Method for manufacturing of x-ray refractory lens with minimised absorption, having rotation profile

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of rechentechnik, in particular in the manufacture of x-ray refractive lenses, including shape memory, and can be used in biomedical applications for x-ray microscopes, equipment diagnostics and radiation therapy for NDT equipment and local studies materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, structural analysis, microscopy and microtomography, in radio television and communication systems as a core element of the far communication lines.

A known method of manufacturing the x-ray refractive lens with minimized absorption of silicon consisting of parabolic segments arranged on a common plane (V.Aristov, M.Grigoriev, S.Kuznetsov, L.Shabelnikov, V.Yunkin, .Weitkamp, .Rau, I.Snigireva, A.Snigirev, M.Hoffmann, E.Voges, "X-ray planar refractive lens with minimized absorption", Applied Physics Letters, vol.77, No.25, (2000) p.4068, Aristov V.V., Grigoriev, M.V., Kuznetsov S.M., Shabel'nikov L.G., V.A. Yunkin, M.Hoffmann, E.Voges. "X-ray focusing by planar parabolic lenses made of silicon". Optics Communications, vol.177 (2000) p.33-38). According to this method, the desired pattern of the segments create methods precision photolithography, to form a mask for etching, and then carry out plasma etching of silicon to a depth of 100 ám. The obtained lenses have high values of the integral transmittance up to 90%.

The disadvantage of this method of having aetsa, what made lens provides only collect radiation in the focal spot of a bar shape, size along the line of spots is determined by the depth of etching. Other disadvantages of the method include the deviation of the walls vytravlivaetsya segments from the normal to the plane of their location, as well as distortion of the vertices of the segments arising from changes in the conditions of etching depth, which significantly affects the focusing properties of the lens.

A known method of manufacturing the x-ray refractive lenses with kinoform profile (L.Shabel'nikov, V.Nazmov, F.Pantenburg, J.Mohr, V.Saile, V.Yunkin, S.Kouznetsov, V.Pindyurin, I.Snigireva, A.Snigirev, "X-ray lens with kinoform refractive profile created by x-ray lithography". SPIE Procs Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics Editor(s): Mancini, Derrick Volume: 4783 (2002) p.176-185). According to this method, the desired pattern of the segments create methods precision photolithography, to form a mask for exposure, and then carry out the irradiation of a polymer layer, the irradiated portions of material are removed in the solvent. The obtained lenses also have high values of the integral transmittance up to 75-80%.

The disadvantage of this method is that manufactured the lens also provides only collect radiation in the focal spot bar form, measurement along the line of spots is determined by the thickness of the polymer. Among other disadvantages of this method should be considered very much in the high accuracy requirements and quality masks for exposure, the complexity and cost of implementing the method, which at present can only be realized on a unique synchrotron radiation sources.

The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, is a method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with profile rotation for the collection of radiation in point focal spot (Lgeneral "Method of manufacturing the x-ray refractive lenses with profile rotation" patent RU №2297 681, MKI G21K 1/06, published. 27.04.2005 g). According to this method for manufacturing a lens with the required focal length F form one or more lenses with a focal length defined by the ratio ofwhere N is the number of lenses, a F0=Rc/2δ, where Rcthe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ is the decrement of the refractive index of the lens material belonging to the class of x-ray refractive materials, which make the necessary number of the lens materialwhere ρ is the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens, in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the condition, put the pot on a centrifuge, spend the rotation of the mandrel with the material is Yalom lenses to achieve homogeneity at the angular frequency of rotationwhere η is the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then pass the lens material in the solid state during the rotation, stop the rotation and hold the lens Assembly in the holder.

The method allows the fabrication of lenses with minimized absorption, which use the mandrel is of stepped form, containing at least two plane-parallel grooves for forming the ribs in the output lenses, and the height of the steps is equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shiftwhere λ is the wavelength of the radiation.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that manufactured the lenses occur in a systematic distortion of the refractive profile near the tops of the steps that significantly impairs the focusing properties of the lens. In addition, for the manufacture of the mandrel stepped form should involve methods of machining on machine tools with numerical control, which greatly complicates and increases the cost of implementation of the method.

The proposed invention solves the problem of improving the focusing properties of the lens with profile rotation with perfect refractive profile and is capable of focusing radiation into a spot with a minimum limit of size, while when igenii cost of production.

This object is achieved by a method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with minimized absorption with profile rotation, including the production of matrix lens from a material capable of photopolymerization, the formation of one or several lenses with the required focal length F determined by the ratio ofwhere N is the number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rwiththe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ is the decrement of the refractive index of the lens material by depositing the required amount of the lens materialwhere ρ is the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens, in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the condition, location of the mandrel in a centrifuge and spin it with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity at the angular frequency of rotationwhere η is the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then the translation of the lens material in the solid state during the rotation when exposed to the radiation flux from the light source and the termination of the rotation. The novelty of the proposed method is that using the full color is subjected to constitute one or more grounds for lenses, why make a material having no adhesion to the matrix material, the number of M0=kM, where k<1 is the coefficient determined from the conditions of wetting, matrix, transfer base material in a solid phase, separating the resulting base from the matrix, place it in the tub with liquid photopolymer on the piston with precision the progress of the linear displacement, then spend the photopolymerization through a set of masks with circular openings and radial slits, where the inner radius of the annular lumen is defined asand outer radius aswhere m is an even number, move the base by an amount equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shift L=mλ/δ, the operation of the exposure through the mask and shift again to obtain the given number of segments, separate the lens from the base and hold the lens Assembly in the holder.

The translation of the base material of the lens in the solid state can be done in several ways:

due to the reaction of polymerization of the material, in particular in the presence of a catalyst;

due to the reaction of the photopolymerization, which as the base material of the lens take material that is capable of photopolymerization and its polymerization is carried out at the influence of the radiation flux from the light source, the emission spectrum of which the C is optimal for translation photopolymer in a solid phase;

using as a base material a solution in an organic solvent followed by evaporation.

To obtain a compound of sets of unit lenses that are inserted into each other, use a mask in which the boundary size of the radial gap R' varies according to the parabolic law, the appropriate form of the base of the lens according to the conditionwhere N is the desired value of the gap between adjacent lenses in the set.

For simultaneous receipt of multiple lenses on the proposed method in the tub with liquid photopolymer place the required number of bases, and the exposure of the photopolymer from the light source is conducted through a set of circular masks with radial slits having a number of circular openings corresponding to the number of bases and centered on their tops.

The exercise of these operations makes it possible to obtain a lens with minimized absorption in the form of a set of annular parabolic segments resting on the ribs. The method provides for formation of separate lenses, and parallel group when processing several grounds.

The technical effect obtained by the solution of the set task is to create a lens with minimized absorption with improved focusing characteristics is in full than precision machining, which significantly reduces costs for the implementation of this method and the final cost of the obtained lenses.

Figure 1-4 presents the steps of the method of manufacturing the x-ray refractive lens with minimized absorption.

Figure 1 shows the formation of a matrix for parabolic grounds from the liquid to the centrifuge following transfer matrix material in a solid phase.

Figure 2 presents the fill matrix base material, followed by his transfer to the solid phase.

Figure 3 illustrates the placement of the base (a set of several reasons) in the tub with liquid photopolymer on the piston with precision and speed.

4 shows the receiving segments of the lens, where

1 - light source (UV lamp);

2 - mask with collavini apertures;

3 - segment lenses;

4 - liquid photopolymer in the tub.

These examples suggest, but not limited to obtaining lenses of the proposed method.

Example 1. For manufacture of single lenses in the first stage (figure 1), the method performed forming a matrix for parabolic base. In the frame of quartz make a liquid form of glycidylmethacrylate with additives comparaison (1:10) with total mass M=18.7 mg as the base material. Then, when the light from the source in the form of light-curing lamp OPTILIGHT LD III Prov is completed a rotation at a frequency of 6000 rpm for 5 minutes. In the second stage (figure 2) the resulting matrix is poured fusible alloy, pre-melted in a separate thermostat. As it use alloy wood of the following composition: tin - 12,5%; lead - 25%; bismuth - 50%; cadmium - 12,5%, weight of filled sample alloy M0=170, At the third stage (figure 3) obtained base is placed in the bath for polymerization at the site of the piston, having a vertical passage, a supply which exceeds the desired overall length of the manufactured lens, so that the top of the parabolic base is at the top. The tub is filled with liquid photopolymer "Dichrom Suite" to a level coinciding with the position of the vertex of the base. In the fourth stage (figure 4) conduct exposing the liquid photopolymer (4) in the exposure chamber PLC-45 from the light source UV lamp (1)providing an emission maximum at a wavelength of 365 nm through a mask made of quartz (2) with an opaque coating of iron trioxide. First, use a mask with n=1, has a transparent hole with radius R=50 ám, center it on top of the base and provide exposure for 1.5 minutes to obtain a first segment of the lens (3). Then the base is lowered to a distance of L=160 ám and conduct exposure through a mask (2) with n=2, the time interval of exposure is maintained. The cycle of operations is repeated while changing masks (2) with age is the missing number and serial shift at this distance to obtain the total number of segments of the lens (3). At the end of the cycle the lens is separated from the base and placed in the holder. The quality control of the obtained lens was performed by measuring the geometric parameters of the segments. Data were processed using a specialized computer program, allowing to determine the amplification factor of the intensity in the focal spot lens with technological imperfections.

So, for lenses manufactured according to the method of the prototype, the average height of the segment amounted to 155 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius on the basis amounted to 25 microns with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm. Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for lenses according to the method of the prototype will be 45% of the values for the ideal perfect lens.

For lenses manufactured according to the proposed method under the conditions listed above, the average height of the segment amounted to 160,5 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius of the base was 5 μm with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm, the Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for the lens on the proposed method will be 75% of the values for the ideal perfect lens. Thus, lenses, made by PR is dliemma method, are significantly better in terms of focus.

Example 2. Same as in example 1, where the second stage (figure 2) the resulting matrix is poured epoxy resin grade EAF with hardener total mass M0=17.5 mg) and incubated for 30 minutes to complete curing, after which the base lens is separated from the matrix.

For lenses manufactured according to the proposed method under the conditions listed above, the average height of the segments (3) was 159,5 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius of the base was 4 μm with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm. Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for the lens on the proposed method will be 72% of the values for the ideal perfect lens. Thus, the lenses produced by the proposed method are significantly better in terms of focus.

Example 3. Same as in example 1, where the second stage (figure 2) the resulting matrix is poured liquid photopolymer (4)capable of frontal photopolymerization by radical mechanism, in the form of oligo-carbonate methacrylate. As photoinitiator using isobutyl ether in a weight ratio of up to 2.5%. Then spend the exposure from the source (1) in the form of light-curing lamp OPTILIGHT LD III within 3 minutes.

the La lens, produced by the proposed method under the conditions listed above, the average height of the segments (3) made of 160.4 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius on the basis amounted to 4.5 microns with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm. Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for the lens on the proposed method will be 76% of the values for the ideal perfect lens. Thus, the lenses produced by the proposed method are significantly better in terms of focus.

Example 4. Same as in example 1, where the second stage (figure 2) the resulting matrix is poured a solution of polycarbonate in methylene chloride, so that the dry weight of residue obtained after evaporation of the solvent, is M0=17,5 mg

For lenses manufactured according to the proposed method under the conditions listed above, the average height of the segments (3) was 160,5 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius of the base was 5 μm with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm. Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for the lens on the proposed method will be 75% of the values for the ideal perfect lens. Thus, lenses, made p the proposed method, are significantly better in terms of focus.

Example 5. Same as in example 1 to obtain a composite sets of unit lenses that are inserted into each other, use a mask (2), in which the boundary size of the radial gap R' varies according to the parabolic law, the appropriate form of the base of the lens. First, use a mask with n=1, has a transparent hole with radius R1=50 μm, on which to receive the gap between adjacent lenses, N=150 μm formed of a transparent radial cracks with boundary size R'=180,2 μm. When the radius of curvature of the parabolic base Rc=100 μm radii transparent rings with the highest numbers and the size of the boundary transparent radial cracks are calculated using the relations given in the text of the claims.

For lenses manufactured according to the proposed method, under the conditions listed above, the average height of the segment amounted to 160,5 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius of the base was 5 μm with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm. Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for a single lens on the proposed method will be 75% of the values for the ideal perfect lens. The coupling of single lenses in a set of 10 pieces retain their alignment. Thus the om, lenses produced by the proposed method are significantly better in terms of focus.

Example 6. Same as in example 1, where in the bath with liquid photopolymer (4) place 4 base lens obtained according to the description of the first stage of example 1, in the corners of a square with a side of 5 mm Tub filled with liquid photopolymer "Dichrom Suite" (4) to a level coinciding with the position of the vertices of the bases. In the fourth stage (figure 4) are exposed from the light source UV lamp (1) in the exposure chamber PLC-45 through a mask (2) of quartz with an opaque coating of iron trioxide, in which the system transparent rings and radial slits consists of 4 sets, also located in the corners of a square with a side of 5 mm, with a preliminary alignment of masks (2) relative to the made grounds.

For lenses fabricated by the proposed method under the conditions listed above, the average height of the segments (3) was 160 μm with an estimated value of 162 μm, and the radius on the basis amounted to 5.5 microns with an estimated value of less than 0.5 μm. Scatter the average height of the segments are made at the same time 4-m lenses within ±2 μm. Calculation of the measured values of the process variance showed that gain intensity in the focal spot for the lens on the proposed method will be from 75% to 95% of the values d is I an ideal defect-free lenses.

Thus, the lenses produced by the proposed method are significantly better in terms of focus.

1. A method of manufacturing an x-ray refractive lens with minimized absorption with profile rotation, including the production of matrix lens from a material capable of photopolymerization, the formation of one or several lenses with the required focal length F determined by the ratio ofwhere N is the number of lenses,
a F0=Rwith/2δ, where Rwiththe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ is the decrement of the refractive index of the lens material by depositing the required amount of the lens materialwhere ρ is the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens, in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the condition, location of the mandrel in a centrifuge and spin it with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity at the angular frequency of rotationwhere η is the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then the translation of the lens material in the solid state during the rotation when exposed to the radiation flux from the light source and terminating the rotation is Oia, characterized in that by using the obtained matrix form one or more grounds for lenses, which make a material having no adhesion to the matrix material, the number of M0=km, where k<1 is the coefficient determined from the conditions of wetting, in the matrix transfer base material in a solid phase, separating the resulting base from the matrix, place it in the tub with liquid photopolymer on the piston with precision the progress of the linear displacement, then spend the photopolymerization through a set of masks with circular openings and radial slits, where the inner radius of the annular lumen is defined asand outer radius aswhere m is an even number, move the base by an amount equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shift L=mλ/δ, the operation of the exposure through the mask and shift again to obtain the given number of segments, separate the lens from the base and hold the lens Assembly in the holder.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the translation of the base material of the lens in the solid state is carried out by reaction of polymerization of the material.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the polymerization of the base material of the lens is carried out in the presence of a catalyst.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that as the base material of the lens b is Ruth material, capable of photopolymerization and its polymerization is carried out at the influence of the radiation flux from the light source, the emission spectrum of which is optimal for translation of the photopolymer in the solid phase.

5. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the base material of the lens is taken as a solution in an organic solvent, and the base material of the lens in the solid state is carried out by evaporation of solvent.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for obtaining a compound of sets of unit lenses that are inserted into each other, use a mask in which the boundary size of the radial gap R' varies according to the parabolic law, the appropriate form of the base of the lens according to the conditionwhere N is the desired value of the gap between adjacent lenses in the set.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for simultaneous receipt of multiple lenses in the tub with liquid photopolymer place the required number of bases, and the exposure of the photopolymer from the light source is conducted through a set of circular masks with radial slits having a number of circular openings corresponding to the number of bases and centered on their tops.



 

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FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

11 cl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

8 cl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.

EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.

EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

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