly for cultivation of cauliflower, includes traditional machine manufacturing operations and practices: cleaning predecessor, the application of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers, tillage and transplanting in the open ground.

Cauliflower - Brassica oleracea convar. Botrytis is a large, ever-growing demand from the population. Cauliflower is rich in ascorbic acid, vitamins B, A, PP, protein, carbohydrates, salts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium. In cauliflower more than cabbage, dry matter, protein, mineral is x salts and vitamins. Mineral salts, calcium, phosphorus and iron in cauliflower are easily digestible form.

For open ground zoned following varieties: Antonovskaya spring, Antonovskaya winter 679, Warranty, MOVER 74, Moscow canning, Domestic, Early Gribovsky 1355, Sochi and other

Cauliflower takes a worthy place in the green vegetable conveyor and intensive crop rotation for pickup 2-3 crops on irrigated array for the season. High demands on rehabilitation of soil, mineral nutrition and available moisture are the determining factors in site selection. The availability of sufficient quantities of fertilizers and soil moisture do not guarantee a programmable yield and high quality heads of cauliflower.

Cauliflower is grown after onion, cucumber, early root crops, legumes, early potatoes. Cauliflower on the same site should be returned no earlier than 3-4 years and not grow after radish, turnip, radish and other plants of the cabbage family (kind of crucifers). However, in intensive vegetable crop rotation period of three to four years is unacceptable. In the summer, and summer and autumn growing period when re-culture cauliflower can be placed after harvesting lettuce, dill, spinach and other early green crops. Cauliflower with well-trained techno is logicheskih transactions on rehabilitation of soils and suppression of pathogenic microorganisms can be grown after the early white cabbage.

Varieties of cabbage color is divided into early, mid-early, early, medium and late. To early and medium maturing varieties (95-130 days from seedling emergence until the formation of marketable heads) are Express MS, Early Gribovsky 1355, Warranty, MOVER 74, blue diamond, snowball 123, Lineman; intermediate and medium (110-130 days) - Amazing F1, Montano F1, Space Old F1, Celesta; late (up to 240 days) - white ball, Cortes F1.

For open ground varieties: white ball, Warranty, MOVER 74, Montano F1Domestic, Early Gribovsky 1355.

Grade cauliflower MOVER 74. Early-maturing. Head roundish flattened, with a mass of 0.4-1.4 kg, white, orbicular-Hurst, fine-grained, dense. Marketable yields of 1-4 kg/m Taste and good for transportation. Cold-resistant and heat-tolerant.

After harvest of the preceding culture with step T=0,35-0,40 m (2)

the depth and2=0,35-0,45 m cut narrow slits 1 width t=16-20 mm (see Fig.6). When cutting narrow slits 1 in increments of 0.35-0.40 m cut frequent vlagoperenosa network aimed at receipt of any precipitation in the underlying horizons and destruction of plough furrows % created by years of tillage to a depth of a=0,25±0,02 m Rod-fibrous root system cauliflower penetrates deep into the well 0,30-0,40 m Given the structure of the root system cauliflower depth a2cut slits 1 we have accepted on a value of 0,35-0,45 m

Step T=0,35-0,40 m cutting slits 1 is not due to the width of the buildings plows with otvoreno-lemasney surfaces, and justified by the number and weight of residue to be disposed in the grooves 3 and intensive processing to suppress pathogenic organisms and larvae and egg-agricultural pests.

In the alignment of each slit 1 width t=16-20 mm open groove 3 triangular profile to a depth of 0.50-0.75 m layer of arable horizon. At a depth of a=0.27 m this value as1$ 13.5-20,2 see If the depth of plowing a=0.30 m (special reinforced ploughs) the greatest depth of the groove 3 will be as1=15-22,5 cm Width in1groove 3 in the upper part equal to 0.15-0.20 m cross-Section grooves 3 is F1=1/2A1·in1=0,5·is 0.135·0,20= 0,0135 m2. At step T cut the grooves 3 of this cross-sectional enough to put the amount of crop residues V1=0,0135 m3on each meter of the surface 4 fields with plants of cauliflower (leaf, stalk, head of non-standard and sick). The angle β of inclination of the wall 5 to the horizon is set on the basis of long-term field experiments. When the value of angle β=35-45° is the self sealing pain the main residue in the groove 3. Larvae aphids, pests and pathogenic microflora decomposition of the leaves and stalks and heads in the form of mucus drains into a narrow vertical slit 1 and subjected to disposal.

In open grooves 3 a triangular profile with continuous movement of the shift from the surface of field 4 working body 6 (see figure 1-5) of crop residues, weeds, fallen, diseased and non-standard fruits (head of cauliflower) of the preceding culture. Next, the cultivators of estiniates family SCC-2,8; SCC-4,2; SCC-5,6; SCC-8,4 equipped with a fertilizer distributing apparatus ATD 2 (PRB-2) contribute over the grooves 3 on the surface crop residues lime norm 10-30 t/ha in the form of strips with a width of 0.10 to 0.16 m For each feeding the knife raised above the ground surface to a height of 0.10 to 0.15 M. the Upper screw rod of each parallelogram hinge section of the cultivator screw to the limit. For each linear meter of the groove 3 is made from 350 to 1050 g of lime. The presence of lime on the surface crop residues leads to their rapid decomposition, and the chlorine solution to the suppression of pathogenic organisms, destruction of larvae and egg-agricultural pests.

Prepared as described surface 4 vegetable fields make a fine spray of 40-60% solution of a natural mineral bischofite formula Mgl 26H2O norm 600-1200 l/ha For this wide use sprayers, such as OP-2000. The composition of the samples of the brine leaching of bischofite (bishofit)produced in the fields of the Volgograd region in salt form are shown in table 1. Analysis of samples brine leaching of bischofite produced in the fields of the Volgograd region, shows the numerical data in table 2. Micro - and macronutrient composition of bischofite brine presents the data in table 3. When mineralization 294,515-311,477 g/l in bischofite brine prevails MgCl2who suppressed pathogenic microflora in an open flat surface, the working body 6. Make organic (manure, crop residues, straw and other plant residues) requires one to two years to decompose and transfer of nutrients and trace elements in a digestible form. When redevelopment of the surface of the vegetable fields microelements in full shall be made in the surface layer in an accessible form for plants of cauliflower. The presence of boron, manganese, molybdenum, copper and other trace elements is sufficient to obtain high yield and good quality heads of cauliflower.

Thus, the introduction of a solution of natural mineral bischofite concentration of 40-60% of the extracted field of the Volgograd region is a native of technological operation. Tractor MT3-82 opryskivatel OP 2000 move along the slots 1, serving as a marker of shadowcasting.

In late autumn period on the surface of the vegetable field scatter organic fertilization rate of 40-60 t/ha as the latter can be used manure raw manure two years of decomposition. For the autumn-winter period in the region of the Lower Volga precipitation in the form of rain, sleet, frost, ice come in between stripes slots 1 and depressions are directed into the grooves 3. Further along the inclined walls 5 are redistributed at the bottom of the slots 1. Since the slit 1 is made with a step T=0,35-0,40 m, all the amount of precipitation is evenly distributed on the surface of the vegetable fields. Simultaneously, the residue in the grooves 3 are exposed to low and high temperatures and oxidation of skeletal parts of atmospheric air. Residue subjected to heat treatment and destruction in them pathogenic. Of organic matter in natural sediments washed macro - and micronutrients, which fills the top of the arable layer of the soil.

In early spring are plowing to a depth of 0.16 to 0.18 cm with a complete revolution of the reservoir, for example lemasney the stubble. In this case, sealed all crop residues and organic matter of animal manure applied to soil, intensely rich roots of cauliflower. Then perform the alignment of the relief of the fields is not only harrowing and cultivation, but small.

Superficially contribute 30-40% of phosphate and potash fertilizers from the calculated doses to obtain the planned yield of heads of cauliflower. Following this, perform pre-cultivation to a depth of 0.12 to 0.14 m and transplanting of cauliflower either in pots or trays. Sprinkler exercise poslepobednyy irrigation by 200-300 m3/ha. All further technological operations are performed as in the underlying technology.

Plants of cauliflower due to weak root system affects the following pests: crucifer flea beetle, cabbage fly, cabbage stratocumuli, cabbage aphids, butterflies, scoop, mol and other

Cauliflower is damaged by the same pests that and cabbage. To prevent mass outbreaks of pests and reduce their severity high agriculture. Only deep fall moldboard tillage, suppression and eradication of weeds, especially cruciferous, maintenance of crop rotation in the vegetable crop rotation, timely payment for the needs of plants cabbage micronutrients and fertilizers, adequate watering, cultivating, removal of plant and crop residues, patients and non-standard fruits do not solve the problem of getting a guaranteed yield of cauliflower. Neo is absolutely essential in intensive vegetable crop rotation a number of technical measures to change the environmental situation in the vegetable irrigated field.

Along with the diseases and pests that are characteristic for the cabbage, cauliflower affected downy mildew (Peronospora. parasitica) and early blight (Alternaria brassicae), which affects both the leaves and heads. Spores of downy mildew and Alternaria in a long time is saved in the top layer of soil with crop residues in cabbage stalk, leaves, sick heads, custom products in vegetable plantations. To combat these diseases is necessary during the growing season to timely process the leaves of cauliflower. In the period of sale of a commodity output gray-brown coloration of the head of cauliflower is often increased. This leads to the rejection of a consignment of goods and complaints from customers of green products.

Since seed planting cauliflower often amaze blackleg, Clubroot, downy mildew, vascular and mucous conditions.

Tillage implement for soil preparation in the vegetable crop rotation (see figure 1 and 2) includes a frame 7, the support wheel 8, the hinge brackets 9, 10 and 11 with the fingers 12, 13, 14, struts 15, the spacers 16 and 17.

The frame 7 has the shape of a rectangular triangle welded construction and includes a front beam 18, the carrier power beam 19 and the longitudinal beam 20. Support wheel 8 with the possibility of reinstalling mounted on the longitudinal beam 20. Crons any hinge 9, 10 and 11 welds are mounted on the front beam 18. The spacers 16 and 17 of the derrick 15 is connected with the front beam 18 and the carrier power beam 19. The frame 7 is described tools can be borrowed from the frames mounted plough PLN-5-35, PLN-6-35, PLP-6-35, STUMPS-8-40, etc. manufactured by the companies of the Russian Federation and agricultural machine-building plants of the CIS.

On the frame 7 in the direction of the claimed guns and offset to the side (left) sequentially placed groups working bodies: each in the form of rack 21 scelerata, otwarcia 22 for opening grooves of triangular profile and a working body 6 in the form of oblique (at an angle to the direction of movement of the knife to move in the groove 3 crop residues, volunteers, patients and non-standard fruits of the preceding culture. Thus, the assembled hinged tillage tool for pre-plant soil preparation field in the vegetable crop rotation. The instrument provides for aggregated with tractors of class 3 both tracked and wheeled modification. The workflow represented by the working bodies of running at speeds of 7-12 km/H. the utilization of a hook efforts of 0.87 to 0.92.

Each rack 21 scelerata equipped with the ability to reinstall the height of the frame 7 and the inclination to the horizon. Hour 21 has a mounting part 22. On the mounting part 22 is accomplished group technology is a logical holes 23. The mounting portion 22 of each rack 21 with carrier beam 10 of the frame 7 carries through the l-shaped bracket 24 (see figures 1 and 2) and fixed to them by means of fastening. The distance between the centers of the holes 23 corresponds to the distance of the holes on the bracket 24. On crowded soils at work (cutting) slots 1 rack 21 is fixed at the top of the holes 23. When the hack slots 1 on dry soils rack 21 incline to the horizon at an angle a (see Fig.9). This reach crafts smooth walls of the slots 1.

The front part 25 of the rack 21 has a cutting edge 26. The lower tapered end 27 of the rack 21 scelerata features a wear-resistant cutter 28 in the form of a pentagonal prism. Material of cutter 28 or R9 or TK. One of the edges of the pentagonal prism cutter 28 is aligned with the vertical plane of the rack 21 scelerata. This contributes to the depth of the rack 21 in the processing of thick and heavy soils. The lower section 29 of the rack 21 is installed at an angle 8 to the horizon.

Each ommalik 22 (see figures 1 and 2, 6-8) to open triangular groove 3 has a rack 30 and is fixed at either welds or contact welding segment of a cylindrical surface. The segment of the working surface of otwarcia 22 formed field vertical edge 31, the upper inclined edge 32, Borozdin inclined to the horizontal edge 33 and the lower oblique edge 34. The inferior oblique about the ez 34 and vertical field edge 31 is formed sock 35 otwarcia 22. The lower oblique edge 34 otwarcia 22 provided with a cutting edge 36. The rack 30 is made holes 37 to reset the height of the frame 7 guns. The segment of the working surface made of carbon steel sheet thickness of 6 mm

Each working body 6 (see figure 1-5) in the form of oblique knife to shift to the side of crop residues has a rack 38 and fixed therein a segment of a cylindrical surface with the field 39, top 40, Borozdin 41 and bottom 42 trim. The lower edge 42 is equipped with cutting edge 43.

The rack 30 and 38 otwarcia 22 and the working body 6 in the form of oblique knife pairs are mounted on longitudinal beams 44.

Beam 44 is placed on the support beam 19 of the frame 7. The rack 30 and 38 of each pair of otwarcia 22 and the working body 6 in the form of oblique knife have the opportunity to reinstall the length and the height of each additional longitudinal beams 44. Means mounting 45 each longitudinal beam 44 is fixed to the support beam 19 of the frame 7. This allows to significantly extend the functionality of the tools (see figure 2).

Tillage tool for preparing the fields for the conduct of vegetable crop rotation, mainly for growing cauliflower, works as follows.

The lower longitudinal thrust all systems attached to the tractor thrust class 3 connect with pals the mi 12 and 14 of the brackets 9 and 11 and fixed quick checks. The Central upper arm of this system connect the finger 13 with the bracket 10. The finger 13 in the bracket 10 is fixed also checks. Power cylinder all system of the tractor frame 7 is raised to the transport position. Next, the frame 7 is lowered onto the stand. The mechanic checks the technical condition of the working bodies 6, 21 and 22 and the wheels 8. Next moves the tillage unit on the pitch allocated for the cauliflower in the vegetable crop rotation.

When stopped the tractor power cylinder all system smoothly frame 7 to the contact of the cutters 28 is lowered to the surface of the field 4. Then visually determine the amount of crop residues in each row of the preceding culture and taking into account soil conditions, set the depth of the racks 21 Shelestov, otwarcia 22 and working bodies 6. Further, when the movement of the tractor teeth 28 on the lower ends of the racks 27 21 penetrate into the surface soil and subsoil horizon. Upon contact of the rim of the supporting wheel 8 with the surface 4 of the vegetable field operator stops the tractor and the Central upper thrust frame 7 installs horizontally. The correct position of the frame 7 provides the minimum tractive resistance of the uprights 21 Shelestov, working bodies 6 and otwarcia 22.

Depth gauge under the rim of the supporting wheel 8 should not exceed 3 see Then choose p the working transmission. When translational movement of the Assembly of the cutting edge 26 of the rack 21 is cut vertically arable topsoil and subsoil horizon, breaking plow sole 2. Due to the geometry of the rack 21 is formed a narrow slit 1 width 16...22 mm with a flat, smooth walls. Mounted to the left of each rack 21 ommalik 22 cutting edge 34 on the lower edge 36 of the cutting layer of soil to a depth of a and moves it to the right, on a previously cleaned surface 4 from crop residues (see figure 1 and 6). Ahead of each rack 21 scelerata working body 6 is cut off a thin top layer of soil and in Association with crop residues is shifted into the previously dug the groove 3. Thus, for each pass unit sets the band width of 2.8 m Back soil ridges on the surface 4 and open grooves 3 with residue, and the organic fertilizer in late autumn period (at a temperature of 4...-10°C) contribute to the retention of snow and precipitation as rain, frost, ice. Made lime and mortar natural mineral bischofite contribute to the suppression of pathogenic microflora and death of larvae and egg-agricultural pests. Made lime contributes to the deoxidation of the soil and improves the survival rate of seedlings of cauliflower.

In tables 4-8 shows the yield and quality dormancy is the result of cauliflower varieties MOVER 74 according to field seasons 2005-2007 Only when the laying of crop residues into the open grooves, with a shift of crop residues in the groove and the introduction of lime to 105 kg/m (30 t/ha), when laying residue in the grooves and the surface making bischofite for rehabilitation of the surface normal 800 l/ha, with a shift of crop residues in the groove and application of manure the rate of 40 t/ha, when the surface making 40% solution of a natural mineral bischofite without removing crop residues, the claimed method and quality control data on common underlying technology. Provides information evidence in favor of the stated way of doing vegetable crop rotation in the cultivation of cauliflower varieties MOVER 74.

1. The method of cultivation of vegetable crops, mainly cauliflower, including cleaning predecessor, the application of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers, tillage and transplanting in the open ground, characterized in that after harvest of the preceding culture in increments of 0.35-0.40 m to a depth of 0.35-0.45 m cut a narrow slit width 0,016-0,020 m, open in the alignment of each of the ultrasonic is the second slit groove of triangular profile to a depth of 0.50 to 0.75 layer of arable horizon with a width in the upper part of 0.15-0.20 m, residue, volunteers, patients and non-standard fruits of the preceding culture shift with the surface of the field in the grooves of triangular profile, lime norm 10-30 t/ha contribute stripe above each groove on the surface crop residues, 40-60%solution of a natural mineral bischofite formula MgCl26H2O make superficially the norm 600-1200 l/ha fine spray in late autumn period scatter organic fertilization rate of 40-60 t/ha in early spring are plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, surface making 30-40% phosphoric and potash fertilizers, pre-plant cultivation and transplanting of cauliflower in the open ground.

2. Tillage implement for soil preparation in the vegetable crop rotation, comprising a frame, a supporting wheel, bracket, hinge and attachments, characterized in that on the frame during movement of the tool and offset to the side of the consistently housed group working bodies - each in the form of stand scelerata, otwarcia for the opening of the groove of triangular cross-section and oblique knife to move in the groove crop residues, volunteers, patients and non-standard fruits of the preceding culture.

3. The instrument according to claim 2, characterized in that each hour scelerata mounted with the possibility of reinstalling the height of the frame and tilt to g the horizontal plane.

4. The instrument according to claim 2, characterized in that the lower pointed end of the rack scelerata features a wear-resistant cutter in the form of a pentagonal prism, one of the ribs which are aligned with the vertical plane of symmetry of the stand.

5. The instrument according to claim 2, characterized in that the mounting portion of each rack with carrier frame beam carries through the l-shaped bracket.

6. The instrument according to claim 2, characterized in that each ommalik to open triangular groove has a rack and fixed therein a segment of a cylindrical surface with the field, top, Borozdin and bottom edges, the bottom edge provided with a cutting edge.

7. The instrument according to claim 2, characterized in that each oblique knife to shift crop residues has rack and fixed therein a segment of a cylindrical surface with the field, top, Borozdin and bottom edges, the bottom edge provided with a cutting edge.

8. The instrument according to claim 2, characterized in that the rack otwarcia and oblique knife pairs are mounted on longitudinal beams placed on the raw timber frame.

9. The instrument according to claim 2 or 7, characterized in that the rack otwarcia and oblique knife have the opportunity to reinstall the length and the height of each of the longitudinal beams.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: soils purification method from heavy metals presupposes growing of phyto - ameliorants on contaminated soils with their consecutive removal. Carthamus is used as an ameliorating plant. Seeds of carthamus are sowed into the contaminated soil in the amount of 20-22 kg/ha, adult plants are kept until end of blowing and beginning of lower leaves dying-off, thereafter phyto-ameliorant is totally removed from the soil.

EFFECT: total consumption of ions of heavy metals.

3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method presupposes reclamation leveling, introduction of chemical substance including humic acids and microorganisms, tillage and seeding. Organic -mineral fertiliser is used as a chemical substance. It contains peat with adjusted to the disrupted soils microorganisms, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and nitrogenous, mineral salts, and balance of peat hydraulitic decomposition with hydric dioxide and ammonia containing humic acids. Organic-mineral fertiliser is introduced before tillage in the amount of 10-50 t/ha.

EFFECT: increased amount of accumulated plant - available organic matter, moving forms of fertiliser elements, increased microbiological and ferment activity, growth and development of plants, enriching disrupted during coal mining soils with organic matter.

2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: seeds of spring wheat and feeding blue lupine or yellow lupine are sowed together in the ratio 2.5-3.75:1.0 million of viable sees per 1 hectare. Only phosphate-potassium fertilizers are used as fertilizers.

EFFECT: development of thick wheat and lupine agrophytocenosis for inhibiting weeds by applying phytocoenotic method without using herbicides and increasing content of protein and wet gluten in the grains of soft spring wheat.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mechanical removal of oil products from the ground surface by collecting oil over a layer of contaminated soil with further oil refining. Mechanical admixtures containing fuel oil residuals are sent for washing. After removing oil products, the depth of soil contamination is determined, thereafter contaminated soil is frozen at the temperatures below freezing point to the depths lower than the level of contamination. Frozen soil which is lower the level of contamination is withdrawn together with clean soil and taken out for washing. Washing of oil contamination is carried out by using cleaning fluid which contains 0.3-3.0% of surfactant aqueous solution at the temperature not less than 40°C. Before washing, soil is fractioned into floating mass and deposited soil. Washing of floating mass is carried out by jet machining together with separating mass from contaminated cleaning aqueous solution. After washing, soil and/or separated mechanical admixtures are returned to the place of drawing, thereafter permanent grasses are sowed while adding mineral fertilizers, within two years woody plants and grasses are dressed with mineral fertilizers.

EFFECT: acceleration of ground reclamation together with impact reduction upon environment during land restoration.

9 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes skimming of precursor, tillage by killer, introduction of fertiliser, ploughing with layer circulation, early-spring soil tillage and smoothing. Preplant water application and cultivation is implemented for depth 4-5 cm. Also it is implemented sowing, packing of soil before and after sowing, shoots harrowing, irrigation during the vegetation and dessication of crops. At late autumn on true area with laid out soil layer of top layer for depth 0-0.12 m along the lines east-west there are formed with two sloping surfaces of different flat combs with vertex with angle at vertex β=180°-(θ+α). Height of combs is installed by calculation from expression: H=(bs-b3)·tgα·tgΘ/(tgα+tgΘ), m. In early spring period it is implemented combing of cold-resistant weeds and mount of combs. At sowing of soya seeds vertex of comb and south slope are compacted up to values, defined from the expression: m. At compaction of comb vertex at north slope and simultaneous sowing of seeds into seeds bed it is implemented groove for depth of seeds sowing and it is laid flexible spray pipeline of trickle irrigation system.

EFFECT: receiving of guaranteed harvest of soya grain in irrigated cropping at cultivation in conditions of acutely continental climate.

5 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of bottom and top layers of soil with creation between them tightened streaks. Cultivation and soil tillage for full-depth treatment is implemented by fields. Tillage of soil top layer is implemented for depth, exceeding for 2…4 cm depth of seeds sowing. Mineral fertilisers are introduced local simultaneously to soil cultivation. Seeds sowing are implemented on tightened bed, pressed out at preplant packing in areas of mineral fertiliser local introduction. After what seed are covered by soil and packed. Device contains located on frame front and back rippers drums, scuffle claws, protective shroud and packing compactors. Rippers drums are installed with the ability of free rotation and are connected to each other by overdrive. Front rippers drum allows driving teeth. Scuffle claws are installed between rippers drums. Uprights of scuffle claws are located in the middle of between traces of driving teeth of the front rippers drum. Scuffle claws allows mineral fertiliser's guides, connected by mineral fertiliser's leads with fertiliser box for supplying of mineral fertilisers into areas, which are located from uprights of scuffle claws at a distance, equal to 1/4 of adjusting width between claws. The first by movement run packing compactor is implemented with flanges of height, not less than depth of seeds sowing, which are located by track of mineral fertilisers sowing. Behind flanges there are installed seeds-guides, connected by seeds-guides with seed box.

EFFECT: improving of preplant soil treatment with simultaneous improvement of growth conditions and development of sown seeds of plants.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves primary and secondary tillage, early winter sowing, pre-emergence treatment of seeds, disease and pest control. Fertiliser elements nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are applied fractionally: 20-30% of calculated amount of fertiliser. Phosphorous and potassium are added at primary tillage at depth 0.18-0.27 m on planned yield of achene of 0.75; 1.25; 1.75 t/ha. Nitrogen is applied on the surface during pre-emergence treatment of seeds. The remaining amount of macroelements N, P, K is applied in parts in form of topdressing in the "complete germinating seedling-branching" period - nitrogen - 0.10-0.15 of the remaining mass, phosphorous - 0.27-0.43 parts of the remaining mass, potassium - 0.06-0.08 parts, in the "branching-head formation" period - nitrogen 0.30-0.45 parts, phosphorous - 0.12-0.18 parts, potassium - 0.13-0.26 parts, in the "head formation-flowering" period - nitrogen - 0.25-0.30 parts, phosphorous - 0.30-0.35 parts, potassium - 0.52-0.55 parts, in the "flowering-achene ripening" period - nitrogen 0.10-0.35 of the remaining part, phosphorous - 0.15-0.20 of the remaining mass, potassium - 0.11-0.29 of the remaining mass.

EFFECT: guaranteed obtaining of the planned yield of safflower and increase in their oil content due to uniform ripening and efficient use by each plant of fertiliser macroelements by vegetative parts and root mass.

30 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method involves cutting under soil and weeds at a given depth using cutting working elements, mainly in form of A-shares, packing the underlying soil layer using the said working elements and preliminary breaking of the soil. The soil is cut below the sowing level. Under the working elements on beds made by the blades, the main fertiliser doses are applied in bands. Subsoil compaction is done over the main fertiliser doses with preparation of the packed seed bed breaking up the soil on top of the seed bed and levelling the soil surface while throwing the said weeds onto it using multifunctional rollers. After that seeds are sown into the ground with or without starter fertiliser doses. The assembly has a frame with a connecting device, supporting wheels and a system for changing height of the frame above the soil. The cutting working elements mainly in form of A-shares, are held to the frame by posts. The posts are provided with devices for receiving and distributing fertiliser. The fertiliser application system has a storage tank, dosing and transportation elements. The assembly has multi-functional rollers linked to the frame, mounted after the working elements. The rollers have ring-shaped rims with spokes, located in the axial direction at a distance from each other at acute angles of attack. In the operating position, the bottom of the multi-functional rollers lies above the level of cutting edges of the working elements. The assembly also has a system for sowing seeds with or without starter fertiliser doses. The system for sowing seeds is provided with shares, located after the multi-functional rollers.

EFFECT: provision for application of main fertiliser doses when sowing and increased uniformity of sowing depth.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture. The method consists in deep main cultivation of soil, in pre-sowing surface treatment of soil, in sowing, in early spring pre-emergence harrowing, in after-emergence inter-row cultivation and in harvesting grain part of plant for seeds. In late autumn period there are formed two-slope topless ridges at the distance of 0.70±0.02 m one from another. In early spring period there is performed correction of ridges; when temperature in ridges surpasses +5°C, achenes are sowed into compacted tops of ridges at the depth of 0.04-0.06 m. When 2-4 true leaves emerge, flexible watering pipelines of a drip irrigation system are mechanically laid along rows of plants onto compacted tops of ridges. At drip irrigation the following fertilising elements: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - are introduced together with water during the period of vegetation separately at the following calculated amount of fertilisers for planned yield of safflower achenes: 1.75; 2.00; 2.25 t/hectar during the phase of "branching": nitrogen 30-40%, phosphorus 20-25% and potassium 5-10%; during the phase of "head forming": nitrogen 25-45%, phosphorus 15-20%, and potassium 15-25%; during the phase of "flowering": nitrogen 20-25%, phosphorus 25-35%, and potassium 30-40%; and during the phase of achenes ripening: nitrogen 5-10%, phosphorus 20-40%, and potassium 25-50%. Calculated dozes of mineral fertilisers are introduced in form of solutions of orthophoshoric acid H3PO4, carbamide (NH2)2CO and potassium chloride KCl.

EFFECT: method facilitates raised yield of safflower achenes and their oil content.

18 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in surface, basic and before sowing cultivation of soil, in sowing with fertilising, in rolling and in seeds management. Basic cultivation of soil is performed by fissured method. A vertical fissure is cut; further soil is tilled to the right and left from the fissure at depth of from 10 to 12 cm without turnover. In a lower part of the vertical fissure there are cut inclined slots and moisture collecting capacity is formed at the level of crossing of inclined slots. Simultaneously upper layers are mulched, compacted and leveled forming wind-water resistant surfaces.

EFFECT: disclosed technology facilitates increasing crop yield of winter wheat in regions subject to soil erosion.

2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: work member includes flat hoe with plowshare and landside, rest, mineral fertiliser feeder, distributor box. In distributor box it is installed deflector of air- mineral fertiliser mixture. Deflector is implemented in the form of wedge with half-angle cone at back edge. Vertex of wedge is shifted from the axis of symmetry of mineral fertiliser feeder to the side of landside. Distributor box allows shape of hollow truncated pyramid. On back edge of flat hoe it is mounted stream-former.

EFFECT: regularly spaced distribution of fertiliser agents by width of flat hoe's catch and effectiveness increase of its usage by agricultural plants.

15 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of bottom and top layers of soil with creation between them tightened streaks. Cultivation and soil tillage for full-depth treatment is implemented by fields. Tillage of soil top layer is implemented for depth, exceeding for 2…4 cm depth of seeds sowing. Mineral fertilisers are introduced local simultaneously to soil cultivation. Seeds sowing are implemented on tightened bed, pressed out at preplant packing in areas of mineral fertiliser local introduction. After what seed are covered by soil and packed. Device contains located on frame front and back rippers drums, scuffle claws, protective shroud and packing compactors. Rippers drums are installed with the ability of free rotation and are connected to each other by overdrive. Front rippers drum allows driving teeth. Scuffle claws are installed between rippers drums. Uprights of scuffle claws are located in the middle of between traces of driving teeth of the front rippers drum. Scuffle claws allows mineral fertiliser's guides, connected by mineral fertiliser's leads with fertiliser box for supplying of mineral fertilisers into areas, which are located from uprights of scuffle claws at a distance, equal to 1/4 of adjusting width between claws. The first by movement run packing compactor is implemented with flanges of height, not less than depth of seeds sowing, which are located by track of mineral fertilisers sowing. Behind flanges there are installed seeds-guides, connected by seeds-guides with seed box.

EFFECT: improving of preplant soil treatment with simultaneous improvement of growth conditions and development of sown seeds of plants.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: aggregate contains installed on frame ridgers, box for mineral fertilisers, compactors for compaction of combs, seed-box with ploughshares, bearing-drive wheels, electrical control assembly. Ridger is implemented as composite: fore part and waste part with variable curvature of work surface. Top back one third of waste surface allows variable rounded radius, equal to 920-780 mm. To back waste parts of ridger there are rigidly fixed extension plates of length 10-15 cm, and its side edges repeat curvature of waste surface. Compactors for compaction of combs are implemented as compound from two equal parts in the form of screws with varied pitch and opposite direction of coils from butt end to the middle of compactor. At vertexes of screw coils there are rigidly fixed teeth. Side surfaces of screws are implemented in the form of arcs, center of circle of which are located at one line, coincide with central axis of upright, on which there are fixed compactors with ability of rotation. Control assembly is electrically connected to solidity sensors of soil, installed on upright of applicator and on durometre, located behind planting apparatus.

EFFECT: improving of tilling, keeping of combs' profile.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method involves cutting under soil and weeds at a given depth using cutting working elements, mainly in form of A-shares, packing the underlying soil layer using the said working elements and preliminary breaking of the soil. The soil is cut below the sowing level. Under the working elements on beds made by the blades, the main fertiliser doses are applied in bands. Subsoil compaction is done over the main fertiliser doses with preparation of the packed seed bed breaking up the soil on top of the seed bed and levelling the soil surface while throwing the said weeds onto it using multifunctional rollers. After that seeds are sown into the ground with or without starter fertiliser doses. The assembly has a frame with a connecting device, supporting wheels and a system for changing height of the frame above the soil. The cutting working elements mainly in form of A-shares, are held to the frame by posts. The posts are provided with devices for receiving and distributing fertiliser. The fertiliser application system has a storage tank, dosing and transportation elements. The assembly has multi-functional rollers linked to the frame, mounted after the working elements. The rollers have ring-shaped rims with spokes, located in the axial direction at a distance from each other at acute angles of attack. In the operating position, the bottom of the multi-functional rollers lies above the level of cutting edges of the working elements. The assembly also has a system for sowing seeds with or without starter fertiliser doses. The system for sowing seeds is provided with shares, located after the multi-functional rollers.

EFFECT: provision for application of main fertiliser doses when sowing and increased uniformity of sowing depth.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: ridger-seed planter contains rib forming units, fertiliser dispenser, compactor of ridge side slopes, seed planter, packing wheel, colters, tiller with a cover. A shield is attached pivotally to the lower rear end of the cover. The shield consists of horizontal and inclined portions. The inclined portion of the shield is made radially, and horizontal portion is equipped with vertical hydro screw-down mechanism. The colters in the form of tine points are rigidly fixed to the lower plane of the shield's horizontal portion. Fertiliser tine points, the height of which is twice as large as seed one and the same form are rigidly fixed on the lower surface of the shield in front of the seed tine points and coaxially with them. The shield contains orifices in the place of installation of fertiliser tine points, and conic collectors are rigidly mounted on the top of the shield. The lower ends of fertiliser funnels are rigidly fixed in the collector. Backfilling units are rigidly fixed behind the fertiliser tine points at the bottom of the shield, they are mounted in the form of vertical plates at acute angles and symmetrically to the axis of the tine point from the both sides. The backfilling units are designed of such size so that volume of soil throwing into grooves by them equals the volume of soil pushing out by tine point. The backfilling units of the seed tine points mounted with the possibility of changing longitudinal position towards the axis of the seed tine point are designed according to the same rule. The backfilling units of the seed tine points are designed in the form of vertical oblong plates directed at acute angles towards the movement direction. The pivotal axes are equipped with fasteners. Square fixed stops are mounted on each side of ear slots from left and right in the direction from outer side of each ear slot accordingly. A square window is made in the horizontal portion of the shield behind the seed tine points. A trimming roller is fixed in it pivotally with the possibility of being rotated. The roller is made in the form of symmetric body of rotation with a taper from centre to the ends inward of the horizontal axis, with conic and curvilinear projection along the axes of drilling rigs, and such curvilinear projection on the centre part. Plain round roller equipped with scrapers is installed behind the tiller in the window of the inclined portion of the shield pivotally with the possibility of being rotated. The scrapers are bristle band made of natural or artificial hair and rigidly fixed along the contour of the roller perpendicular or at an angle to its surface. The trimming roller is also equipped with the same scrapers. The compactors of ridge side slopes are equipped with two rollers along their width, mounted parallel to each other in the beginning and end of the compactor and perpendicularly to the movement direction of the machine. The hydraulic screw-down mechanism is made from two parallel vertical hydraulic cylinders equipped with a synchroniser for simultaneous pressing down which is T-shaped channel branching for delivering working fluid in all three directions.

EFFECT: enhancement of fertiliser distribution in ridges, decrease of storm erosion, decrease of frictional force on the compactor, pressure balance of hydraulic cylinders and clearing of shield sidesway.

11 dwg

Till-plant outfit // 2355147

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: outfit contains a frame, operating elements, sections of ring conic rollers, attached to the frame by spring loaded drawbars. The operating elements are mounted in a row or several rows and made in the form of A-hoe blade. The operating elements have a fertiliser incorporator and device for seeding designed for the A-hoe blades. Each A-hoe blade is connected with the frame by a parallel linkage with rigging screw and spring loaded drawbars. Two ring conic rollers supported on soil are attached to the spring loaded drawbar behind each A-hoe blade. One of the rollers is displaced leftward relative to the blade, and the second - rightward forming a lead angle. Two ring conic rollers are mounted in such a way that they can be vertically and horizontally adjusted relative to the A-hoe blade. A press wheel is fixed behind two ring conic rollers and mounted with possibility being vertically adjusted. All rollers are fixed in the section at lead angle. Each ring conic roller is fixed on its axis.

EFFECT: uniform seeding of grain crops with fertiliser distribution at the depth, saving of soil moisture, exception of weed wrapping over the axis of the ring conic rollers.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method involves distribution of fertiliser using bands on the ground surface with a given width and mixture of the fertiliser with soil. Channels with raised edges are made on the fertilised soil layer. Ridges are then made using soil between rows, part of which falls under the raised edges, and the other part is put on top of the fertilised layer. The device has a fertiliser tank with unloading apparatus on a frame with support wheels, a ripper and apparatus for making ridges. The device also has apparatus for shaping the fertilised soil layer, made in form of oppositely fixed vertical rectangular plates, the bottom rear corner parts of which are at an angle to the inner side of the plates and form lifting surfaces. The ripper is in form of a sectioned pointed rotor, fixed on the front part of the shaper. The apparatus for making ridges has two spherical discs on the outer surface of the shaper such that, their axes of rotation pass along the vertical line of the rear top corner of the shaper plates.

EFFECT: such techniques and design increase survival rate of crops, provide for normal growth and development of crops, which in turn increases crop yield by 20-25%.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: aggregate consists of body-frame whereon hopper for bulk material is installed and of tube holders with cutting disks rigidly secured onto them. The holders are assembled on the additional frame between front and back rollers-wheels designed to rotate. The additional frame forms a parallelogram connection together with the body-frame; this connection is equipped with a driving mechanism and a mechanism for fixing positions of the additional frame. The fixing mechanism is made as a row of apertures in the additional frame for positions holder. At lowering the additional frame the latter contacts with at least one stop assembled on the body-frame of the aggregate.

EFFECT: reduced force for control of height of boot penetration into soil; increased reliability and service life of cutting disks and holders.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agricultural industry.

SUBSTANCE: outfit consists of a tractor, soil-treatment working members, a packer wheel, and a sowing machine. Tractor is equipped with front and rear mountings. To the front mounting there hinged is a cultivator so that it can turn. Cultivator has soil-treatment working members made in the form of cultivator teeth and installed at the depth twice as bigger than the depth of sowing area. After the teeth at the same depth there installed are applicators. Cultivator teeth and applicators are installed in a staggered order as the outfit advances in order to symmetrically distribute the load. Cultivator is equipped with cans intended for fertilisers, the outlet hoppers of which are provided with double-flow distributors with fertiliser tubes rigidly attached to them. On the rear mounting there installed is an automatic coupling. On the latter there rigidly fixed is a frame with a vibration harrow, a wheel, a sowing machine, and a tailing device. Vibration harrow is hinged to the frame with the possibility of back-and-forth motion from a crank-and-rod mechanism driven from the tractor power takeoff shaft. Wheel is water-filled and is provided with grousers. The latter are made in the form of sections of angles installed rigidly and symmetrically along the wheel surface with equal pitches both along the wheel and in its circumferential direction. Pitch of grousers along the wheel is equal to their length. Each following row of grousers in the circumferential direction of the wheel is offset half of circular pitch relative to the preceding row. Seed-sowing outfit drive of seeding machine is made in the form of a chain gear from packer wheel. Tailing device is made of chain string in the form of sine curve or cosine curve. The string on each side is rigidly attached with straight links to the frame, and to arc-shaped brackets at bend points. Arc-shaped brackets are rigidly attached to the frame so that they can be removed. Socks are installed in line with applicators and equal to their number.

EFFECT: improving the quality of soil treatment and sowing, and arranging conditions required for plant growth and development.

5 dwg

FIELD: agricultural industry.

SUBSTANCE: working member consists of tubular holders with cutting disks, which are made so that they can rotate. Tubular holder of cutting disk is mounted in an additional bracket. The latter is hinged by means of a vertically mounted axis to the casing - the outfit frame. Bracket is equipped with mechanism which supports its initial position. Interaxial distance between holder axis and additional axis of the bracket is 40 to 500 mm.

EFFECT: improving manufacturability, operating reliability and service life of cutting disks and tubular holders.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture and agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for seeding of grass, brush and subbrush on non-tilled lands, such as pastures with natural herbage, including meadow grass seeds, legimunous seeds and mixtures thereof.

SUBSTANCE: combined apparatus has tractor, hopper adapted for seeds and fertilizers and equipped with seeding units, seed guides, shanks, covering device and covering roller. Apparatus is further equipped with rollers arranged in succession and kinematically connected with one another. Shanks are made in the form of soil deforming devices pivotally fixed on roller surface in staggered arrangement. Each of soil deforming devices is made in the form of rod mounted in receptacle. One end of rod has thickened portion formed as truncated cone joined with rod through spherical layer on larger base of truncated cone. Other end of rod is equipped with threaded shank and receptacle belt, onto which fastening members and seat are mounted. Fastening members and seat are joined with compression spring located in receptacle of soil deforming device, which is made in the form of hollow cylinder with bottom. Axis of symmetry of receptacle is deviated by angle of 20-35 deg from roller radius in direction opposite to rolling direction of roller. Bottom part of receptacle made in the form of hollow cylinder extends above roller hosing surface. Roller has guides made in the form of pipes arranged in equally spaced relation in mounting disks of roller housing. At least one point on surface of each guide is aligned with point lying on inner surface of disk. Outer mounting disks of roller housing are joined with mounting rings of ballast cylinders by means of fastening devices and dismantling devices. One end of cylinder has pin. Covering devices are fixed on roller second with respect to course of advancement of apparatus.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by creating stable and high-productive agrocenosis on degraded and tumbledown pastures.

3 cl, 11 dwg

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