Amplifier-convertor

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the vacuum emission technics and can be used at construction of products and devices of vacuum electronics, microwave frequency and microwave electronics, systems of visualisation of the information (screens of flat displays), lighting systems. An amplifier-converter design in structure: the autoemission cathode on the basis of carbon nanostructure materials, for example, carbon nanotubes; grids on the basis of multicoherent (in that specific case the mesh shape) monocrystal, or a polycrystalline diamond film; a collector of electrons, executed or in the form of multilayered film structure from a transparent for light layer of indium oxide - tin oxide, a luminescing layer (CdS, ZnS, P) and a submicronic layer of aluminium, transparent for a beam of electrones, or in the form of a continuous conducting electrode - depending on functional use of the device.

EFFECT: degradation stability - by means of use of autoemitters from CNT (low values of a threshold field and high mechanical durability); high spatial permission - by means of micron scale of meshes of a grid (multicoherent layer); dilation of a temperature range and radiation damage stability increase - by means of a choice as base substances of carbon nanotubes and diamond films.

6 cl, 14 dwg

 

This invention relates to a vacuum emission electronics. It can be used in a display device as flat screen displays, as a powerful high-lights, as well as amplification cathode-grid nodes vacuum radio tubes and generators (klystrons) UHF range.

Known screens performed using the electron beam, the information which is displayed by the proportional signal changes in the intensity of the electron beam and subsequent addressing of intensity modulated electron beam in the plane of the screen using electrostatic and magnetic systems.

The disadvantages of such displays are their complexity, the need to use high voltage, low efficiency.

Known screens, flat panel displays based on liquid crystal materials. They are compact, economical, efficient at executing a number of tasks. However, they have disadvantages. In particular, their operating temperature range is negligible and limited to values +10°C...+50°C. furthermore, the perception of brightness and color characteristics of the image display screen significantly depends on the angle of view of the user.

In recent years, have been proposed for the reconstruction of the screens flat displays based on field emission element base electronics [1]. Temperature range of their work is wide - from -70°C to + 100°C, and the perception of brightness and color characteristics of the image screen does not depend on the angle of view of the user. Difficulty implementing the screens on field emission element base are problems playing geometry avtometriya electrons of needles, shapes and sizes are exponentially dependent on the threshold voltage and current emissions, and therefore, the linearity of the conversion signal. In order to reduce the nonlinear distortion signal using triode-type field emission element, in which these distortions are expected to eliminate variations of the voltage on the control grids of such elements. However, the solution is hard to implement, as it involves the installation of regulating electronic key for each edge. In addition, this approach to the correction leads to a weakening of the average signal level (increase the current selection with the edge will lead to exceeding the yield strength of the metal due to electrostatic forces), and hence, to suppress the average brightness of the image.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect to the proposed device is a flat panel display flat display tube with addressable cathode) [2], including: automatismi electrons cathode addressing, made in the form of owls is kupeli conductive strips to mechanically and electrically associated system avtometriya of needles; orthogonal thereto located multiply-doped lead layer of poorly conducting glass system x-y address buses on both sides of its surface, made by sintering of optical fibers in tow, the subsequent cutting of the obtained harness for washer and removal of the last of the quartz hearts; collector of electrons, in the form of a multilayer film structure of the transparent light conducting layer of indium oxide-tin oxide, a layer of phosphor and transparent to the electron beam sub-micron layer of aluminum, providing the draining of charge.

The disadvantages of the design of the prototype, are not allowed till this day to realize such a device, should include: the difficulty of manufacturing the same shape and diameter of the metal or semiconductor needles; difficulties in implementing such device spatial resolution better than 70 lines/mm, which is related to the method of manufacture and source material multiplying the flow of electrons grid (made of doped lead-based glasses for optical fibres); poor radiation resistance and thermal instability avtometriya of needles on the basis of semiconductor materials; high threshold operating voltage range (5...7 V/μm) and low threshold fluidity technologically prigoda what's for these purposes metals.

The aim of the invention is to develop the basic design of the amplifier-Converter and variants based on it, allows you to boost currents, in particular cases, to convert the system code signals in a two-dimensional picture images in the optical range, high spatial resolution with enhanced degradation and radiation resistance and is able to stably in a wide temperature range.

The technical result consists in increasing the degradation resistance of the device, the implementation of the high spatial resolution of the picture image, the extended temperature range and high radiation resistance, is achieved by the proposed design of the amplifier-Converter comprising: a field emission cathode based on carbon nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes; the control grid-based mesh (in the particular case of a mesh form) monocrystalline or polycrystalline diamond film; a collector of electrons, executed or (as the prototype) in the form of a multilayer film structure of the transparent light layer of indium oxide-tin oxide, luminescing layer (CdS, ZnS, P) and sub-micron layer of aluminum, transparent to the electron beam, either in the form of a continuous provocame the electrode, depending on the functional use of the device.

Indeed:

- use as automatisee electrons of the cathode array of the carbon nanotubes eliminates the problem of production of needles of the same shape and diameter; numerous studies [e.g., 3 and 4] point to the real possibility of realization of arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTS) with a slight variance of their diameter within a single process for their preparation; in addition, the yield strength of graphene layers, which consist of nanotubes, an order of magnitude higher than the same parameters the most durable metal and semiconductor materials [4, 5]; thus, the specific strength of the CNT is ~4 GPA (steel - 0,4 HPa), the specific module the elasticity of ~400 HPa (for steel - 26 HPa);

- use as a multiplier of the flow of electrons multiply connected (for example, mesh) film of monocrystalline or polycrystalline diamond allows through the use of photolithographic methods (even within the design standards 1...2 µm) to achieve a spatial resolution in imaging systems image better than 100 lines/mm [6]. In addition, layers of polycrystalline or monocrystalline diamond, as well as graphene layers have a very high resistance to ionizing radiation [7] - i.e. using them as the active bases of the devices, significantly improved radiation resistance. The extended temperature range of operation of the device the prototype due to the much greater shirokozonnoj and heat resistance of the diamond [5] than silicon and germanium, a significant thermal stability of graphene walls of carbon nanotubes [4] and metallic character of conductivity of CNTS with the most common chiral indices.

Being the basic structure of the invention and its variants is illustrated by figure 1...14.

In the inventive basic structure (1...7), in applications associated with the conversion codes of the electrical signal in a two-dimensional picture of the optical image (flat screens), automatticaly electrons the cathode is made on the substrate 1 (e.g., silicon) in the form of a set of address buses 2 placed on them by the arrays of carbon nanotubes 3, separated from the substrate by a dielectric layer 4 (e.g., SIO, SIS2./Si3N4). Multiplying the electron flow mesh layer 5 with a through channel 6 is made of a film of polycrystalline or monocrystalline diamond, located on the silicon substrate 7 of n-type conductivity separated from the electrical and heat conductive base 8 of the dielectric material 9; on both surfaces of the diamond film are address bus 10 and 11 (x-y addressing). The collector 12 electrons (the gcd) made in the form of multiclonal film structure of the conductive transparent to light and electrons layers of indium oxide-tin oxide 12, submicron aluminum layer 13 and the layer 14 of luminescing material (for example, CdS, ZnS, P). The whole structure is enclosed (placed) in the housing 15, rolled back to the atmospheric pressure of the residual gas is not more than 10-6mm Hg

This design is a flat panel (screen) monitor and works as follows. When creating a potential difference between any of the tire 2 of the cathode and the lower bus 4 multiply layer, resulting in the threshold fields autoemission (~1...2 V/μm) of CNTS, there is a cold emission of electrons. Once in the cavity hole (cell of the grid, "well") grid, accelerating and multiplying" when interacting with the walls of the well (grid) on the ionization mechanism in the field from the potential difference between the electrodes 10 and 11 of tyres in the x-y addressing, the electron beam lands on the corresponding element of the area of the collector 12. Cell multiplication, and hence the localization of the light spot on the manifold (on screen display), as well as the intensity of the beam is determined by the potential difference on the tire 10 and 11. Using address bus autometer and address bus multiplier flow of electrons, based on the cathode-grid node of this design, you can do locally multiplication signals, to arrange the device that performs functions such as spectral analysis of the electrical signal is in, a device pattern recognition.

Another alternative design is design, different (Fig...9) from the main (basic) option the fact that nearest to the collector of the electrons of the surface referred to multiply layer 5 multiplier of flow of electrons address bus are galvanically connected. This address bus cathode, which are automatisee electrons, carbon nanotubes 3, can also be electrically connected.

In the case of a continuous conductive electrode on the surface of the mesh film this design is effective in powerful and effective lighting. If the collector is made in the form of a continuous conductive electrode, this design can effectively be used as vacuum radio tubes and cathode-grid node microwave generators (klystrons).

In the case of local galvanic unrelated tire cathode design effective when used in a display device (flat screens). In contrast to the prototype, in which on both surfaces multiply layer you want the location of the x-y address buses, when using the multiply film multiplier based on the diamond films of the bus, next to the manifold, can be replaced by one common electrode. Due to the network is the presence of a negative electron affinity for electrons [8] diamond films.

The third variant is different (figure 10 and 11) from the design claimed in the basic version, the fact that multiply multiplying layer 16 with the address buses 10 and 11 deposited on the surface politology substrate 17 having through pores or cavities 18. The thickness of the layer of active material (diamond), multiplying the flow of electrons, must exceed the diffusion length of electrons. Cavity in the substrate can be formed through the use of technology gas-phase etching or laser evaporation. Multiplying the diamond film can be grown in the above-mentioned pores PECVD method [9], with preliminary deposition on the surfaces of the cavities germ of diamond nanocrystallites.

The fourth alternative design is design, different (Fig) from the main claimed in claim 1 by the fact that automatticaly electrons, the cathode 19 is made on the basis of nano- (micro) structured diamond, nearest to the mesh layer 5 which surface is diamond-like film (APT) 20 with a high coefficient of blackness. To obtain and apply at low temperatures mentioned layer of the APC (for example, a layer of tetrahedral amorphous carbon, or layers of carbides of some of the metals molybdenum, tungsten, chromium) by the method of thermal evaporation of liquid hydrocarbons, or [10] the method of application of the two is the sources (thermal evaporator and magnetron source). The thickness of the APP should be approximately equal to the inverse value of the absorption coefficient of the working radiation. This device may be effective when used as the main module of the electron-optical Converter operating in mode "transmission"and "on reflection", and converts the image infrared (IR) range in the image in the visible range. On the basis of the above structure it is possible to arrange the device recognition system light images, and optical encoding or decoding of the signal.

The fifth variant differs (Fig and 14) from previous designs that implies the use in any of the structures according to claims 1...4 modules from multiple mesh layers 5, end-to-end channels 6 and address busses 10 and 11, arranged sequentially one behind the other, allowing you to reach for the device in General, large values of the multiplication factor. It is extremely important for developments based on them powerful illuminators, or when the uses discussed amplifiers, for example in devices, electro-optical conversion of weak signals.

The sixth variant differs from the basic structure (1) and structures claimed in claims 4 and 5, that is closest to the collector system address bus mnogovato the CSOs layer (control grid) has the same spatial orientation, as the system address buses a different plane mesh layer.

Presents in claim 2...5 modification of the invention is presented in claim 1, do not go beyond the scope of the invention defined by the claims.

Thus, the above technical results are realized in claim 2...6 of this application. Indeed, degradation resistance is provided with all modifications of the device through the use of autoemitters of CNTS (low threshold fields and high mechanical strength); high spatial resolution is provided by the structures according to claim 1, 2, and 6 through micron-scale grid cells (multiply layer); extended temperature range and increase the radiation resistance is provided by the choice of base materials used in the construction according to claims 1 to 6 carbon nanotubes and diamond films.

For a more complete understanding of the invention below is an example of making one of the modifications of its design - vacuum tubes. It is an Assembly of three main components: automatisee electrons of the cathode based on carbon nanotubes, multiplier of electron flow on the basis of multiply-diamond films and collector of electrons from a refractory metal (e.g. molybdenum).

These units are made as follows.

- Author is emitting electrons, the cathode is fabricated on a chip of silicon conductive substrate formed with the electrode system, on which the desired pattern deposited adhesion layer of nanoscale thickness (for example, vanadium, chromium, or titanium nitride). Then on the adhesion layer deposited nanoscale thickness (~100...200A) layer of catalytic material (e.g. Nickel), transformed by heat treatment into arrays of nanoscale droplets. Further, through a PECVD method using nanosized droplets of the catalyst as a kind of nanoreactors for the growth of CNTS grown arrays of carbon nanotubes, ending thereby the formation automatisee cathode electrons.

- Multiply the diamond film, multiplying the flow of electrons can be grown PECVD method, using as a germ growth of nanocrystallites of diamond. These nanocrystallites embedded in the deposited on a silicon substrate a photoresist, and then in the diamond film on the photoresist photolithography is performed (for example, in the form of reticulation). Then the substrate is placed in a growth chamber and PECVD method on a given pattern grown polycrystalline diamond film. From the backside of the substrate by chemical etching of silicon, reveal "the well" (cavity) until the surface mesh diamond film, and on a flat surface (or both surfaces) multiply layer applied metal is practical electrode (for example, from chrome). When choosing the thickness of the silicon substrate such that the difference between the thicknesses of the plates automatisee cathode and omnitele plate corresponded to the desired electrode gap (see figure 1), e.g. ~30 ám.

The collector (anode) of the electrons is obtained from the plate of molybdenum.

The Assembly design is carried out in a vacuum-tight housing (8), according to figure 1.

In the case of use in the inventive structures avtometriya electrons cathodes addressing you can use "blades" of the planar-oriented carbon nanotubes [11]. When this conductive bus are performed using sputtering and subsequent photolithography to form a three-layer film structures of the vanadium-Nickel-vanadium, and open with the sides faces of the catalytic films by PECVD methods are used to grow the ranks of CNTS.

Literature

1. W.B.Choi, D.S.Chung, J.H.Kang, and others. Full sealed, high-brightness carbon-NT field emission display". // Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 20, p.3129 (1999).

2. Mortimer H.Zinn and Elberon N.J. "Flat Display Tube with Addressable". // The united states patents, No. 3,622,828 from 23 nov. 1971.

3. J.M. Bonard, H. Kind, Stokli T., Nilsson L.o. "Field emission from carbon nanotubes: the first five years. // Solid State Electronics, 2001, v.45, p.p.893-914.

4. Liu X., C. Lee, S. Han, C. Li, C. Zhou "Carbon nanotubes: synthesis, devices, and integrated systems". // Molecular nanoelectronics. American Science Publishers. 2003 p.1-20.

5. Physical quantities. Handbook edited Isegoria and Esenaliev. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1991.

6. V.V.Dvorkin, A. Il'ichev, E.A.Poltoratsky, at other. // Diamond and related materials, 12, 2003, p.2208-2218.

Sagaria, JNI, Aualitv, Pavlinov, Aualtace, Gsicht and other Power electronic flow. // RF patent No. 2221309 10.01.2004, priority from 15.06.2000.

7. C.Davies, // Proc. R. Soc. (London), A36, p.507 (1974).

8. F.J.Himpsel, J.A.Kuap, J.A. van Vechten, D.E.Eastman. // Phys. Rev. B, 20, 624 (1979).

9. Honda K., T.N. Rao, D.A. Tryk, and other. // J. Electrochem. Soc., v.147, p.659-667, 2000.

10. L.P.Sidorov, V.K.Dmitriev, V.N.Inkin. // Patent to be publicher in Russian, 2000103496, 25-02-2000; V.K.Dmitriev, V.N.Inkin, A. Il'ichev, fnd others. // Diamond and related materials, 10, p.1007-1010, 2001.

11. Gavrilov S.A., Il E.A., Poltoratsky E.A., Rychkov G.S. Emitter for integrated devices. // Patent RF №2250526, registration from 20.04.2005, priority dated 21.07.2003.

1. Amplifier-Converter comprising automatticaly electrons cathode, orthogonal to it on at least one multiply connected (mesh) layer system control electrodes and the collector of electrons, characterized in that automatticaly electrons the cathode is made on the basis of carbon nanostructured materials, and mesh layer is made in the form of a mesh film of monocrystalline or polycrystalline diamond.

2. Amplifier-Converter according to claim 1, characterized in that the nearest to the collector of electrons to the surface of the mesh layer is covered with the conductive film.

3. Amplifier conversions is a user according to claim 1, wherein the mesh layer is located on the surface politology substrate having through pores, or cavities.

4. Amplifier-Converter according to claim 1, characterized in that automatticaly electrons the cathode is made on the basis nanostrukturirovannogo diamond, and the nearest mesh layer surface of the diamond layer of the cathode is a film of diamond-like substance with a high coefficient of blackness.

5. Amplifier-Converter according to claim 1, characterized in that the number contained in multiply layers more than one.

6. Amplifier-Converter according to claim 1, characterized in that the closest to the manifold system address buses multiply layer has the same spatial orientation as the system address buses a different plane mesh layer.



 

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4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of thin-layer films used in electronics, non-linear optics and magnetism.

SUBSTANCE: proposed substrate is coated with composite film on base of meso-porous inorganic layer containing nano-particles forming in-situ inside layer. Composite film has structure of periodic lattice in larger part of layer where nano-particles are present; nano-particles are arranged in periodic pattern in domain scale in at least four periods of film thickness. This structure may be obtained from meso-porous inorganic layer of periodic structure in domain scale in at least four periods of pores forming matrix on substrate by settling of at least one precursor in pores of matrix layer and growth of particles obtained from precursor at monitoring spatial distribution and sizes of structure of matrix pores.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining material in form of layer containing nano-particles of regular structure.

26 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite materials based on high-molecular weight carbon-involving compounds and can be used for anodes of electrolytic condensers made from dielectric elastic film with current-conducting coating. Polyester-based film material has nano-sized metallic coating. A diamond-like layer 5-50 nm thick is disposed between modified surface of polyester base and metallic coating and, on the surface of metallic coating, spongy aluminum layer is deposited having surface development factor within a range of 80 to 400. Diamond-like nanolayer is characterized by sp3 hybridization of amorphous carbon atoms, amorphous carbon being deposited in vacuum from gas phase under action of ion-plasma source.

EFFECT: increased specific electrical capacity of condenser due to increased operation voltages and adhesion between high-developed surfaces of functional film coating nanolayers.

FIELD: chemical industry; production of the nanocomposite materials on the basis of the high-molecular compounds with application of carbon in the nanostucturized coatings.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the composite materials on he basis of the high-molecular compounds with usage of the carbon in the nanostructurized coatings including the additional devices and connections, and may be used as the anode of the electrolytic capacitor due to storage of the electrical potential in the current-carrying layers. The nanostructurized coating of the current-carrying basis is bound directly to the layer of the amorphous carbon sp3 - the hybridized state of the carbon atoms and additionally has the metal layer with the depth of 25-250 nanometers. The surface of the film basis has a flutings of 10-30 nanometers depth and-or is equipped with the pores of 0.2-6 microns and the total volume of 10-60 %. At that 1/5-1/3 part of the pores is through. The invention ensures the adhesion bond and improvement of the electro-physical performances of the material.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the adhesion bond and improvement of the electro-physical performances of the material.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrument engineering; protective coatings for the components of the electronic equipment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of instrument engineering. The technical result of the invention consists in the development of the protective coating having the high persistence to the action of the ionizing radiations at the small specific gravity of the structure. The substance of the invention consists that the protective coating is made in the form of the nanostructure. The nanostructure includes the totality of the atoms of the rare-earth elements introduced into the structure of the reinforcing is atomic-molecular metallic matrix array. The nanostructure may be the constituent part of the protected structure or the protective coating of the structure.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the development of the protective coating having the high persistence to the action of the ionizing radiations at the small specific gravity of the structure.

FIELD: petrochemical processes and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the area of production of olefin hydrocarbons via catalytic dehydrogenation of corresponding C3-C5-paraffin hydrocarbons and can be applied in chemical and petrochemical industries. C3-C5-Paraffin hydrocarbon dehydrogenation catalyst is described containing chromium oxide, alkaline metal oxide, transition metals, and carrier, said carrier being nanostructured oxygen-containing aluminum compound of general formula: Al2O3-x(OH)x*nH2O, wherein x=0-0.28 and n=0.03-1.8, consisting of nanostructured primary particles 2-5 nm in size and characterized by disordered/imperfect layered structure similar to byerlyte structure. Method of preparing this catalyst as well as process of dehydrogenating C3-C5-paraffin hydrocarbons into olefins are also described, the latter being conducted in fluidized bed of described catalyst, which is recycled within the circuit: dehydrogenation reactor - regeneration reactor.

EFFECT: increased mechanical strength at high catalytic activity and stability.

20 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 10 ex

Amplifier-convertor // 2364981

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the vacuum emission technics and can be used at construction of products and devices of vacuum electronics, microwave frequency and microwave electronics, systems of visualisation of the information (screens of flat displays), lighting systems. An amplifier-converter design in structure: the autoemission cathode on the basis of carbon nanostructure materials, for example, carbon nanotubes; grids on the basis of multicoherent (in that specific case the mesh shape) monocrystal, or a polycrystalline diamond film; a collector of electrons, executed or in the form of multilayered film structure from a transparent for light layer of indium oxide - tin oxide, a luminescing layer (CdS, ZnS, P) and a submicronic layer of aluminium, transparent for a beam of electrones, or in the form of a continuous conducting electrode - depending on functional use of the device.

EFFECT: degradation stability - by means of use of autoemitters from CNT (low values of a threshold field and high mechanical durability); high spatial permission - by means of micron scale of meshes of a grid (multicoherent layer); dilation of a temperature range and radiation damage stability increase - by means of a choice as base substances of carbon nanotubes and diamond films.

6 cl, 14 dwg

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