Method for application of nanomarks on products

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of products marking by means of application of visually indistinguishable information on product surface and may be used for protection of products against counterfeit and duplication, also for prevention of their counterfeit in consumer market and complete identification of each product unit. In method for application of nano-mark, product surface area is prepared with high purity of processing, reference points are specified on it, including reference point of coordinates start, position of which is fixed, afterwards nano-mark is applied in the form of specified signs with nanometer level of spatial resolution, application is realised by method of scanning probing microscopy in lithographic mode of microscope operation, detection of nano-mark is carried out by method of scanning probing microscopy in metering mode of microscope operation, besides, to detect nano-mark, number of maximum scanning fields is previously specified relative to selected reference point.

EFFECT: provision of product marking without chemical modification of product surface, which makes it possible to further detect applied marking, and accordingly protect the product against counterfeit or inappropriate use.

7 cl, 4 dwg


The invention relates to the field of marking products by applying not visually discernible information on the surface and can be used to protect products from counterfeiting and copying, i.e. to prevent fraud on the consumer market, as well as for full identification of each unit of the product.

One of the problems faced by law enforcement authorities in the investigation of crimes is the authentication or verification of the items discovered in the course of operational-investigative actions. To increase the likelihood of verification items required number of preventive measures. As such preventive measures may be preliminary protective marking items that pose an increased interest on the part of criminal structures.

Protective marking is actively used by insurance companies to reduce risk, the state customs Committee to identify Antiques and works of art, crossing the border, enterprises and organizations for marking of expensive equipment, jewellery and to protect the rights of property.

Protective marking must meet several requirements, which provide the possibility of establishing the authenticity of the product. Among them are: long life, stable shall be to various methods of fraud, the possibility of its research through technical means available to the expert divisions. The sustainability labelling for fraud related to the number of degrees of its protection, such as, for example, the way the modes and parameters of the marking, type of graphics, the fonts used, the presence of programmable errors and areas containing micromarketing.

The protective properties of the labeling also increase if it is latent, that is not perceived visually, including using the available optical magnifying devices. Then its location on the product and the perception of their contents constitute an additional degree of protection marking from a fake.

In the General case marking is a kind of information printed on the product in the form of a set of signs, symbols, describing this product. Typically, this information includes data about the cipher (the index) of the product, the trademark of the manufacturer, the batch number, as well as information about the dimensions, the material, etc. of the Process applied to the product information called marking.

There are a large number of methods of marking - mechanical, electrical, chemical, photochemical, thermal, ultrasonic, laser, etc. the Most common of them are the by mechanical methods, when using either the pressure of various markers, leading to the emergence of relief display, or a local cutting surface of the material without appreciable deformation - engraving. The rest is based on local destruction of the material under the action of electric current and electric discharges, chemicals, high-frequency vibrations, heat or focused short-wave electromagnetic energy flow. For a number of products are applied adhesive methods based on the use of coloring and gluing substances transported in various ways to the surface.

There is a method of marking products designed to protect products from counterfeiting and copying, which includes obtaining visually distinct graphical image alphanumeric image in a set spot of the recesses, which receive the impact of integrating the tool into the surface of the product. Part of the point of the recesses has an increased depth compared to the rest point of the recess. The bumps on the surface of the product to perform point of recesses defining a graphical image of alphanumeric images, applied consistently, blow after blow, with a needle of an automatic machine percussion, equipped with software control. The force of the blow needle mill is with software management set separately for each point of the recess so to the difference in depth between the individual point depressions was not noticeable without the use of optical means of influencing the resolution of the human eye, but can be detected through them (see the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2316049, IPC G06K 1/00, VN 7/00).

However, all these methods of labeling are designed for the application of markings that can be perceived visually or with optical sensors. The minimum size of the discrete elements are defined for them by the dimensions of the contact surface markers (punches, cutters, electrodes, masks, printed forms etc) and are usually about 0, 1 mm.

The most sophisticated methods of marking (e.g. photolithographic, laser) can be created on the surface of the product point or line width on the order of less; this microeconomy is already on the verge of an optical information reading.

At the end of the last century appeared the innovative technology of non-destructive testing of conductive materials with a resolution down to 0.1 nm, embodied in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). More opportunities are opened with the creation of the atomic force microscope (AFM), with which it became possible to study the relief is not only conductive, and dielectric materials.

Closest to the proposed solution is the method of marking products and documents incorporating the following stages: (a) obtaining at least one marking means with analytically defined characteristics, including at least one inorganic particle of the non-stoichiometric crystals containing at least two chemical elements in a predetermined ratio that serves as a marking characteristic, and the ratio of chemical elements is the code or part of the code; (b) the introduction of inorganic particles obtained in stage (a), in the media, representing the coating composition, preferably a printing ink; (C) applying the coating composition, preferably printing ink obtained in stage (b), the product as marks. Both stages, i.e. the localization of the particles and their analysis, performed on the same equipment - scanning electron microscope (see patent RF №2222829, IPC G06K 1/12).

However, the introduction of inorganic particles in the product may cause local changes in the chemical structure of the product, i.e. to the appearance of the object subject to protection, additional chemically modified regions, which, in turn, can disrupt the individual functional characteristics of the product.

In addition, read codes to identify nonmarketable according to this invention is carried out using the receiving scanning electron microscope (SEM). When scanning a beam of electrons is accompanied by partial evaporation of the material of the test surface, which can lead to a decrease in the concentration of the applied chemical elements - code, or even their complete destruction due to the initially low concentration of the injected particles.

SAM visualization of particles (tags), which are present in concentrations up to 1%, gives a big mistake (within 50%). Therefore, a small concentration of the introduced particles may be comparable to the measurement error electronic scanning (raster) microscope. And this, in turn, significantly reduces the reliability of the identification marking code.

The present invention is to develop a method of marking products without chemical modification of the surface of a product, which is subsequently applied to identify nonmarketable, and accordingly to protect the product from tampering or improper use.

The technical result is to create a fairly simple method of applying and detecting the detection marks nanometer scale spatial resolution while maintaining a high level of protection products. The method provides for receiving marking with a high degree of security products by providing no information about the hidden marking post is depth understanding of the observer, improving the reliability of authentication products, improve the performance of the marking in the case of mass production.

The problem is solved in that in the method of applying nonmarketable products, including its application by local modification of the surface by scanning microscopy with further opportunity to identify, according to the invention for applying nonmarketable prepare the surface area of the product with high purity processing, set it reference points, including the reference point, the position of which is fixed, then put nonmarketable in the form of a set of characters with nanometer-level spatial resolution, the printing is performed by scanning probe microscopy lithographic operation mode of the microscope, revealing nonmarketable carried out using scanning probe microscopy in the measuring mode of the microscope, when this to identify nonmarketable pre-set the maximum number of fields of the scan relative to the selected reference point.

Before applying nonmarketable produce the image pattern, the surface modification can be performed in mode dynamic power lithography raster by way of danger is the selected area and the impact on the product at the given points with the force depending on the brightness of the respective pixels of the image template.

The surface modification can be accomplished by changing the elevation or physico-chemical properties of the surface area of the product.

The surface modification can be accomplished by anodic oxidation lithography nuclear scanning microscope, the method of vector or raster lithography.

Nemarkirovana can be applied in combination with other types of labels.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which are given nonmarketable obtained under different influences on products from various materials figure 1 - aluminum, 2 - fiber 3 - copper, 4 - CD-ROM.

The method is as follows. In place of applying nonmarketable choose or create a space with high purity processing. The selected site put a set of reference points microscopic level permissions and set the control point of origin, the position of which is fixed. These reference points, which can be detected using an optical microscope is needed to detect the localization of nonmarketable and subsequent playback of the content. Nemarkirovana can also be applied in combination with other types of markings, providing high quality in-depth selectable marker is characters.

For applying nonmarketable locally modify the surface of the prepared site (site) products by methods probe nanolithography using scanning probe microscopy. As a tool for modifying the surface using scanning probe microscopes (SPM). Increasing the level of interaction between probe and sample can be translated SPM from the measuring mode with zero or minimal level of destruction of the surface being investigated in the so-called lithographic mode for creating on the surface of the product predefined structures with nanometer level resolution. When using the SPM probe can be made as a local modification of the surface topography and locally modify its physico-chemical properties (polymerization of the molecules on the surface, the oxidation reaction on the surface).

In a scanning tunneling microscope at a voltage between the probe and substrate (product) 5 and the gap is 0.5 nm arise electric field of 108V/cm, at which potential density electron emission currents up to 108A/cm2:

where ϕ is the electron work function of the electrode. The electron beam may cause for locally heating the substrate with increasing temperature along the radius r along which ernesti:

where U is the voltage applied to the electrodes, I is the tunneling current, k is the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the substrate, l is the scattering length of electrons in the substrate.

The electrostatic field causes the normal to the electrode surface stress:

where ε is the dielectric constant of the medium between the electrodes. This field is sufficient for the local deformations of the surface.

Using a strong electric field in the interelectrode gap of a possible polarization of the molecules of the environment and their restructuring (change of physico-chemical properties).

Using the needle-probe may direct mechanical effect on the substrate. When the threshold is exceeded, plastic deformation of the substrate when the local Carpani or gently probe the possible irreversible mechanical deformation (varies relief).

So, the main factors determining the processes impact on the product, causing its surface local modifications or nanomateri characters are:

- local electric field comparable to the molecular and atomic;

- extra-large density currents and their electrodynamic effects;

- superdense local heat fluxes caused by the flowing currents;

local IU adicheskie deformation.

In accordance with the views of the local interaction of SPM probe with the surface there are the following types of probe lithography:

- lithography with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM lithography);

- anodic oxidation lithography using the atomic force microscope (AFM anodic oxidation lithography);

force lithography using the atomic force microscope (AFM force lithography).

The easiest way to modify the surface using STM is in direct contact influence of the STM tip on the surface. This leads to the appearance of dimples on the surface of the product, but can be damaged and the probe itself. A more gentle way of impact on the surface is applied to the product of the pulse of high current density or electric field of high intensity. The surface under the probe can even partially melt and evaporate.

When using AFM anodic oxidation lithography changed not only the relief of the products, but also the local electrical properties of its surface. For example, when a voltage is applied to conductive AFM probe on the surface of the product may begin electrochemical process, and the metal layer under the probe will begin to oxidize. The probe and the surface of the material is covered with a thin layer of the absorbed water. The process is performed in air. When the probe is approaching close enough to the surface of the product of the absorbed layers in contact and capillary effect between the tip and product water occurs jumper. Thus, when voltage is applied electrochemical reaction occurs between the probe and the surface of the product in the aquatic environment and directly under the tip will begin to grow the oxide layer.

Nanomodification surface is not limited to formation of dots. Using appropriate software, you can organize the movement of the probe along the given vectors and form lines and more complex objects. This method of imaging is called vector lithography.

For more complex drawings used raster lithography, which is in the process of scanning the surface. That is, the probe passes through all points of the selected scan area, and not only by points and lines corresponding to the pattern of the template, as in vector lithography. As in a raster pattern lithography is pre-loaded image file. The difference between the highest and lowest possible voltage on the product divided proportionally in accordance with the highest and lowest luminance values in the image. This will change the height of the anodic oxide layer on the surface of the product, forming on her topographic contrast.

When performing AFM force lithography is a direct mechanical effect of the pointed tip on the surface of the product. The pressure of the tip of the probe to the surface is large enough to cause local plastic deformation (modification) of the substrate (product), but not its qualitative transformation. The impact of the probe on the surface of the product is done in two ways - static effect (anagrafica) and dynamic effects (nanoscience), when the probe varies.

When performing nanographite using static impact probe microscope is moved over the surface of the substrate with a sufficiently large clamping force, so that the substrate is patterned in the form of recesses. This technique uses the principle of ploughing: the material is extracted from the product well in a certain way, leaving grooves with a characteristic cross-section determined by the shape of the tip of the probe.

This technology is quite simple and cheap, but it has certain disadvantages. When forming the grooves static impact of any accidental torsional bending of the probe, which lead to boundary discontinuities of the image. In addition, when working with solid surfaces, this method leads to fast times is ucheniu probe.

Using dynamic force lithography (nanoscience) surface modification occurs due to the formation of recesses on the surface of the product oscillating probe, using intermittent-contact scanning method. This method of patterning is free from torsional distortion and allows visualization of the formed pattern without serious impact on the surface of the substrate or deposited layer. A short "pricking" of the surface also protects the probe from rapid destruction.

Specific example

To confirm the possibility of using probe nanotechnology for the application of protective markings on the products of mass production was carried out a number of experimental works. The main purpose of the experiments was to develop methods of applying and detecting nanomateri marks on the solid surfaces of different chemical nature, having different hardness.

As the detection and readout devices have been used scanning probe microscope NanoEducator. Drawing the image on the surface was carried out in dynamic mode power lithography raster fashion by scanning a certain area and impact on the product at the given points with a force that depends on the brightness with testwuide pixels in the image template. Used intermittently-contact method of scanning a graphic image bmp file oscillating probe tip radius of the probe 70 nm high mechanical rigidity. Identification (identification) caused nanolithographically image was carried out by scanning a prescribed area (recorded using reference points and a predetermined number of maximum field scanning relative to a given reference point, measured from the point of origin) on the surface of the product.

As of marked objects were selected some models indicating device intervention (TID) domestic production and CDs that are of increased interest on the part of criminal organizations. The first of them frequently counterfeited by changing the labeling to re-install after unauthorized access to a protected object. Protective marking CDs is virtually the only means of combating piracy, counterfeiting, and therefore it is also often faked.

Selected model uiv had a polymer shell on the surface of which was applied factory markings caused by thermomineral containing the logo, year and serial number of the device. For localiza the AI site nonmarketable was selected one of the depth scatter plots of termodonte diameter of about 0, 5 mm Caused by nemarkirovana is not damaged when installing TID and is fairly well protected by natural mechanical operational impacts.

For applying nonmarketable on the CD its surface were prepared, which on a certain area of the removed protective coating. The depth of the formed image was chosen somewhat larger, which helps to protect the markings from accidental impacts during operation from CD-ROM. Prior to scanning a diamond pyramid hardness measuring tool with a diameter of 60 μm on the selected area was caused to a number of reference points, which could be visualized using optical microscope. One of the points was chosen for the origin. Then, he counted out from a specified relative to the origin reference point of the selected predetermined number of maximum field scanning was applied nemarkirovana.

The presence of reference points and in-depth plots obtained with other types of labeling makes it easy to identify nonmarketable, if you know the way to find them. However, the secrecy of this information identifying the localization nanotechonology characters is impossible, which provides absolute protection of nanoparticular from fakes and absolute verification products.

In the table before the taulani parameters impacts on samples of different chemical composition-mode dynamic power nanolithography, leading to optimal results.

Material sampleThe depth of the impact on the sample (Action), nmThe time of exposure to the sample (Time of Action), mcs
Aluminum (1)70060
The optical fiber (2)50020
Copper (3)100040
CD (4)130040

Thus, the possibility of application of SPM nanotechnology for the application of protective markings on the products of mass production. The feasibility of nanomachinery as high-tech operations must be justified in each case. Nemarkirovana represents a unique nowadays means of protection against falsification of certain categories of products of mass production.

It should be noted that the protective properties of the above nanoparticular determined by their miniature size, which provide the opportunity stealth application. Additionally, the read information, for example, to fake such labeling is not possible with optical devices such as microscopes or scanners. This is prevented as small discrete marker signs, and weak contrast in the optical range. The full contents of nonmarketable can only be played using specially designed scanning probe microscopes. But even the knowledge of the localization of the desired nonmarketable on the product with an accuracy of 1 mm2does not lead to the possibility of its detection, as this area has an average of 105- 106areas where it could be. Probe scanning microscopy applied the proposed method to detect nonmarketable, eliminates the problem of evaporation of material from the surface. Error probe microscopy in identifying nonmarketable tends to zero when determining its localization by scanning probe using the feedback principle is the basic principle of SPM.

1. The method of application nonmarketable products, including the application of nonmarketable by local modification of the surface by scanning microscopy with further opportunity identification, characterized in that for the application of nonmarketable prepare the land surface is rnost products with high purity processing, ask it reference points, including the reference point, the position of which is fixed, then put nonmarketable in the form of a set of characters with nanometer-level spatial resolution, the printing is performed by scanning probe microscopy lithographic operation mode of the microscope, revealing nonmarketable carried out using scanning probe microscopy in the measuring mode of the microscope, to identify nonmarketable pre-set the maximum number of fields of the scan relative to a given reference point.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the produced image-template nonmarketable, the surface modification is carried out in a mode dynamic power lithography raster fashion by scanning the selected area and the impact on the product at the given points with a force that depends on the brightness of the respective pixels of the image template.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface modification is carried out by changing the topography of the surface area of the product.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface modification is carried out by change of physical-chemical properties of the surface area of the product.

5. The method according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the surface modification implemented Aut by anodic oxidation lithography nuclear scanning microscope.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface modification is performed by the method of vector or raster lithography.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that nemarkirovana is applied in combination with other types of markings.


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23 cl, 12 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor electronics and can be used for making heavy duty and high-precision transistors. The transistor contains a first set, which includes N1>1000000 regions with the same conductivity, a second set which includes N2 >1000000 regions with the same conductivity, as well as a third set, which includes N3>1000000 regions with opposite conductivity. The regions are made with formation of a first set of separate same-type point p-n junctions between regions from the first and third sets and a second set of separate same-type point p-n junctions between regions from the second and third sets. Electrodes, adjacent regions included in at least one of the said sets, for which the condition Ni>1000000, where i∈{1, 2, 3}, is satisfied, are connected in parallel by one conductor, i.e. are connected into a single current node.

EFFECT: obtaining high-precision heavy duty transistors with stable electrical parametres.

21 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of nanomaterials application. It is suggested to use carbon of bulbous structure as sensitive element of detector in terahertz range of waves that absorbs electromagnet radiation (EMR) in the range of frequencies of 30 - 230 THz.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the high-strength epoxide composition used for impregnation at production of high-strength glass-, carbon,- organic-, and boron plastics working in the wide temperature range and used in different industrial sectors (machinery construction, shipbuilding, aircraft and space industries, for production of the parts of complicated configuration e.g. thin- and thick-walled casings). The invention refers also to the method for preparation of the said composition including the following components (weight parts): 10-100 - diglycidyl resorcinol ether, 10-100 - product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol, 6-12 - oligoether cyclocarbonates with mass ratio of cyclocarbonate groups in the range from 18 to 29, 28-50 - curing agent (primary aromatic amine), 0.5-2.5 - curing agent (tertiary amine), 0.25-1.25 - mixture of carbon and silicate nanomaterials. The mass ratio of diglycidyl resorcinol ether to product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol is in the range from 1 : 9 to 9 : 1. Metaphenylen diamine or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane or their eutectic mixtures in ratio from 40 : 60 to 60 : 40 are used as primary aromatic amine. Mono-, di and trimethylsubstituted pyridine or monovinylsubstituted pyridine are used as tertiary aromatic amine. The carbon nanomaterial is fullerene C2n, wherein n is no less than 30, the silicate nanomaterial is organobentonite, the fullerene : organobentonite ratio is in the range from 1 : 3 to 3 : 1. The method of composition preparation consists in stirring of nanomaterials mixture with oligoether cyclocarbonates by ultrasonic action at frequency 22-44 kHz during 30-45 min. Then the obtained suspension is mixed with beforehand prepared mixture of diglycidyl resorcinol ether and product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol. After that the curing agent in the form of aromatic primary and tertiary amine mixture is added. The ready composition is cured in step mode with maximal curing temperature 155°C.

EFFECT: invention allows obtaining of the composition with high physical, mechanical and dissipative properties.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, namely to the field of construction works with application of water cement systems, and may be used in construction and repair works with application of concrete or mortar based on water-cement mixture. Method for control of setting and hardening processes in water-cement systems includes mixing of cement and water with previous treatment of water with acoustic oscillations with frequency from 17.5 to 22.5 kHz until level of energy introduced in water is from 3.0 to 40 kW-hr per 1 m3 of water. Invention is developed in dependent clauses.

EFFECT: expansion of facilities for effect at water-cement mixtures in process of their setting and hardening.

8 cl, 9 ex

Masonry mortar // 2363679

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to masonry mortars and may be used for making structures out of bricks, concrete stones and light rock stones. Masonry mortar contains cement, filler, additive in the form of nano-catalysts and water. Filler used is fly ash created in gas treatment systems during sand drying, as nano-catalysts - carbon tubes or fullerenes at the following ratio of components: cement - 400 kg/cub.m; fly ash - 1250 kg/cub.m; nano-catalysts - 0.02 kg/cub.m; water - 340 kg/cub.m.

EFFECT: increased strength and frost resistance of masonry mortar.

1 tbl, 1 ex

Magnetic materials // 2244971

FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.

SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.

EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.

4 cl, 8 dwg