Laser electron-beam projector

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics, more specifically to laser electron-beam devices (LEBD), used in information display systems and medical technology, particularly in scanning optical microscopy. The laser electron-beam projector contains an electron gun with electron-beam focusing and deflection systems and a laser target, consisting of monocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide nanorods standing on a substrate at an angle of not more than 10° to the vertical, where the said nanorods have diametre equal to 100-500 nm and length equal to 5-100 diametres. The free ends of the nanorods have reflecting mirrors.

EFFECT: reduced laser generation voltage and increased operating temperature.

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The invention relates to electronic devices, and more specifically to laser cathode-ray devices (LSP)used in information display systems and medical technology, in particular raster optical microscopy.

The idea of the laser tube is repeatedly described in the literature [Wlasuk NR. Kandasamy. M.: Radio and Communication, 1988] and is extremely simple: when replacing the phosphor coating of the screen ERF monocrystalline semiconductor target every element under the influence of the electron beam generates coherent radiation. In other words, each element of the target is a semiconductor laser is pumped by an electron beam. The wavelength of laser radiation is determined by the type of semiconductor material, and its intensity and spatial position set by the electron beam, standard and well-managed waste for plain tubes methods.

However, despite its apparent simplicity, the creation of laser ERF with parameters acceptable for practical use, demanded more than 25 years of complex scientific, technical and technological works, and devices based on LLP first generation were implemented only in the mid 90-ies. The focus during development was focused on the output of the lighting characteristics of the instruments: the power and length of the e wave laser radiation; resolution; the elimination of non-uniformity of the radiation field, etc. Were obtained very encouraging results: a number of established parametric LALP almost any wavelength from blue to red ranges of the spectrum - power 2-25 watts depending on wavelength and with a resolution of up to 2500 TV lines.

However, all practical implementations laser ERF still have some significant drawbacks operational character. First and foremost is the performance of cooling conditions and radio support, necessary for the normal functioning of the devices. So, for cooling the laser target was required cryogenic temperatures (80-150K). And for the successful operation of the projector should be submitted to the cathode ERF high negative accelerating voltage of 75 kV). Compliance with these requirements led to the fact that any equipment on the basis of the projectors of the first generation was created as a "from scratch", as the standard for normal ERF technical solutions and components of the device was not applicable. Deep cooling of the laser target, demanded the creation of a special expensive cryogenic devices with large mass and performance and power consumption of the order of 3-4 kW. For submission to the cathode of such a high negative voltage is necessary is we non-standard sources of high voltage, containing in addition to the voltage source power supply cathode, modulator, amplifier, video, etc. in addition, this high-voltage complex it was necessary to isolate from the rest of the system, which is usually executed by means of transformer oil large volume. The projectors of the first generation also had a number of design flaws: long (750 mm); built-active means of maintaining vacuum, which immediately limited the service life of approximately 1 thousand hours and complicated and rather difficult device. Did all of this equipment on the basis of the projectors of the first generation too bulky (weighing up to 500 kg), expensive and unreliable (A.S.Nasibov et al. "Full color TV projector based on A2In6elektron-beam pumped semiconductor lasers" Journal of Crystal Growth 117 (1992) 1040-1045, North-Holland).

Known laser electron-beam projector containing electronic gun with focusing and deflection of the electron beam and laser target containing a semiconductor wafer coated on its surface reflective coatings, bonded optically transparent glue to the optically transparent leucosapphire ladopoulou (Patent Switzerland No. 661380, CL H01S 1/103, 1987).

In the known device the electron beam by scanning the laser target, excites the radiation in the semiconductor, i.e. the point on the screen, excited is currently an electron beam, becomes minilateral. The radiation exits through the reflective coating, adhesive and leucosapphire hadproved. The power of this radiation at a particular point is determined by the level pumping (electron beam current) and resonator. Deflecting the beam on the target surface, and modulating the beam current, it is possible to achieve the desired distribution of intensity (power) of the radiation in the laser target. The resonator at each point of the target is determined, first of all, the reflectance of the output mirror glued to leucosapphire ladopoulou. In turn, the reflection coefficient of the mirror, representing typically a multilayer interference structure depends on the number of layers, their thickness and refractive index of the dielectric in each of the layers.

The disadvantage of this device is due to the fact that due to the thickness variation of the adhesive joint, significantly higher than the radiation wavelength (a component usually 2-5 microns), in different points of the target are different values of the reflection coefficient of the output mirror, and therefore, the resonator and the power of the generated radiation. This leads to a significant (tens of percent) of the non-uniformity of the radiation power on the laser target. This, of course, decreases the average power of laser radiation ELEH the throne-ray device and the precision of achieving power distribution on the laser target.

Famous adopted for the prototype, laser, electron-beam projector in which to reduce the heterogeneity of the distribution of the radiation power on the laser target of increasing the average radiation power and accuracy of its distribution on the screen of the above-mentioned laser target includes the additional layer of aluminium oxide thickness (0,152±0,002)λ. This layer napalan on the surface leucosapphire of hadproved, to which is glued a semiconductor wafer (where λ is the wavelength of the laser screen in vacuum (RU # 2080718, MPK H01S 3/18, publ. 1997.05.27).

The disadvantage of this device is due to the fact that to obtain laser action was required by the continuing low temperature screen 200 K. the Total for all ERF problem sharp increase in the diameter e of the high voltage beam with increasing current, critical, managed to solve only due to the complexity of the electron-optical system of the device. For obtaining laser action in semiconductor plate required the use of high voltage 50-75 kV, which leads to considerable complication of the power source and scanning system of the electron beam in the projector.

The invention of the laser CRT projector consistently solves two basic at first glance contradictory to the floor is provodnikov lasers, objectives: the reduction of the voltage generating laser radiation and increased operating temperatures.

According to the invention of the laser CRT projector contains electronic gun with focusing and deflection of the electron beam and laser target. The novelty of the proposed solution is that laser target consists of standing on the substrate at an angle to the vertical of not more than 10° monocrystalline semiconductor nanorods.

For use LLP in television at a voltage of 30 Kev nanorods made with a diameter of 100-500 nm and the length component of 5-100 diameters.

To improve the sharpness of the image at large distances the free ends of the nanorods provided with reflecting mirrors.

To increase the operating temperature of the laser generation single-crystal nanorods made of zinc oxide.

Performing laser target in the form of an ensemble of many single-crystal semiconductor nanorods standing on the substrate with a small deviation from the vertical, in contrast to LELP first generation simultaneously with the generation of laser radiation within one individual rod to perform the summation function of the radiation intensity of the set of all terminals that are under the electron beam. When this orientation spectrally composition of laser radiation are determined by the geometric shape of the individual beam as the optical nanoresonator. For efficient excitation of the rods by an electron beam with low energy use oblique drop of the electron beam at an angle of 10-20° to the axis of the rod. The specific value of the angle depends on the electron energy and the diameter of the rods and is chosen so that the entire rod was now falling excited electrons. Common to all LALP the problem of increasing the operating temperature of the laser generating the laser target, up to the room and above (500K), critical for LLP, managed to solve it by choosing a new semiconductor material of the target is single-crystalline nanorods of zinc oxide (ZnO).

As is known, a voltage reduction in laser ERF prototype laser target in the form of a semiconductor wafer, leading to a sharp decrease of the penetration depth of the incident on the semiconductor, electrons, and at an electron energy of 75 Kev spot diameter generation becomes greater than its thickness. Under this regime, the laser light does not occur along and across the incident beam electrons [A.S.Nasibov et al. "Full color TV projector based on A2B6 electron-beam pumped semiconductor lasers. Journal of Crystal Growth 117 (1992), 1040-1045] and the laser projector stops working. Our design enables you to receive new lighting features, primarily a sufficiently high orientation of the hole the aqueous radiation at low accelerating voltage of the electrons, allows to lower the energy of the electron beam on the target to normal television cathode-ray tube 20-30 Kev.

The technical effect of the invention is to reduce the operating voltage of the laser CRT projector with 50 to 75 kV to TV mode 20-30 kV, while the operating temperature increases from 200 K to room.

The invention is illustrated in figure 1-3.

Figure 1 shows electron microscopic image of the end face of a laser target, laser ERF from nanorods of zinc oxide on a substrate of sapphire. The length of the nanorods 30 μm and a diameter of about 500 nm.

Figure 2 shows schematically depicted in the context of the proposed laser electron-beam projector.

Figure 3 presents the dependence of the received light power of the laser ERF in the violet range of the spectrum 390 nm from the total current used by the electron beam.

The table below shows the parameters of the radiation LAMP based on the laser target of ZnO nanorods.

Laser electron-beam projector contains electronic gun with focusing and deflection of the electron beam - 1, laser target of the monocrystalline semiconductor nanorods - 2 on the substrate 3 and the output of the quartz window 4. Moreover monocrystalline semiconductor nanorods - 2 are located on p is dloce 3 at an angle to the vertical of not more than 10°, their diameter has a size of 100-500 nm, and the length is 5-100 diameters.

Laser electron-beam projector works as follows. The electron beam generated by an electron gun 1, excites the laser target. Each rod 2, fall under the exciting electron beam, generated by a laser. Geometrical dimensions and the orientation of the nanorods 2 determine the direction and mode structure of laser radiation. In this device, electron beam, scanning laser target, excites the radiation in the material of the nanorods 2 laser target, and they become minilateral. The radiation exits through the ends of the nanorods 2 and the sapphire substrate 3. The power of this radiation at a particular point is determined by the level pumping (electron beam current) and quality factor of the resonators 2 nanorods. Deflecting the beam on the surface of the laser target, and modulating the beam current, it is possible to achieve the desired distribution of intensity (power) of the radiation in the laser target.

Zinc oxide is a direct bandgap semiconductor with a crystal lattice type wurtzite has a width of bandgap of 3.37 eV at room temperature. Compared to other wide-gap semiconductors, ZnO has many advantages in use as a laser medium in the violet region of the spectrum (390 nm), due to PTS is ery high binding energy of the exciton (about 60 MeV). Therefore, stimulated emission may be obtained in ZnO at room and higher temperature (500K)that it is impossible to previously used in laser ERF semiconductor materials.

Nanorods of zinc oxide was grown on a substrate of sapphire (0001) by the method of gas-phase chemical synthesis (CVD) under reduced pressure. As initial reagents used metallic zinc of high purity (99.999%availability) and an oxygen-nitrogen mixture (20% oxygen). The synthesis was performed in dual-zone quartz reactor flow type. In the first zone was the evaporation of zinc. In the second zone of the pair of zinc [against the Georgians A.N., Redkin A.N., Macovei SI, SV-winged Grosbeak, Yakimov E.E. Getting oriented arrays of ZnO nanorods by the method of gas-phase synthesis from the elements. Norgan. materials. 2007, CH, No. 3, s-306] interacted with oxygen. This area was occupied by the substrate. The vaporization temperature of zinc was 670°C, the temperature of synthesis (second area) to 650°C. the Oxygen-nitrogen mixture entered the reactor at a rate of 1 l/h. Consumption of zinc was 20-28 g/hour. Thus, based on the molar ratio of the synthesis was carried out on average at about 30-fold excess of zinc vapor with respect to oxygen. This surplus increases from the beginning to the end of the reactor. The pressure in the reactor was maintained at 5 Torr. The synthesis of the wire is fixed for 30 min on the substrate, located in the reactor at different distances from the source of zinc.

The obtained zinc oxide according to electron microscopy (figure 1) represents the ensemble of vertically standing nanorods of different lengths (length varied from 5 to 100 diameters depending on the position of the silicon substrate in the reactor) with average diameters of the individual crystallites of about 500 nm and a well-defined crystalline faceting. They had electronic conductivity type of relatively low resistivity 10 Ohm see the regular hexagonal form the Foundation of the nanorods says about the prevalence of hexagonal modification of ZnO, which was confirmed by x-ray diffraction.

The effect of the length and diameter of the nanorods of zinc oxide on the spectra of cathodoluminescence (CL) of our LAMP in the ultraviolet region is shown in the Table. The excitation laser target was produced by an electron beam with energy of 30 Kev at a constant current of 6 µa. Laser radiation nanorods had a maximum at 390 nm. Nanorods columnar forms are single crystals with hexagonal cut and have a predominant vertical orientation on a substrate of sapphire (0001). At room temperature detected narrow peaks stimulated emission of free excitons with a width of 3 nm. It is shown that ostarine ZnO with a diameter of less than 500 nm have the lasing threshold when the power electronic excitation of 1000 kW/cm 2. Found a narrow focus their laser radiation with a wavelength of 390 nm along the axis of the rods. For the diameter of the rods 600 nm at an electron energy of 30 Kev lasing was not observed. Output power LOP sharply fell to 7 mW and line radiation was useralias to 16 nm. This behavior is typical for spontaneous (not stimulated) cathodoluminescence of zinc oxide. The use of rods with a diameter of more than 500 nm requires mode lasing projector use a higher supply voltage.

When the diameters of the rods is less than 100 nm becomes large diffraction of laser radiation at the output end of the rod, which makes it difficult picking up the output projecting lens LLP. Because of this, the output power of the laser generation is also reduced.

For longer nanorods ZnO (more than 50 μm (100 maximum diameters)have observed their curvature during growth on the substrate. Was the deviation of the axis of the rods and their lasing from the vertical, making them impossible to use in LLP.

For excitation of the laser radiation in the projector we used a beam of electrons with energy of 30 Kev, which focused on the target in the spot diameter D=10 μm. The working temperature of the laser CRT projector was room without the use of any system which we are cooling. Figure 3 presents the dependence of the received light power of the laser ERF in the violet range of the spectrum 390 nm from the total current used by the electron beam. It is seen that at a current of 2.5 µa mode begins lasing of the projector. The power of the laser beam was about 30 mW at the maximum operating current of the device 6 μa, which corresponds to the efficiency of conversion of electric power into light about 15%.

The obtained effective laser ERF with radiation in the violet region of 390 nm can be used to obtain a monochrome or color image on a large screen, if the last use canvas or plastic film coated with a phosphor that converts violet laser radiation into visible light. As we know from the technique of fluorescent lamps, the efficiency of such conversion has a quantum yield of more than 90%. This technical solution is more simple and cheap compared to the prototype, where for each color (blue, green and red) is a projector.

Similarly, in our case, can be made of laser projectors blue, red and green glow when used as a material of the nanorods ZnSe, CdSe, and CdS, respectively.

Drawing on the free ends of the nanorods reflecting mirrors not only 2 times hydrocarbon which increases their effective length for the laser radiation, but also prevents the output of laser radiation in the opposite direction. As a result, not only improves the directivity of the laser beam of the projector, but also increases its efficiency and the brightness. Reflecting mirrors deposited by sputtering a layer of metal (aluminum) thickness of more than 50 nm on the substrate with the vertical rods by electron beam deposition.

Table
LASER ELECTRON-BEAM PROJECTOR
The diameter rods100 nm220 nm310 nm420 nm500 nm600 nm
The length of rods1000 nm2500 nm5000 nm11000 nm30000 nm30000 nm
Line half-width CL3 nm3 nm3 nm3 nm3 nm16 nm
Power) the treatment 17 mW18 mW20 mW22 mW30 mW7 mW

1. Laser electron-beam projector containing electronic gun with focusing and deflection of the electron beam and laser target, wherein the laser target consists of standing on the substrate at an angle to the vertical of not more than 10° monocrystalline semiconductor nanorods.

2. Laser electron-beam projector according to claim 1, wherein the nanorods have a diameter of 100-500 nm and a length, comprising 5-100 diameters.

3. Laser electron-beam projector according to claim 1, characterized in that the free ends of the nanorods provided with reflecting mirrors.

4. Laser electron-beam projector according to claim 1, wherein the single-crystal nanorods made of zinc oxide.



 

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23 cl, 12 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor electronics and can be used for making heavy duty and high-precision transistors. The transistor contains a first set, which includes N1>1000000 regions with the same conductivity, a second set which includes N2 >1000000 regions with the same conductivity, as well as a third set, which includes N3>1000000 regions with opposite conductivity. The regions are made with formation of a first set of separate same-type point p-n junctions between regions from the first and third sets and a second set of separate same-type point p-n junctions between regions from the second and third sets. Electrodes, adjacent regions included in at least one of the said sets, for which the condition Ni>1000000, where i∈{1, 2, 3}, is satisfied, are connected in parallel by one conductor, i.e. are connected into a single current node.

EFFECT: obtaining high-precision heavy duty transistors with stable electrical parametres.

21 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of nanomaterials application. It is suggested to use carbon of bulbous structure as sensitive element of detector in terahertz range of waves that absorbs electromagnet radiation (EMR) in the range of frequencies of 30 - 230 THz.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the high-strength epoxide composition used for impregnation at production of high-strength glass-, carbon,- organic-, and boron plastics working in the wide temperature range and used in different industrial sectors (machinery construction, shipbuilding, aircraft and space industries, for production of the parts of complicated configuration e.g. thin- and thick-walled casings). The invention refers also to the method for preparation of the said composition including the following components (weight parts): 10-100 - diglycidyl resorcinol ether, 10-100 - product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol, 6-12 - oligoether cyclocarbonates with mass ratio of cyclocarbonate groups in the range from 18 to 29, 28-50 - curing agent (primary aromatic amine), 0.5-2.5 - curing agent (tertiary amine), 0.25-1.25 - mixture of carbon and silicate nanomaterials. The mass ratio of diglycidyl resorcinol ether to product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol is in the range from 1 : 9 to 9 : 1. Metaphenylen diamine or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane or their eutectic mixtures in ratio from 40 : 60 to 60 : 40 are used as primary aromatic amine. Mono-, di and trimethylsubstituted pyridine or monovinylsubstituted pyridine are used as tertiary aromatic amine. The carbon nanomaterial is fullerene C2n, wherein n is no less than 30, the silicate nanomaterial is organobentonite, the fullerene : organobentonite ratio is in the range from 1 : 3 to 3 : 1. The method of composition preparation consists in stirring of nanomaterials mixture with oligoether cyclocarbonates by ultrasonic action at frequency 22-44 kHz during 30-45 min. Then the obtained suspension is mixed with beforehand prepared mixture of diglycidyl resorcinol ether and product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol. After that the curing agent in the form of aromatic primary and tertiary amine mixture is added. The ready composition is cured in step mode with maximal curing temperature 155°C.

EFFECT: invention allows obtaining of the composition with high physical, mechanical and dissipative properties.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, namely to the field of construction works with application of water cement systems, and may be used in construction and repair works with application of concrete or mortar based on water-cement mixture. Method for control of setting and hardening processes in water-cement systems includes mixing of cement and water with previous treatment of water with acoustic oscillations with frequency from 17.5 to 22.5 kHz until level of energy introduced in water is from 3.0 to 40 kW-hr per 1 m3 of water. Invention is developed in dependent clauses.

EFFECT: expansion of facilities for effect at water-cement mixtures in process of their setting and hardening.

8 cl, 9 ex

Magnetic materials // 2244971

FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.

SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.

EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.

4 cl, 8 dwg

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