Method of determining best composition of hard alloy

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, in particular to obtaining samples to determine the best composition of a hard alloy. A layer of nanoparticles of tungsten carbide is laid on the layer of hard-alloyed mixture in the press mould or a layer of nanoparticles of tungsten carbide is placed between the layers of hard-alloyed mixture which is followed by pressing of the both layers. After sintering the mechanical and physical properties as well as structural parametres are evaluated by performing layer-by-layer measurements along the concentration axis including transition zones formed by diffusion of the nanoparticles into the hard alloy.

EFFECT: improved composition of the hard alloy with enhanced mechanical-and-physical properties and a low porosity.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of powder metallurgy, in particular to the manufacture of cemented carbide for cutting tools.

When creating a carbide problem is the difficulty of matching components in the optimum ratio.

There is a method of determining the optimal composition of solid alloys gradual change in the ratio of components (base of refractory carbides and metal cords. To define the optimal ratio of components produce long-term experiments, in which the change ratio of the components by dosing (approximately 1 normous), mixing them with each other and the plasticizer (72-76 of the hour norm), drying the mixture (20 hour norm) and granulation (3-4 normcase), pressing the samples and their sintering (12-16 hour norm), preparation of sintered samples for testing by cutting by grinding the abutment surfaces and the evaluation of their physical-mechanical and structural parameters. For the manufacture of a single sample requires up to 100 hour norm, and it tests up to 120 hour norm.

Obviously, even if you change the ratio of the two components in increments of, for example, 1% will be needed for the production of samples 99×100=9900 hour norm and tests 99×120=11880 of the hour norm. In this way determined the compositions of all modern brands of hard alloys (See. Fly IM Hard alloys in melchsee the nom production. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 1981, p.59-60, 62-66. Thus, this method is quite time-consuming to determine the optimal composition of a solid alloy due to the long time of manufacturing large quantities of samples, testing and evaluation of the physico-mechanical properties and porosity.

The known method of determining the optimal composition of hard alloys, accepted for the prototype, which is made samples, by changing the ratio of components by dosing (approximately 1 normous), mixing them with each other and the plasticizer (72-76 of the hour norm), drying the mixture (20 hour norm) and granulation (3-4 hours), pressing samples and sintering (12-16 hour norm), preparation of sintered samples for testing by grinding the abutment surfaces and the actual test data to determine the required parameters.

The essence of this fast method is to reduce the time of measurement of the wear of the cutting edge by reducing the number of control points.

In General, for the manufacture of one sample takes up to 100 hour norm, and it tests up to 10. (See Pokrovsky VP and others. Express assessment of the cutting properties of the lathe cutting tools made of hard alloys. Journal "Technical progress in the nuclear industry". January-June 2001, No. 1. Compressa, Elektrostal, 2001).

Thus, even when identiication two components in increments of 1% will be required for the manufacture of samples 99×100=9900 hours and tests to 99×10=990 hours. In this method, the time reduction is only due to the reduction testing of samples for cutting and determination of physical-mechanical parameters, not the time of selection of components.

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity due to the large number of samples and measurements.

The aim of the present invention is to reduce the time of selection of the optimal composition of a solid alloy to improve its physical-mechanical and structural parameters.

This objective is achieved in that in the known method of determining the optimal composition of solid alloy, including the manufacturing of the samples by batching, mixing them, drying the mixture, its granulation and sintering with subsequent evaluation of physical-mechanical and structural parameters on the basis of which to choose the optimal composition, according to the proposed invention manufactured using nanoparticles refractory compounds, at least one layer which is placed adjacent or between layers of optimized solid alloy, and all the layers are pressed together and bake, and evaluation of physico-mechanical and structural parameters is carried out in transition zones formed by diffusion of nanoparticles in the optimized composition by measurements along the concentration axis in layers.

The inventive belt is aetsa graphics, where:

figure 1 is a diagram of the compaction of samples;

figure 2 - multi-layer samples from different brands alloys;

figure 3 - microsection of a sample of the alloy VK8;

figure 4 - microsections of the individual layers and the transition zone.

The proposed method is illustrated by the example of hard alloy VK8.

The method is as follows.

In the mold 1 (figure 1) fall asleep about 10 grams carbide mixtures of known composition VK8 and manually compacted covered charge in layer 4, then fall asleep about 1 gram of nanopowder of tungsten carbide with a particle size of 50...100 nm layer 3, level 3 layer and condense it manually as well. From top to fill up the carbide layer of the mixture 2 in the amount of 10 grams and produce pressing briquettes under pressure at specific pressure used in pressing this carbide mixture, in our case of 0.2-0.4 TC/see

Pressed billet is placed in a vacuum oven and bake according to a standard technique: the speed of temperature rise of 6°C/min, holding at a temperature of 300°C and 700°C for one hour, the sintering temperature is 1450°C, holding for 20 minutes. Cooling with the furnace. During sintering in a furnace ADHD - 4/1-OUT total time from boot to retrieve the sintered sample is 8 hours. The result is a pattern consisting of a layer of sintered nanopowder concluded between TLD the I layers of hard alloy. An example of such samples for various brands of hard alloys is shown in figure 2. It is possible to manufacture a two-layer samples, consisting of nano-scale layer and the base alloy connecting. Microslip sample of alloy VK8, which was to determine the physico-mechanical properties and porosity shown in figure 3, there are layers of hard alloy 5, nanopowder layer 6 and the transition zone 7 formed by diffusion of the nanopowder in the main part of the hard alloy. The structure of the individual layers shown in figure 4. In this figure the microstructure 8 layer 5 (figure 3), corresponding to the standard structure of this solid alloy VK8; microstructure region 9 clean nanopowder - 6 (figure 3), which shows the gaps of the structure 10 and the pores 11; structure 12 of the transition zone 7 (figure 3) with different degree of saturation of nanoparticles of tungsten carbide, which shows large grains of the original alloy 13, turning into an ordered structure 14, in turn followed by the fine-grained structure 15. To determine the physico-mechanical properties were measured hardness, density and porosity at four points along the concentration axis on the sample of alloy VK8.

The data are summarized in table.

No. layerCharacteristics of the layerThe concentration of the situation nanoparticles Hardness HRADensity g/cm3The porosity according to GOST ID 9391
5Original alloy087-8814,5A-008
14Ordered layer0,388-8914,8A-004
15Fine-grained layer1,6390-9115,1A-002
9The layer of nanoparticles100A loose layer10,5Gaps in the structure, pores

From table 1 it is seen that the maximum values of hardness, density and minimum porosity provides fine-grained layer with the concentration of nanoparticles - 1,63%.

Thus, the results of only one sample determine the optimal composition of a solid alloy which corresponds to the saturation of its nanoparticles, in our case the e - tungsten carbide, with elevated parameters of physico-mechanical properties and porosity. The total time to determine the whole range of concentrations of the compositions of this composition was 60 hour norm with respect to the necessary tests instead of over 10,000 hour norm for the prototype and 21,000 hour norm for the similar.

The acceleration of the process of diffusion saturation when using nanoparticles of tungsten carbide is due to the fact that in this case, diffusion involves not individual atoms and molecules, and clusters and blocks that make up the nanoparticles, that is, the process of diffusion mixing is faster by several orders of magnitude.

Thus, the present invention allows not only to reduce the time of selection of the optimal composition of solid alloy, but also to improve the physico-mechanical properties and structural parameters.

A method of manufacturing samples to determine the optimal composition of the hard alloy based on tungsten carbide, comprising placing the mixture in the mold, pressing and sintering with subsequent estimation of physico-mechanical properties and structural parameters, characterized in that the mold on the carbide layer of the mixture is placed a layer of nanoparticles of tungsten carbide or a layer of nanoparticles of tungsten carbide is placed in between the layers of carbide mixture, carry out joint presses the tion layer, and evaluation of physico-mechanical properties and structural parameters is carried out by measurements along the concentration axis in layers, including transition zones formed by diffusion of nanoparticles in the solid alloy.



 

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