Foamable composition, its application for obtaining foamed products, product, containing at least one foamed layer, and method of its obtaining
SUBSTANCE: foamable composition for obtaining foamed products contains polyvinylchloride, primary plasticiser, if necessary, other additives and as alkyl ester of benzoic acid, isononyl ester of benzoic acid in amount from 5 to 95 wt %, counting per weight of all available plasticiser, which constitutes 10 to 400 wt.p. per 100 wt.p. of polyvinylchloride. Method of product obtaining, which contains at least one foamed layer of polyvinylchloride consists in application of foamed composition on carrier, before and after application it is foamed and in conclusion it is thermally processed. Product represents covering for floors, artificial leather and wallpapers.
EFFECT: reduction of composition viscosity, temperature of its gelatinisation, which results in simple and quicker composition processing.
11 cl, 8 tbl, 5 ex
This invention relates to the field of production of plastics, in particular expanded onto the composition, its use to obtain a foamed product, the product having at least one foamed layer, and method of its production.
It is well known that to obtain foamed products should be used polymers selected from polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidenechloride, chlorinated polyolefins and copolymers of vinyl chloride with vinylidenechloride, complex, vinyl esters or esters of (meth)acrylic acid.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) refers to the economically important polymers. Used as plasticized and unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.
For the production of plasticized polyvinyl chloride to polyvinyl chloride type plasticizer, and in the majority of cases are used esters of phthalic acid, in particular di-2-ethylhexylphthalate, diisononylphthalate and diisodecylphthalate. With increasing chain length esters increase the temperature of dissolution or gilotinirovaniya and hence temperature processing of plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Temperature processing can be further reduced by adding so-called agents quickly gilotinirovaniya, such as short-chain phthalates: di-n-butylphthalate, diisobutylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate is whether desogestrel. Along with short-chained phthalates for such purposes is also possible to use esters of dipropyleneglycol, such as dipropyleneglycol or other.
The plastisols of polyvinyl chloride, these agents are quick gilotinirovaniya on the basis of their high solvation energy often lead to a strong increase in viscosity. In many cases, this increase in viscosity it is necessary to compensate for the addition of (often expensive) agents that reduce the viscosity.
Upon receipt plastisols of polyvinyl chloride, as a rule, require low viscosity and low temperature gilotinirovaniya. In addition, the desired high stability of the plastisol during storage (slight increase in viscosity with time).
During the mechanical processing of high viscosity plastisol would play a negative role: temperature too high gilotinirovaniya would lead to a colour change due to thermal load.
Plasticizers, which significantly reduce the temperature gilotinirovaniya in composition and keep the viscosity of the plastisol at a low level even after several days of storage, is still virtually unknown. Recently, as a product that could meet these requirements, was presented 2-ethylhexanoate [Bohnert, Stanhope, J. Vinyl Addit. Technol. (2000), 6(3), 146-149]. However, this is the compound has a relatively high elasticity of steam, that often leads to unacceptable losses during processing and to relatively high emissions during use.
In the international application WO 01/29140 describes the use of esters of benzoic acid with alcohols having 8 carbon atoms in the film-forming compositions.
In U.S. patent 5236987 described the use of benzoate of alcohols with 8 to 12 carbon atoms in plastisols. Discusses the use of these compounds, for example, in latex compositions.
In the Federal Republic of Germany patent 1962500 disclosed compositions, which contain a vinyl polymer and one or more esters of benzoic acid with alcohol with 8 to 13 carbon atoms, and optionally ester of succinic acid. These compositions are used to produce polymer films.
In the international application WO 97/39060 describes plastisol, which as a plasticizer contain benzoate alcohol from 11 to 14 carbon atoms. These plasticizers are used, among others, in plastisols for receiving the pins, and improve the structure of the foam compared to conventional plastisols install failed. Also failed to identify significant changes in temperature gilotinirovaniya in mixtures with diisononylphthalate.
The objective of the invention is to provide expanded onto the composition to obtain foamed products that contain polivinilhlori the d and complex alkilany ester benzoic acid, and used complex alkilany ester of benzoic acid would significantly reduce the viscosity of the composition, as a rule, plastisol, and the temperature of its gilotinirovaniya and thus would allow for easier and faster processing of the composition. In addition, complex alkilany ester of benzoic acid would be positioned on a relatively inexpensive raw materials.
The task is solved by means of expanded onto a composition according to the invention, which contains polyvinyl chloride, at least one primary plasticizer, if necessary, other additives, as well as one complex alkilany ester benzoic acid, due to the fact that as difficult Olkiluoto ester of benzoic acid it contains complex icononly ester of benzoic acid in an amount of 5 to 95 wt.%, considering the weight of a plasticizer, which is 10 to 400 moschata 100 moschata polyvinyl chloride.
It is also an object of this invention is the use of a composition according to the invention to obtain foamed products that contain polyvinyl chloride, at least one primary plasticizer, complex icononly ester of benzoic acid and, optionally, other additives.
In addition, the object of this invention is a product, which is polyvinyl chloride, and n is m there, at least one foamed layer of the composition according to the invention.
Another object of this invention is a method of obtaining products that have at least one foamed layer of polyvinyl chloride, which is that the composition according to the invention is applied to the carrier or to another polymer layer, before or after the application of froth and finally thermally treated.
The composition according to the invention has the advantage that a strong increase in viscosity at higher shear rates (the so-called dilatancy), which is observed during the processing of the compositions according to the prior art (for example, a mixture of glycosidases), during the processing of the compositions according to the invention do not find or discover only slightly at the time of receipt of chemical and mechanical pen.
Compositions according to the invention, along with a slight viscosity, even after a longer storage time show rapid gilotinirovaniya, as well as good elasticity at low temperatures. In addition, compared to conventional expanded onto compositions containing as a plasticizer, for example, benzylbutylphthalate, diisobutylphthalate or glycolipopeptide, it is possible to ascertain the best foaming (lower densely shall be foam).
The composition according to the invention and the method according to the invention is described below without limiting the invention to these forms of implementation.
As already mentioned above, expanded onto the composition according to the invention contains icononly ester of benzoic acid in an amount of 5 to 95 wt.%, considering the amount of plasticizer which is 10 to 400 moschata 100 moschata polymers. It is preferable if the content of a mixture of one or more primary plasticizers and isononanol ester of benzoic acid in the composition is from 15 to 200, and preferably from 20 to 100 moschata, considering 100 moschata polymers. Also, it may be preferable, if the mixture of plasticizers itself contains icononly ester of benzoic acid in the range from 10 to 70 wt.% and preferably from 10 to 50 wt.%.
The composition according to the invention preferably contains an isomeric mixture isononyl esters of benzoic acid, and Monrovia alcohols obtained by the saponification of isomeric isononyl esters of benzoic acid, contain less than 10 mol.% 3,5,5-trimethylhexanal. Saponification of the esters of benzoic acid or other, referred to hereinafter, of the esters can be accomplished by conventional methods by reacting alkaline environments (see, for example, Ullmann''s Enzyklopaedie der Technischen Chemie, 5th Ed., And 10, str-260).
In the case of expanded onto a composition according to the invention it can be, for example, plastisols. Among the above-mentioned preferred polymers are those that contribute to plastisols. Particularly preferably, the composition according to the invention contains one or more types of polyvinyl chloride, which is obtained by the emulsion polymerization method, a so-called emulsion polyvinylchloride, or e-PVC. Even more preferably, the composition according to the invention contains e-PVC, which has a molecular weight that is specified in the form of To-value (constant, Financiera), from 60 to 90 and particularly preferably from 65 to 85.
As the primary plasticizer composition according to the invention may contain one or more of the following compounds, such as dialkyl ethers of phthalic acid, and their alkyl residues contain 4-13 carbon atoms, alkalemia esters of adipic and/or cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and their alkyl residues contain 4-13 carbon atoms, esters trimellitic acid with 7-10 carbon atoms in the alcohol chain, esters of alkylsulfonic phenol, polymer plasticizer, alkylbenzenes, such as, for example, butylbenzylphthalate or ActiveSelect, dibenzoate, in particular dibenzene ethers of diethylene glycol, dipropyleneglycol or triethylene glycol and/or esters of citric the acid.
From this list PR is doctitle used primary plasticizers particularly preferred are the following.
So, from dialkylamino esters of phthalic acid are particularly preferred are diallylphthalate with 4 to 11 carbon atoms in the alkyl available residues. It does not matter whether the alkyl residues of the same or different and/or linear or branched. It is particularly preferred dialkylamino esters of phthalic acid are diisobutylamine, di-n-butyl -, benzyl-n-butyl, diisopentyl, desolately, di-2-ethylhexylamine, dietotherapy, diisononyl, diisodecyl, di-2-propylheptyl, disorderly, di-C8-C10-alkilany, di-C7-C9-alkilany, di-C7-C11-alkilany, di-C9-C11-alkilany, di-C6-C10-alkilany esters.
In the case of esters cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid are preferred those with 7 to 11 carbon atoms in the alkyl available residues. It also does not matter whether the alkyl residues of the same or different and/or linear or branched, or in any of the CIS-TRANS-positions with respect to each other are ester groups. Particularly preferred esters cyclohexanedicarboxylic acids are, in particular, desolately ether 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di-2-ethylhexylamine ether 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl e is Il-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, distally ether 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di-2-propylheptyl ether 1,2-dicyclohexylcarbodimide acid, desolately ether 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di-2-ethylhexylamine ether 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ether 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisodecyl ether 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di-2-propylheptyl ether 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid.
In the case of esters trimellitic acid (ester 1,2,4-benzotriazoles acid) from 7 to 10 carbon atoms in the alcohol chain is also not important whether the alkyl residues of the same or different and/or linear or branched. Particularly preferred esters trimellitic acids are tri-2-ethylhexyl-, triethanol, triisodecyl-, tri-2-prophylatically, three7-C9-alkilany, three8-C10-alkilany esters.
As esters of citric acid composition according to the invention contains preferably those with 2 to 10 carbon atoms in the alcohol chain with carboxypropanoyl HE band or without. It does not matter whether the alkyl residues are identical or different, linear or branched. Especially preferred is the presence of as esters of citric acid in the compositions according to the invention acetyltributyl the l-, tri-2-ethylhexyl-, acetyle-2-ethylhexyl-, acetylthio-nonyl, triethanol-, tri-n-butyl-, tri-C6-C10-alkyl-, butaritari-n-exercitation.
In the case of esters of adipic acid with 4 to 13 carbon atoms in the alcohol chain is also not important whether the alkyl residues of the same or different and/or linear or branched. In the composition according to the invention particularly preferred is present as esters of adipic acid dibutil-, di-2-ethylhexyl-, diisononyl, diisodecyl-, di-2-propylheptyl-, diisothiocyanato.
The composition according to the invention preferably contains as dibenzoate alkylenediamines and, in particular, glycolipopeptide, such as dietilen, DIPROPYLENE, diisopropyl, dibutylin, Tripropylene, triethylenemelamine or a mixture of two or more of these compounds.
Even more preferably, the composition according to the invention contains as the primary plasticizer alkilany ester of phthalic acid, preferably diisononyl, desolately, distally, di-2-propylheptyl and/or di-2-ethylhexylamine esters of phthalic acid, alkilany ether cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, preferably diisononyl ether cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid and/or alkilany ester of adipic acid, pre is respectfully diisononyl and/or di-2-ethylhexylamine ester of adipic acid.
Needless to say that these compounds are present in the composition as primary plasticizers may be the trademarks of products. Thus, the composition according to the invention can, for example, contain as benzoato commodity products: K-Flex (Kalama Chem; for example, the types of products DP, DE and 500) or benzoflex (Velsicol; for example, the types of products 9-88, 2-45, 50, 2088), which is obtained from the starting compounds: benzoic acid, diethylene glycol, dipropyleneglycol and triethylene glycol. As phthalates composition according to the invention may use technical phthalates, which are produced, for example, under the trade names Vestinol (di-n-butylphthalate) (registration number Chemical Abstracts (CAS Nr.) 84-74-2), Vestinol 1B (diisobutylphthalate) (CAS Nr. 84-69-5), Jayflex DINP (CAS Nr. 68515-48-0), Jayflex DIDP (CAS Nr. 68515-49-1), Palatinol 9R (CAS Nr. 58515-45-7), Vestinol 9 (CAS Nr. 28553-12-0), TOTM (CAS Nr. 3319-31-1), Linelast 68-TM, Palatinol N (CAS Nr. 28553-12-0), Jayflex DHP (CAS Nr. 68515-50-4), Jayflex DIOP (CAS Nr. 27554-26-3), Jayflex UDP (CAS Nr. 68515-47-9), Jayflex DIUP (CAS Nr. 85507-79-5), Jayflex DTDP (CAS Nr. 68515-47-9), Jayflex L9P (CAS Nr. 68515-45-7). Jayflex L911P (CAS Nr. 68515-43-5), Jayflex LI IP (CAS Nr. 3648-20-2), Vitamol 110 (CAS Nr. 68515-51-5), Vitamol 118 (di-n-alkyltin with 8-10 carbon atoms in the alkyl residue), (CAS Nr. 71662-46-9), Unimall CENTURIES (CAS Nr. 85-68-7). Linelast 1012 BP (CAS Nr. 90193-92-3), Linelast HR (CAS Nr. 27253-26-5), Linelast 610 RUB (CAS Nr. 68515-51-5), Linelast 69 FP CAS Nr. 68648-93-1), Linelast 812 HP (CAS Nr. 70693-30-0), Palatinol Academy of Sciences (CAS Nr. 117-81-7). Palatinol 711 (CAS Nr. 68515-42-4), Palatinol 911 (CAS Nr. 68515-43-5), Palatinol 11 (CAS Nr. 3648-20-2), Palatinol Z (CAS Nr. 26761-40-0), Palatinol DIPP (CAS Nr. 84777-06-0), Jayflex 77 (CAS No..71888-89-6), Palatinol 10P (CAS Nr. 53306-54-0) or Vestinol Academy of Sciences (CAS Nr. 117-81-7). Needless to say, as primary plasticizers in the compositions according to the invention can be also represented a mixture of two or more of these commodity products.
Along with directly named compounds that may be contained in the composition according to the invention as primary plasticizers, it can also be kept as the primary polymeric plasticizers plasticizers based on dicarboxylic acids, such as adipic or phthalic acid, and polyhydric alcohols, such as, for example, ethylene glycol, glycerol, propandiol, butanediol.
As additives are expanded onto the composition according to the invention may contain at least one additive selected from the group of fillers, pigments, stabilizers, antioxidants, viscosity regulators, foam stabilizers and lubricants.
The stabilizers neutralize, including hydrochloric acid, derived from polyvinyl chloride during and/or after processing, and prevent thermal degradation of the polymer. As components is of Ilizarov use all the usual stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride in solid and liquid form, for example, based on Ca/Zn, Ba/Zn, Pb, Sn or organic compounds, as well as linking acid layered silicates, such as hydrotalcite. The mixture according to the invention can contain from 0.5 to 10, preferably from 1 to 5, particularly preferably from 1.5 to 4 moschata 100 moschata polymer on thermo stabilizer.
As pigments in the framework of the present invention is used as inorganic and organic pigments. The content of pigments is between 0.01 to 10, preferably from 0.05 to 5, particularly preferably from 0.1 to 3 wt.%. Examples of inorganic pigments are CdS, CoO/Al2O3, Cr2About3. Known organic pigments are, for example, azo dyes, phthalocyanine, dioxazine, and aniline pigments.
As reagents that reduce the viscosity, it is possible to use aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, and derivatives of carboxylic acids, such as, for example, known as TXIB (company Eastman) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-potentialization. On the basis of the same inherent viscosity of the latter can very easily replace isanonymous ester of benzoic acid. Reagents that reduce the viscosity, add in quantities of from 0.5 to 50, preferably from 1 to 30, particularly preferably from 2 to 10 moschata 100 moschata polymer.
As foam stabilizers in which oppozitsii according to the invention may be trademarks of foam stabilizers. Such foam stabilizers may be based on, for example, silicone or soap and produced under the brand names of BIC (Byk-Chemie) and Centamin (Th. Boehme GmbH). They are used in quantities of from 1 to 10, preferably from 1 to 8, particularly preferably from 2 to 4 moschata 100 moschata polymer.
Depending on whether expanded onto the composition to foam up chemically or mechanically, it can contain one or more components that produce gas bubbles, and do not necessarily contain the initiator. As expanded onto the component should preferably be a compound which under the influence of heat decomposes predominantly in the gaseous constituent parts, causing foaming of the composition. A typical representative of such compounds is, for example, azodicarbonamide. The temperature of decomposition foaming agent can be significantly reduced by incorporating into the composition according to the invention catalysts. These catalysts are known to the expert as "initiators", and can be added either separately or preferably in the form of a system with a stabilizer.
Getting isononanol ester of benzoic acid present in the composition according to the invention, described below. The original product to get isononanol ester of benzoic acid is a mixture of isomers the x Danilovich alcohols, and benzoic acid. The mixture of isomeric Danilovich alcohols used to produce isononanol ester benzoic acid, often referred to as isononanol. Preferably used mixtures (isononanol) have high linearity, which is characterized by a content of less than 10 mol.% (1-10), and preferably less than 5 (0-5) mol.%, especially preferably less than 2 (0-2) mol.% 3,5,5-trimethylhexanal. The distribution of isomers mixtures Danilovich alcohols, are determined by the method of obtaining danilovogo alcohol (isononanol). The distribution of isomers Danilovich residues can be set to standard, well-known specialist measurement methods, such as NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC) or GC/mass spectroscopy. The collected data refer to all mentioned below mixtures Danilovich alcohols. Such Monrovia alcohols (mixture Danilovich alcohols) are commercial products under registration number Chemical Abstracts: 27458-94-2, 68515-81-1, 68527-05-9 or 68526-84-1.
Icononly alcohol produced by hydroformylation of octenol, which, in turn, produces a variety of ways. In General, the raw materials for this are technical4streams that primarily contain all isomeric olefins of 4 carbon atoms, along with rich butane and, under certain conditions, impurities such as olefins with 3 and 5 atoms of carbon is a, and acetylene compounds. The oligomerization of this mixture of olefins is mainly obtained isomeric mixture of octanol along with higher oligomers, such as mixtures of olefins with 12 and 16 carbon atoms. This mixture of octanol hydroformylation into the corresponding aldehydes and then hydronaut in alcohol.
The composition, i.e. the distribution of isomers of technical mixtures of nonanalog depends on the source of the substance and methods of oligomerization and hydroformylation. To obtain the complex ester according to the invention can use all of these mixtures. Preferred mixtures of nonanalog are those who receive hydroformylation mixtures of olefins with up to 8 carbon atoms, obtained by oligomerization, mostly linear butenes inflicted on Nickel catalysts (e.g., OCTOL process, OXENO Olefinchemie GmbH), in the presence of known catalysts, such as compounds of cobalt and rhodium, and the subsequent gidrirovaniem separated from the catalyst hydroformylation mixture. The share of Isobutanol in the original substance, considering the total content of butenes, is less than 5 wt.%, preferably less than 3 wt.%, especially preferably less than 1 wt.%. These ensure that the content is more branched isomers nonanol, including isomers 3,5,5-trimethylhexanal who has proven to be less preferred, the significance of the part is reduced and is within the preferred areas.
But the composition according to the invention may also contain izonanelwa esters of benzoic acid, which is produced by the esterification of benzoic acid product mixture of alcohols, which may have a registration number Chemical Abstracts: 68551-09-7, 91994-92-2, 68526-83-0, 66455-17-2, 68551-08-6, 85631-14-7 or 97552-90-4. Here we are talking about mixtures of alcohols, which, along with these isononanoate alcohols, also contain alcohols with 7-15 carbon atoms (as defined by the Chemical Abstracts). So get a mixture alilovic esters of benzoic acid, which, along with isanonymous ester benzoic acid, contain other alkylbenzoates.
Getting isononanol ester benzoic acid, i.e. the esterification of benzoic acid isomere clean nonanalog or a mixture of isononanol into the corresponding esters can be autocatalytic or catalytically, for example, with acids of Bronsted or with Lewis acids. Still, what a way catalysis choose, always formed in a temperature-dependent equilibrium between the original substances (acid and alcohol), and get (ester and water). To shift the equilibrium in the direction of ester, you can enter a separating agent, by which the mixture to remove the reaction water. Because of the mixture of alcohols used for the esterification, boil lower than benzoic acid and its ester is, and have a water concentration limit compatibility, they are often used as a separating agent, which after separation of the water can be returned into the process.
Therefore, the alcohol used for the formation of ester, or isomer mixture of alcohols, which simultaneously serves as a separating agent is used in excess, preferably an excess of from 5 to 50%, in particular from 10 to 30% of the amount required for the formation of ester.
As catalysts for the esterification you can use acid, such as sulfuric, methanesulphonate or p-toluensulfonate, or metals or their compounds. Suitable are, for example, tin, titanium, zirconium, which is used in finely dispersed form or expedient in the form of their salts, oxides or soluble organic compounds. In contrast, proton acids metal catalysts are high-temperature catalysts that its full activity often reached only at temperatures above 180°C. However, preferably used them as compared to proton catalysis they form used alcohol less by-products, such as olefins. Exemplary representatives of the metal powder catalysts are tin, tin oxide(II), exaltolide(II), esters of Titanic acid, such as tetraisopropyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate, as well as esters of zirconium, such as tetrabutyltin.
The concentration of the catalyst depends on the type of catalyst. The preferably used compounds of titanium, it ranges from 0.005 to 1.0 wt.%, counting on the reaction mixture, in particular 0.01 to 0.5 wt.%, particularly preferably 0.01 to 0.1 wt.%.
When using titanium catalysts temperature of the esterification reactions are preferably from 160 to 270°C., particularly preferably from 180 to 250°C. the Optimum temperature depends on the applied substances, reaction time and concentration of catalyst. For each individual case, they can easily be set empirically. Higher temperatures increase reaction speed and promote side reactions, such as elimination of water from alcohols or the formation of colored by-products. To remove the reaction water is beneficial to the alcohol, it was possible to drive away from the reaction mixture. The desired temperature or the desired temperature range in the reactor can be installed using pressure. Therefore, in the case of low-boiling alcohols interaction is carried out at a gauge pressure, and in the case of high-boiling alcohols - under reduced pressure. For example, in the interaction of benzoic acid is islote with a mixture of isomeric nonanols operate in the temperature range from 170 to 250°C in pressure from 1 mbar to 10 mbar.
Returning to the reaction amount of fluid can be partially or completely consist of alcohol, which removes the processing of the azeotropic distillate. It is also possible to carry out processing at a later point in the reaction and remote amount of liquid partially or completely replaced with fresh alcohol, i.e. prepared in advance by the spirit of spare capacity.
The crude mixture of esters, which along with ether/esters also contain alcohol, the catalyst, or the products of their further transformations and, under certain conditions, by-products, process in itself known manner. When this processing includes the following steps: separation of the excess alcohol and, if necessary, boiling substances that neutralize existing acid, if necessary, steam distillation, conversion catalyst in an easily filterable residue, separating solids and, if necessary, drying. However, depending on the applied method of processing, the sequence may be different.
Perhaps the separation of complex danilovogo ether or a mixture of complex Danilovich esters from the reaction mixture by distillation, if necessary, after neutralization of the mixture.
Used according to the invention nonidentity possible alternative to get bereiter the qualifications ester benzoic acid nonanalog or a mixture of isononanol. As the original products use esters of benzoic acid, whose alkyl residues associated with the oxygen atom of the ester groups contain 1-8 carbon atoms. These residues can be aliphatic, unbranched or branched, alicyclic or aromatic. One or more methylene groups of these alkyl residues can be replaced by oxygen. It is advisable that the alcohols from which the received original broadcast, boiling lower than used nonanol or a mixture of isononanol. Preferred used substances for interesterification are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, n-butyl and/or pentalogy esters of benzoic acid.
The transesterification carried out catalytically, for example, with acids of Bronsted or with Lewis acids or bases. Regardless of the catalyst used, always occurs in a temperature-dependent equilibrium between the original substances (alkylbenzoic and nonanol or a mixture of isononanol) and final products (nonlevy aired or released alcohol). To shift the balance towards danilovogo ether or mixture isononyl esters from the reaction mixture is distilled spirit produced from the source of ester.
It is also advisable to apply nonanol or a mixture of isononanol in excess.
As interesterification catalysts can be applied acid, for example sulfuric, methanesulphonate or p-toluensulfonate, or metals or their compounds. Suitable are, for example, tin, titanium, zirconium, which is used in finely dispersed form or expedient in the form of their salts, oxides or soluble organic compounds. In contrast, proton acids metal catalysts are high-temperature catalysts that its full activity often reached only at temperatures above 180°C. However, preferably used them since, compared with proton catalysis, they form used alcohol less by-products, such as olefins. For example, representatives of the metal powder catalysts are tin oxide tin(II)oxalate, tin(II)esters of Titanic acid, such as tetraisopropyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate, as well as esters of zirconium acid, such as tetrabutyltin. In addition, you can apply basic catalysts, such as, for example, oxides, hydroxides, bicarbonates, carbonates, or alkaline alcoholate or alkaline earth metal. Of this group, is preferably used alcoholate such as sodium methylate. The alcoholate can also be obtained in situ from an alkali metal and nonanol or mixture of isononanol.
Conc is the function of the catalyst depends on the type of catalyst. It is usually 0.005 to 1.1 wt.%, counting on the reaction mixture.
The reaction temperature for the transesterification typically range from 100 to 220°C. They must be at least so high that the alcohol formed from the source of ester, at a given pressure, usually normal pressure, it was possible to drive away from the reaction mixture.
The mixture after interesterification can be handled in the same manner as described for mixtures after esterification.
A composition according to the invention can occur in different ways. Typically, the composition is produced by intensive mixing of all components in a suitable mixer. While it is preferable to add components sequentially (for example, E.J.Wickson, "Handbook of PVC Formulating", John Wiley and Sons, 1993, str).
The composition according to the invention can be applied to obtain foamed products that contain at least one polymer selected from polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidenechloride, chlorinated polyolefins and copolymers of vinyl chloride with vinylidenechloride, vinyl acetate, fenilpropionata, vinylboronate, vinylbenzoate, methyl acrylate, acrylate, butyl acrylate, at least one primary plasticizer, icononly ester of benzoic acid and, optionally, other additives. Such products can in order to be for example, artificial leather, Wallpaper or various foam for floor coverings (shock-absorbing vinyl foam).
The composition according to the invention is preferably used to produce plastisols, in particular polyvinyl chloride plastisols, with particularly favorable for processing technological properties. These are expanded onto a plastisol can be applied in numerous products, such as synthetic leather, flooring, Wallpaper, etc. Among these applications are especially preferred is the use of cushioned vinyl floors. By applying the compositions according to the invention as an integral part of the formulation or directly as plastisols can be obtained plastisol with a low viscosity, and increased stability during storage and at the same time with accelerated gilotinirovaniya and improved flexibility at low temperatures.
Foaming can be done mechanically or chemically. Under mechanical foaming of the plastisol composition understand this procedure, when the plastisol, before application to the carrier, with a fairly strong mixing serving the air, which causes foaming. For stabilization arising thereby foam the desired stabilizer. Typically used either on silicone or soap. Regarding the sustained fashion the finished foam they differ, first of all, a porous structure, color, and hygroscopicity. The choice of the type of stabilizer is dependent, including, also from plasticizers that should be used. For example, the specialist is known that when using more inexpensive soap stabilizers used diallylphthalate, for example, di-2-ethylhexyl-, diisononyl, diisodecyl or vizagapatam, as a rule, it is necessary to add relatively large quantities of benzylphthalate (for example, benzyl-n-butyl ether phthalic acid) or glycosidases. Because the existing classification of chemical compounds benzyl-n-butyl ether phthalic acid characterized as toxic, its use in recent times drastically and as substitutes often used glycolipopeptide. Under glycolytically know, mostly, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and dipropylthiocarbamate or mixtures thereof. These products are trademarks, including, under the trade name "Benzoflex" company Velsicol, USA. In particular, Benzoflex 2088 (according to the manufacturer: 61-69% of dietilenglikoluretan, 16-24% of dipropylthiocarbamate, 11-19% of dipropylthiocarbamate) and Benzoflex 2160 (according to the manufacturer: 49% of dietilenglikoluretan, 29% of triethylenemelamine, 15% di-2-ethylhexyladipate and others) in the form of mixtures of CH is goldenshadow reached a certain value in the field of manufacture of floors from polyvinyl chloride. However, these products are prone to strong dilatancy, i.e. to a strong increase in viscosity at higher shear rates, so that in the processing of it may cause problems. Mixing these glycosidases with isononanoate this disadvantage can be substantially compensated. Therefore, expanded onto the composition according to the invention, which should be used to produce mechanical pins, along with isononanoate may also contain glycolipopeptide. Then foamed composition is applied to the carrier or another polymer layer and finally thermally treated. Examples of commodity soapy foam stabilizers are BIC 8070 (Byk-Chemie) and Sintimid 218 (Th.Boehme GmbH), a widespread, based on the silicone system is BIC 8020 (Byk-Chemie).
The chemical foaming plastisol or composition according to the invention contains a compound, the so-called pore-forming substance, which under the influence of heat decomposes mainly gaseous components, which cause the swelling of the plastisol. A typical representative is azodicarbonamide. The temperature of decomposition of the blowing agent can be significantly reduced by the addition of catalysts. These catalysts are known to the expert as "initiators" and can be added either separately or preferably in the form of system components is bilization. In contrast to mechanical foam from the presence of a foam stabilizer can, if necessary, to refuse. Unlike mechanical foam chemical foaming foam form only during the processing, usually in a heat chamber, which means that it is not foamed composition is applied on the carrier preferably by buttering. In this variant of the method according to the invention can be achieved profiling foam through selective application of solutions of inhibitors, for example, working under pressure, rotating the installation screens. On the ground, to which was applied a solution of the inhibitor, the expansion of the plastisol during the processing or does not occur, or it is delayed. In practice, chemical foaming apply to a much greater extent compared to mechanical. Additional information about the chemical and mechanical foaming can be obtained, for example, in E.J.Wickson, "Handbook of Formulating", 1993, John Wiley & Sons.
In both ways as carriers use such materials, which remain firmly associated with the obtained foam, such as fabric or Vechnyi canvases. But the media can also be only temporary, with which the resulting foam can be removed in the form of foam layers. Such carriers can be, for example, metal strip or strips is of CNA paper (double-layer paper). Also as a carrier can operate the other, under certain conditions, already completely or partially (pre-frozen) salaminians polymer layer. This practice, in particular, shock-absorbing vinyl floors, which are formed of several layers.
In both cases, the final heat treatment is in the so-called heat chamber, as a rule, furnace, which is supported on a carrier layer of the composition according to the invention or which for a short time, introduce a carrier coated with a layer. The final heat treatment is used for solidification (gilotinirovaniya) of the foam layer. The chemical foaming racks can be combined with installation, which is used to create foam. For example, it is possible to use only one of the chambers, which in the front part by decomposition of the gas component at initial temperature chemically created foam, and the foam at the rear of the heat chamber at the second temperature, which is preferably higher than the initial temperature, transferred to an intermediate or final product. In addition, depending on the composition it is possible to gilotinirovaniya and foaming occurred simultaneously at a single temperature. Typical temperatures for pererabotki the (temperature gilotinirovaniya) lie in the range from 130 to 280°C, preferably in the range from 150 to 250°C. Preferably gilotinirovaniya carried out so that the foamed composition is treated at the indicated temperature for from 0.5 to 5 minutes, preferably for from 0.5 to 3 minutes. However, the duration of heat treatment in a continuous process can be set by adjusting the length of the heat chamber and the speed with which containing foam medium passes through the heat chamber. Typical temperature foam chemical foam) lie in the range from 160 to 240°C., preferably from 180 to 220°C.
In the case of multilayer systems, as a rule, first fix the form of the individual layers through the so-called pre-gilotinirovaniya applied plastisol at a temperature below the temperature of decomposition of the blowing agent, then you can apply subsequent layers (e.g., top layer). When all the layers are applied at a higher temperature by gilotinirovaniya, and in the case of chemical foaming and foaming. This way the process can be transferred desirable profiling also on the top layer.
Thanks compositions according to the invention and the method according to the invention can be derived products that contain at least one polymer selected from the on the of vinylchloride, polyvinylidenechloride, chlorinated polyolefins and copolymers of vinyl chloride with vinylidenechloride, vinyl acetate, fenilpropionata, vinylboronate, vinylbenzoate, methyl acrylate, acrylate, butyl acrylate, and which contain at least one foamed layer of the composition according to the invention. Such products can be, for example, floor coverings, Wallpaper or faux leather.
The following examples should explain the invention without limiting the breadth of its application, which is derived from the description and claims.
4-liter distillation flask, equipped with a water separator and reflux condenser, and fitting for sampling and thermometer, weighed 976 g of benzoic acid (8 moles), 1728 isononanol company OXENO Olefinchemie GmbH (12 moles) and 0.59 g of butylmalonate (0,06%, considering the amount of acid) and heated to boiling under nitrogen atmosphere. Formed during the esterification reaction, water regularly removed. When the acid number is reduced below 0.1 mg KOH/g (approximately 3 hours), the mixture is first cooled to a temperature below 60°C and a skewer integrated column length 20 cm, then reduce the pressure of 2 mbar and at first distilled off excess alcohol (about 120°). After separation of the intermediate fractions up to 140°C can distill isononyl soat in the temperature range from 142 to 147°C (2 mbar), measured at the head of the column. The purity of >99.7% of it is possible to determine gas chromatography. The viscosity of 8.4 mPa.s at 20°C determined according to industrial standard, German DIN 53015.
Getting plastisols for chemical foam (shock-absorbing vinyl foam)
Sample components listed in the following table 1.
Recipes (all data in mascotech to 100 parts of polyvinyl chloride)
|1||2||3||4 (according to the invention)||5 (top layer)|
|VESTOLIT R To (company Vestolit)||80||80||80||80|
|VESTOLIT R K (firm Vestolit)||80|
|VINNOLIT C65V (firm Vinnolit)||20||20||20||20||20||VESTINOL EN (DEHP, OXENO)||35|
|VESTINOL 9 (DINP, OXENO)||40||40||40||40||12|
|Unimall CENTURIES (BBF, firm Voeg)||17|
|Diisobutylphthalate (DIBP, firm OXENO)||17|
|Benzoflex 2088 (company Velsicol)||17|
|Lacroix ED 6 (firm Akcros)||3|
|Baerostab ARTICLE 9156 X (company Baerlocher)||1,5|
|Porofor ADC / L-C2 (1:1) (firm Voeg)||4||4||4||4|
|Biaxin Z Aktiv (1:2) (firm Voeg)||1,5||1,5||1,5||1,5|
|Kronos 2220 (titanpoker, firm Kronos)||5||5||5||5|
|He durcal 5 (chalk, the firm Omya)||10||10||10||10|
|Table 1: DEHP - di-2-diethylhexylphthalate, DINP - diisononylphthalate, BBF - benzyl-n-butylphthalate.|
Before the addition of plasticizers thermostatic at 25°C. and Then in a plastic Cup from eshivot first liquid components, then powdered. The mixture is kneaded manually with a spatula until then, until no more remains nesmetanog powder. Then the glass mixture is fixed in the clamping device for thinning mixing. Before diving agitators in the mixture set the speed at 1800 rpm. After switching on the stirrer stirred up until the temperature on the digital display of temperature-sensitive element reaches 30,0°C. This suggests that homogenization plastisol achieved at a certain flow of energy. After this plastisol immediately thermostatic when 25,0°C.
Measurement of viscosity plastisols
Measurement of viscosity plastisols 1-4 obtained in example 2 is carried out, following the industry standard, German DIN 53019, Physica rheometer DSR 4000, which is controlled by the system software 200 US as follows.
Plastisol again stirred with a spatula in the tank and measured in the measuring system Z3 (German industrial standard 25 mm) according to the instruction manual. The measurement is done automatically at 25°C using the above software. Determining factors are the following items:
- pre-shift 100 sec-1for a time span of 60 seconds, which does not record the measured values;
- decreasing Alanna line, starting at 200 sec-1and 0.1 sec-1divided into logarithmic series with 30 steps with a duration time of 5 seconds.
The data processing is carried out after the measurement automatically by the system software. The viscosity are depending on the shear rate. The measurements are carried out respectively after 2 h and 24 h Between these points in time the paste stored at 25°C. In the two following tables 2 and 3 shows the corresponding values of viscosity obtained for a shear rate of 10 sec-1and 100 sec-1accordingly, after the specified duration of storage.
Shear rate of 10 sec-1(data on viscosity in Pa.s)
|Recipe||1||2||3||4 (according to the invention)|
|2 hours||a 3.9||a 3.9||the 3.8||2,7|
Shear rate of 100 sec-1(data on viscosity in Pa.s)
|Recipe||1||2||3||4 (according to the invention)|
|2 hours||4,3||a 3.9||4,5||2,1|
|24 hours||the 5.7||5,2||the 5.7||2,6|
Are shown in tables 2 and 3 measured values show that the foamed plastisol with isononanoate (formula 4) by their viscous properties differ significantly from plastisols with equal shares benzyl-n-butylphthalate, diisobutylphthalate or Benzoflex 2088. Minor viscosity plastisol according to the invention makes it possible, at least partial rejection often expensive reagents that reduce the viscosity.
Chemical foaming at 200°C
Plastisol 1-4 obtained in example 2 is applied using a doctor blade on a two-layer paper Kamplex LWB (120 g/m2the firm Kaemmerer) so that the density of the applied layer was 360±10 g/m2. The resulting system is passed through a heat chamber (firm Olbrich, length 8 m) when the temperature 130°C with a speed of 6 m/min for drying/pre-gilotinirovaniya. Following this same procedure on this layer is applied respectively to the upper layer (formulation 5 from table 1, the density of the applied layer 200±10 g/m2). Then carry out gilotinirovaniya/foaming at 200°C with different residence time in the heat chamber, set the movement speed of installation. In each case, measure the density of the foamed layer.
The density thus obtained products determine the proportion of foaming in percentage terms, considering the density only pre salaminians product. Table 4 shows the proportion of foaming formula 1-4 after a residence time of 60, 80, 100 and 120 seconds.
The proportion of the foaming formulations 1-4 (data in percent)
|Time prebyvania (s)||60||80||100||120|
|Formulation 4 (according to the invention)||0,0||62,1||246,6||317,2|
Despite the slower foaming plastisol 4 according to the invention with a slight time 80 sec (in the middle of the foaming process), it is found that under typical practice time 100 sec or more, you can get at least the same or even more than a comparable proportion of foaming.
Mechanical foaming (getting plastisols)
First get the following plastisol as described in the following table 5 variants of the formulas:
Recipe plastisols for mechanical foaming (data on 100 parts of polymer)
|VESTOLIT RK (firm Vestolit)||70||70||70||70|
|VINNOLIT C65V (firm Vinnolit)||30||30||30||30|
|VESTINOL 9 (firm OXENO)||30||30||30||30|
|Unimall CENTURIES (BBF, firm Voeg)||30|
|Benzoflex 2088 (company Velsicol)||30||20||15|
|BIC 8070 (company Byk-Chemie)||2,6||2,6||2,6||2,6|
|He durcal 5 (chalk, firm Omoi)||30||30||30||30|
|Table 5: BBF - benzyl-n-butylphthalate.|
PEFC is getting plastisols according to example 2 of their dearyou at 20 mbar, again to remove air, possibly introduced in the mixing process. In all cases, the process flow deaeration easier at low viscosity plastisols than the more viscous,
So after 2 and 24 hours a Physica rheometer to determine the viscosity of plastisols 6-9 at shear rates of 10 and 100 sec-1according to example 3 are listed in tables 6 and 7.
Viscosity plastisols at the shear rate of 10 sec-1(Pa.s)
|after 2 h||3,2||3,5||2,0||1,5|
|after 24 h||3,6||a 3.9||2,2||1,6|
Viscosity plastisols at the shear rate of 100 sec-1(Pa.s)
|h the rez 2 hours||a 3.9||4,8||2,5||1,9|
|after 24 h||4,4||of 5.4||2,8||2,0|
And here again we find the impact of the increased content of isononanoate on the viscosity of plastisols.
Again evaluate the behavior of plastisol in a heat chamber (firm Olbrich, length 8 m) in conditions that are close to production. After pre-expansion by injecting air under stirring plastisol is applied using a doctor blade (gap width of 1.5 mm, the width of the doctor blade 9 mm, the angle of the doctor blade 7°) to the density of the wet foam, equal to 0.61 g/cm3on a two-layer paper Kamplex LWB (120 g/m2the firm Kaemmerer) and then passed through a heat chamber with a preset speed.
If the processing temperatures of 180°C to vary the residence time in the heat chamber, it is possible to determine the maximum processing speed, so the speed of coating, which produces a more stable foam. A major factor to assess is the homogeneity of the surface, which is assessed visually. Additionally, during typical for practical purposes, the residence time of 1.3 min (corresponds to a speed of 6 m/min) tightly define the ti foam in salaminians final product by weighing and measuring the thickness of the coating. The results are shown in table 8.
The results of processing
|Maxim. speed coating in m/min||8||10||10||8|
|Foam density in g/cm3after a residence time of 1.3 min (typical)||0,60||0,65||0,58||0,56|
As can be concluded from the results of table 8, plastisol with isononanoate according to the invention (formula 8 or 9) is stronger than the foam when comparable in respect of formulations 6 and 7 the maximum speed coating, indicated by a lower density.
1. Expanded onto the composition to obtain foamed products containing polyvinyl chloride, at least one primary plasticizer, if necessary, other additives and complex alkilany ester benzoic acid, characterized in that as difficult Olkiluoto ester of benzoic acid it contains complex icononly the FYR of benzoic acid in an amount of 5 to 95 wt.%, considering the weight of all available plasticizer that is from 10 to 400 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of polyvinyl chloride.
2. The composition according to claim 1. characterized in that as the primary plasticizer it contains complex diakidoy ester of phthalic acid and its alkyl residues contain from 4 to 13 carbon atoms, complex alkilany ester of adipic acid, and alkyl residues contain from 4 to 13 carbon atoms, and/or complex alkilany ether cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid and its alkyl residues contain from 4 to 13 carbon atoms, ester trimellitic acid 7 to 10 carbon atoms in the alcohol chain, ester of alkylsulfonate phenol, polymer plasticizer, alkylbenzene-phthalates, dibenzoate diethylene glycol, dipropyleneglycol or triethylene-glycol and/or esters of citric acid.
3. The composition according to claim 2, characterized in that as difficult Olkiluoto ester of phthalic acid it contains complex diisononyl, desolately and/or di-2-ethylhexylamine esters of phthalic acid, as a complex Olkiluoto ether cyclohexanecarbonyl acid - complex diisononyl ether cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and as complex Olkiluoto ester of adipic acid is a complex diisononyl ester of adipic acid.
4. Composition according to one of claims 1 to 3, Otley is audacia fact, as other additives it contains at least one additive selected from the group of fillers, pigments, stabilizers, antioxidants, viscosity regulators, foam stabilizers and lubricants.
5. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a component that releases bubbles of gas, and optionally contains the initiator.
6. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as polyvinyl chloride it contains emulsion polyvinyl chloride.
7. The use of a composition according to one of claims 1 to 6 to obtain foamed products that contain polyvinyl chloride, at least one primary plasticizer, complex icononly ester of benzoic acid and, optionally, other additives.
8. The use according to claim 7, characterized in that as foamed products receive floor coverings (shock-absorbing vinyl foam), artificial skin or Wallpaper.
9. The way to obtain a product containing at least one foamed layer of polyvinyl chloride, wherein the composition according to one of claims 1 to 6 is applied to the carrier before or after the application of froth and finally thermally treated.
10. The product containing polyvinyl chloride, characterized in that it contains at least one foamed layer of the composition according to one of claims 1 to 6.
11. Product of claim 10, characterized the eat, he is a floor covering, Wallpaper or faux leather.
FIELD: textile fabrics, paper.
SUBSTANCE: method is related to production of coated paper or cardboard. Method includes application of pigment composition as coating on at least one side of paper or cardboard web. Specified pigment composition is water dispersion, which includes optionally aggregated colloidal particles of silicon dioxide or aluminium silicate as pigment particles, which are prepared from alkali metal silicate by ion exchange or pH reduction and having surface area of approximately from 30 m2/g to approximately 450 m2/g. Coating contains also at least one cationic component selected from group that consists of water-soluble aluminium salts and cationic polymers with molecular weight from approximately 2,000 to approximately 1,000,000 and charge density from approximately 0.2 mEq/g to approximately 12 mEq/g, in which at least approximately 0.4 g of pigment particles from pigment composition is applied on m2 of coated side of paper or cardboard web. Invention is also related to paper or cardboard produced by this method. It is also related to composition of above mentioned pigment in the form of water dispersion, which includes less than approximately 3 wt % of organic binders and to method of above mentioned pigment composition production, in which mixing is done to produce water dispersion in order to avoid gel formation and deposition.
EFFECT: improvement of printing and strength properties of coating, and also lower scuffing of paper.
26 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: pulp and paper industry; methods of production of the pigment for manufacture of the cardboard and paper.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the pigment for manufacture of the cardboard and paper and may be used in pulp and paper industry at production of the filled paper, the coated paper and the cardboard. Calcium carbonate is treated with aluminum sulfate in the aqueous medium. The treatment is conducted at aluminum sulfate consumption of 25-105 % to the mass of absolutely dry calcium carbonate at the temperature of 80-85°С during 90-180 minutes with production of the suspension containing 25-35 % dry substances in it. At that they use the aqueous medium containing the binding chosen from the group, which includes starch and polyvinyl alcohol in the amount of 0.5-3.0 mass % from the mass of the absolutely dry pigment, and-or the water soluble colorant in the amount of 0.1-0.5 mass % from the mass of the absolutely dry pigment. The suspension is additionally dried and grinded. The technical result of the invention is the improved quality of the pigment as well as expansion of its field of application.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality of the pigment as well as expansion of its field of application.
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods of production of the of the laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to production of plastics, namely - to the development of the method of production of the laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating. The method is realized by deposition at heating up to temperature of 150-190°С on the textile base of the coating consisting of the polyvinylchloride composition including the film forming agent - polyvinylchloride suspension, the plasticizers - di-(2-ethylhexyl)- phthalate, chlorinated paraffin wax and the mixture of dioxane alcohols and their high-boiling ethers with the number of the hydroxyl groups of 23-36 %, the filler - the chalk and the crystalline calcium carbonate, the stabilizing agent - the stearic acid and calcium - the zinc complex stabilizing agent , the surface active agent - the flotation reactant - oxalic agent, the pigment - titanium dioxide, as the textile basis they use the cloth thermo bound by the surface density of 46-54 g/m2 made out of the polyester filaments with the density of 0.12-0.33 tack and the cutting length of 38-66 mm. The laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating has the bonding strength of the film coating with the base of 2.0-2.3 kN/m, the rigidity of 0.4-0.9 cN and variation of the linear dimensions lengthways of 0.4-0.7 % and transversely - 0.1-0.3 %.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the laminated material with the polyvinylchloride coating has the bonding strength of the film coating with the base of 2.0-2.3 kN/m, the rigidity of 0.4-0.9 cN and variation of the linear dimensions lengthwise and transversely are less than unity.
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of simulated leather-type material with polymer coating, which can be used in making automotive tents, shelters, and for bundling of various technical tools. According to first option, material comprises textile backing and polymer coating formed on said backing with the aid of calender technique at the face and at the underside. Coating is composed of, weight parts: suspension polyvinylchloride (S-7058M) 100, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 20-60, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 5.0-20, trichloroethyl phosphate 5.0-15, "Vigostab BTs-42" 1.0-3.0, antimony trioxide 5.0-20, aluminum hydroxide 20-5.0, butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-28) 30-0.1, thermoplastic polyurethane (VITUR 2213, 2513) 0.1-70, calcium stearate 0.5-2.0, and pigments 2.0-6.0, weight ratio of layers in material being as follows: face polymer coating/underside polymer coating = (0.3÷0.5):(0.2÷0.4). According to second option, material comprises textile backing and polymer coating formed on said backing at the face and at the underside, face-side polymer coating being formed with the aid of calender technique and composed of, wt parts: suspension polyvinylchloride (S-7058M) 100, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 20-60, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 5.0-20, trichloroethyl phosphate 5.0-15, "Vigostab BTs-42" 1.0-3.0, antimony trioxide 5.0-20, aluminum hydroxide 20-5.0, butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-28) 30-0.1, thermoplastic polyurethane (VITUR 2213, 2513) 0.1-70, calcium stearate 0.5-2.0, and pigments 2.0-6.0, and underside coating being formed with the aid of deposition technique and composed of, wt parts: emulsion polyvinylchloride (EP-6602Ts) 100, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 20-60, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 5.0-20, trichloroethyl phosphate 5.0-15, "Vigostab BTs-42" 1.0-3.0, antimony trioxide 5.0-20, aluminum hydroxide 20-5.0, and pigments 2.0-6.0, weight ratio of layers in material being as follows: face polymer coating/underside polymer coating = (0.3÷0.5):(0.15÷0.3). According to second option, material represents film having the same composition as coating in the first option formed with the aid of calender technique, thickness of this film material ranging from 0.15 to 1.0 mm.
EFFECT: enhanced frost resistance, increased level of resistance to multiple bending (also at negative temperatures), and increased level of resistance to abrasion ensuring long service time.
3 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: floor coating obtained by laying method has its principal structure formed from thermoplastic material, in particular from plasticized polyvinylchloride, reinforced with textile armature and, if necessary, attached to foam sublayer. Front face resistance surface coating to be imaged and to provide wear resistance of part. Reverse face, which contacts floor, represents textile. Connection of textile structure with reverse surface of principal support is provided by means of additional plastisol layer penetrating to a inconsiderable depth into textile structure and ensuring, after gelation, fastening of textile to reverse face of principal support made from thermoplastic material.
EFFECT: improved walking comfort and both acoustic and thermal insulation at better mechanical strength and evenness.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, laminated materials, such as rolled polymeric floor coverings, in particular, linoleum.
SUBSTANCE: multilayer rolled polymeric 2.7 mm thick floor covering has base comprising lower layer of nonwoven needle-stitched material of polyester or polypropylene filaments or mixture of filaments having thickness of 1.3-2.0 mm, density of 200-360 g/m2, and upper polymeric layer composed of at least two polyvinyl chloride layers. Lower polyvinyl chloride layer has glass fabric or mineral paper used as reinforcement material and having thickness of 0.6-1.0 mm. Thickness of transparent face layer is 0.12-0.50 mm. Middle polyvinyl chloride layer of polymeric layer may foamed and provided with decorative relief pattern.
EFFECT: increased decorative effect, improved wear resistance, heat and sound isolating properties and sanitary and hygienic qualities of rolled covering.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed is a method of producing polymers and materials based on polyvinyl chloride, used in different industries, where there is need for materials with low flammability and smoke emission, good chemical resistance, frost resistance and heat resistance. Granular plasticised polyvinyl chloride composition is produced through mixture with plasticisers, stabilisers, fillers and possibly other special additives of polyvinyl chloride with Fikentscher constant Cf=58÷76, obtained using suspension polymerisation method with 0.7÷0.9 monomer conversion, which is a white powder, consisting of porous opaque particles and characterised by specific surface area of Ss=1÷2 m²/g, and value of plasticiser mass absorption α=Cf-(38+46) g/100 PVC. The composition can also contain polyvinyl chloride suspension with Fikentscher constant Cf=35÷46.
EFFECT: obtaining granular plasticised composition with improved processing characteristics, increased harness and homogeneity.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to hard polyvinyl chloride compositions using filler with plasticising and stabilising effect for making materials, mainly construction materials, and can be used for making moulded profile objects, siding, pipes etc. The polyvinyl chloride composition (PVC composition) contains a plasticiser, calcium stearate and a dispersion polyfunctional filler - a product of recycling oil, with the following ratio of ingredients, in wt pts: PVC composition (in terms of polyvinyl chloride) - 100, oil recycling product - 5-25.
EFFECT: cheaper PVC-based materials, particularly moulded materials, without deterioration of the application properties, increased melt fluidity, increased stability of PVC composition, wider field of using industrial wastes.
SUBSTANCE: method of polyvinylchloride stabilisation involves adding thermostabilising amount of mix including at least A) 0.01 to 10 weight parts of one polyalkylene glycol selected out of group including tetraethylene glycol, tetraporopylene glycol and tetraglicerine, per 100 weight parts of polyvinylchloride, and B) 0.001 to 5 weight parts of at least one metal chloride per 100 weight parts of polyvinylchloride, to indicated polymer. Additionally the mix includes at least one more additive or stabiliser. Heat-resistant polymer composition includes polyvinylchloride and thermostabilising amount of mix: A) 0.01 to 10 weight parts of at least one polyalkylene glycol of the general formula per 100 weight parts of polyvinylchloride, where: R1 and R2 are independently selected out of group including hydrogen and alkyl; R3 and R4 are independently selected out of group including hydrogen and alkyl; n is 4; B) 0.01 to 5 weight parts of at least one metal chloride per 100 weight parts of polyvinylchloride.
EFFECT: application of nitrogen-free thermostabilising mix with high efficiency, preventing heavy metal ion presence in the mix.
14 cl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns lubricants for polyvinylchloride compositions which can be applied in production of rigid, semirigid and soft materials. Metal-containing lubricants are obtained in a single stage by interaction of oleic or stearic acid with glycerin at mol ratio of 1:1 in the presence of zinc or magnesium oxide or their mix at 0.25-1:0.25-1 mass ratio, in amount of 0.5-2.0 wt % of the total reaction mass, at 130-160°C for 4-5 hours. Process is performed until acid value of reaction mass is under 10 mg of KOH/g.
EFFECT: simple, cost-effective method with increased output of target product, reduced temperature and duration of synthesis; lubricant for polyvinylchloride ensures good melt fluidity and high heat resistance of polymer composition due to the presence of zinc and magnesium carboxylates in lubricant composition.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns complex acrylic silicon rubber polymer, method of its obtainment and application. Complex acrylic silicon rubber polymer features nucleus-core-shell structure, where vinyl monomer and hydrophilic monomer are linked on a nucleus; complex acrylic silicon core has interpenetrating grid structure where silicon rubber particles are dispersed with acrylic rubber during linking, and is formed on nucleus in dispersion medium. Shell is obtained by graft polymerisation of C1-C4-alkylmetacrylate on complex acrylic silicon core with interpenetrating grid.
EFFECT: obtaining complex acrylic silicon rubber polymer with excellent impact strength, weather resistance and shine, which can be efficiently applied as impact strength modifier of vinylchloride resin.
14 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: polymeric piezoresistive material contains polymer as base and additive, as polymer it contains, at least, plastyzol based on polyvinylchloride or dispersion of polyvinyl acetate or siloxane elastomer or thermoelastoplast, and as additive, material contains carbon nanopipes and/or carbon nanofibre in amount 0.1-20.0 wt %.
EFFECT: reduction of cost and simplification of material production procedure.
SUBSTANCE: stabilising system includes, at least, (a) one perfluoralkansulfonate salt and (b), at least, one or several indoles and/or ureas and/or alkanoamines and/or aminouracils, in which indoles have general formula (I): ureas have general formula and alkanoalamines have general formula (III) which is used in compositions, containing chlorine-containing polymers, in particular, polyvinylchloride.
EFFECT: stabilisation of chlorine-containing polymers from thermally induced degradation.
13 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to a binding substance for reinforced plastics, which can be used as construction coating or protecting concrete, reinforced concrete, metallic and other surfaces from aggressive media and abrasive wearing, as well as making general use moulding products, used in chemically aggressive media. The binding substance consists of the following components, in wt %: 4.5-70 epoxy-diane resin, 1-30 chlorinated polyvinylchloride solution in an organic solvent, 8-25 reactive diluent, and amine type hardener constitutes the remaining wt %. The reactive diluent used is epoxy rubber adduct, obtained through co-condensation of functional groups of epoxide resin and liquid nitrile rubber, and if necessary glycidyl ether of phosphorous acids with general formula: R=-CH3, -OCH3, . The binding substance also contains 0.5-30 wt % o-xylol solvent and/or up to 10 wt % pigment.
EFFECT: invention allows for increasing water absorption and resistance to effects of oil-products, acids, bases, gaseous acids, thereby providing for resistance to abrasive wearing.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex