Gas burner with low polluting emissions

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to gas burners with separate air and gaseous fuel supply. The effect is achieved in gas burner (1) containing main metal housing (6), an inner tube for fuel gas, at least two outer tubes (10) for fuel gas, single tube (8) for supplying pre-heated air, fuel gas supply control system, refractory block (30) and a group of nozzles (20) which are located in a circumferential direction coaxially in relation to inner tube and meant for spraying pre-heated air into combustion chamber.

EFFECT: limit reduction of NOx concentration in exit combustion products.

29 cl,13 dwg

 

This invention relates to a gas burner, in particular to the burner with low emission of pollutants oxides of nitrogen.

In the case of the combustion chambers at high temperatures, it is common practice to reuse of heat from the combustion products by preheating the combustion air.

Currently, there is a tendency to increase the preheating temperature to increase the efficiency of the furnace.

This desire counteracts the tendency of increase of polluting emissions of nitrogen oxides NOxthat, as you know, depends on the maximum temperature of the flame.

Moreover, pollutant emissions must be minimized, as there is a constant decrease of the concentration limits of NOxthe outgoing products of combustion, which should be guaranteed by the manufacturers of burners to meet the requirements of national and international standards, mainly as a result of market demand in the United States.

Currently requires that emissions were below 100 ppm, and predict that in the near future, these values will be in the range from 20 to 30 parts per million, even in the presence of air, preheated to 500C.

To achieve this goal in the last few Les is turned to "razrezhennogo burning", and more recently to flameless combustion.

To work in accordance with the above mode of burning is necessary that the working temperature was always higher than the temperature of ignition of combustible material, which in the case of natural gas is approximately 850C.

Therefore, as a rule, you must have a burner equipped with a "starter", that is, a device that is able to pre-heat the oven to a temperature.

A characteristic feature flameless burners is the ability to create in the combustion chamber is very uniform heat flux and temperature profile, which, of course, useful for furnaces for heating and thermal processing.

However burner, which usually depends on the mode of operation of the furnace, especially on the production of a continuous cycle, should provide the flexibility of load control (switch-out) and temperature profile.

It is well known that in systems of combustion (burners), used in industrial furnaces, where combustible gas reacts with oxygen present in the combustion air, emissions of NOxalmost entirely due to thermal NOxon education which affect both geometric factors, which are distinctive features of each individual burner, and working factors is ora, such as excess air, temperature pre-heating combustion air and the temperature of the furnace.

It is well known that usually during the combustion reaction, in the case of gaseous fuels, free from bound nitrogen, the formation of NOxdue to the presence of extremely high temperature peaks caused by the high local concentration of oxygen, caused, in turn, inefficient mixing of fuel products, support combustion, and combustion products.

To traditional means of regulation of the formation of thermal NOxinclude stage combustion (type "a step change of air" and "step change fuel") and sparse burning.

Recently, due to the increased speed of change of air flow, a new method was developed, known as flameless combustion, which can be considered as a development of the sparse burning and technologically-based recirculation gas, burned inside the combustion chamber of the furnace.

However, this solution is costly due to the use of regulating valves installed in supply line hot-sustaining combustion air and intended for distributing air flow to part of the envisaged gradual change.

The primary objective of this invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages of the known prior art is very simple, economical and very functional method.

Another task is to create a gas burner, is able to support these very low emissions in a wide operating range and, moreover, allowing you to easily change the temperature profile inside the combustion chamber.

With the above objectives, in accordance with this invention designed gas burner, with their characteristic features, which are presented in the attached claims.

Structural and functional features of the present invention and its advantages relative to the prior art will become more clear and obvious from the analysis of the following descriptions with reference to the attached drawings, which shows the burner with a small selection of pollutants in accordance with the new principles of the present invention.

In the drawings:

- figure 1 is an axonometric view from above and to the right options for performing a gas burner according to this invention;

- figure 2 represents sobo is a front view of a gas burner, depicted in figure 1;

- figure 3 is an enlarged detail is shown in figure 2;

- figure 4 is an enlarged side view of the parts shown in figure 3;

- figure 5 is an enlarged detail is shown in figure 2;

- 6 represents an exploded view of the burner shown in figure 1;

- 7 is an axonometric view of the back shown in figure 1 burner installed inside the furnace;

- Fig is a front view of the burner shown in Fig.7;

- figure 9 is a left side view of the burner shown in figure 1;

- figure 10 is a right side view of the burner shown in figure 1;

- 11 is a right side view of the parts shown in figure 10;

- Fig and Fig represent two preferred schematic image of the first and second burners, made according to this invention.

Refer to the drawings on which the considered gas burner with a very small selection of pollutants generally indicated by the number 1, and in the present example, is made in accordance with this invention, it contains the main metallic hollow cylindrical body 6, lined inside with a coating 4 of refractory material, a single pipe 8, which is designed to supply preheated air, vnutrennostej tube 11 for injecting combustible gas, at least two exterior side of the tube 10 for injecting a combustible gas, a set of refractory elements, indicated in General position 30, and the group of nozzles 20 for injecting preheated air into the combustion chamber of the furnace.

Pipe 8, which is intended to supply preheated air, attached to the side surface of the base metal of the hollow cylindrical body 6.

The specified main metal housing 6 also includes an insulating fiber 3.

The first end of the main metal housing 6 is open and the second end has a socket for the gas distributor 14.

The concept of "Luggage-collection" refers to the space inside the cover 4 made of a refractory material to protect the main metal housing 6, which interior space is designed to make the air flow uniform before he will pass through the openings in the refractory elements, which are outlined below positions 31 and 32.

This burner can act as a starter in the "working with fire" (i.e. it can heat the oven to the desired temperature), and in the "flameless" mode, at a very low polluting emissions of oxides of nitrogen.

In addition, in the specified burner 1 has a group of kaliprasanna the holes 16 for retracting preheated air, the socket 17 for the device, ignitor burner 1, and the slot 18 to the flame detector.

These slots 17 and 18 are communicated with the slots in the metal parts are denoted by respectively the positions 12 and 13.

These slots 12 and 13 provide mechanical support for the correct placement respectively ignition device and flame detector burner 1.

It is preferable that the group of nozzles 20 for injecting preheated air included ten nozzles, and this group of calibrated holes 16 included three holes.

For easier identification of refractory block 30 is topologically divided into three coaxial zones: the first zone 31, the second area 32 and the third area 33.

The first zone 31 has a cavity 34, which communicates with the camera-a collection and combustion chamber of the furnace, a group of calibrated retractor holes 16, the socket 17 for device ignition burner 1, the socket 18 for the flame detector and the Central channel 19, from which flows the gas and can be adjustable retraction of the air for cooling the Central fuel tube 11.

The cavity 34 is located towards the rear with respect to the surface of the second zone 32 of refractory block 30 facing the combustion chamber of the furnace.

The specified second area 32 contains a group of nozzles 20, which are located on the surface e is the base and are designed for injecting preheated air into the combustion chamber of the furnace.

Area 32 is ring shaped and is located between the inner first area 31 and the outside of the third area 33.

Specified third area 33 is located outside of the second zone 32 also has an annular shape and is located between the zone 32 and the outer boundary of the refractory cones, which connect the inner wall of the combustion chamber of the burner 1.

The third area 33 is made of refractory stones 50 and, in addition, has at least two through holes 21 on the surface of the base, of which the specified outer tubes 10 in the combustion gas flows.

The surface of the second zone 32 and the surface of the third area 33 of refractory block 30 in the preferred case are flat and aligned.

Moreover, it is preferable that the surface of the second zone 32 and the surface of the third area 33 of refractory block 30 is aligned with the inner wall 70 of the furnace.

Through an orifice 16 is drawn a certain amount of preheated air required for operation of the burner in the "run". To limit overheating of the terminal part of the inner tube 11 between the Central channel 19 and the Central tube 11 may be in the chamber for drawing air.

Thus, there is area 119 in the form of free section (annular ridge), which is poluchaetsya due to differences between the surface of the Central channel 19, which includes a gas tube, and the surface covered by the outer diameter of the tube 11.

The ratio between the hydraulic diameter of the Central channel 19, which includes a gas tube, and an outer diameter of the tube 11 is set in the range from 0.3 to 3; moreover, it is preferable that this ratio was in the range of from 0.5 to 1.5.

If you need to use the burner in the "run", that is, when the temperature of the combustion chamber of the furnace, not to exceed the Autoignition temperature of the fuel, the burner operates with gas coming out of the Central tube 11.

When the temperature of the combustion chamber of the furnace reaches a temperature of spontaneous combustion of the combustible gas in the air (for natural gas to approximately 850C), then you can switch to flameless mode: starting tool activation in the regulation of the fuel gas, which is injected at the specified at least two side outer tube 10 with a speed of from 20 to 150 m/S.

Pre-heated air coming from the pipe 8, accelerated, passing through the group of nozzles 20, an orifice 16, and possibly through the zone 119, and its velocity reaches values in the range from 50 to 200 m/S.

Then pre-heated air enters the combustion chamber of the furnace.

Gas burner can operate in the so-called slave mode is you flame, and in flameless mode, and does not require the installation of expensive distribution systems hot air inside or outside of the burner.

In accordance with this invention actually after reaching the receiving thermal energy from the burner 1 is possible without any modification of the air flow, support combustion, to switch from one mode to another by simply changing the percentage in the distribution of fuel between the Central inner tube 11 and the specified at least two lateral outer tubes 10 for combustible gas by simple impact on the distribution system and regulation fuel (which contains at least one valve actuators, sensors and so on).

Therefore, acting on the fuel distribution system, it is possible, due to the introduction of preheated air through the nozzle 20, an orifice 16 and, preferably, also through the zone 119 to obtain a homogeneous atmosphere in which there is a mixing of fuel gas with preheated air and burnt gases so that the combustion reaction in diluted form without the formation of a flame front.

In the zone of mixing gas with the products, support combustion, and combustion products above the reaction zone in the direction of flow, has a low oxygen content, is so atmospheric level. Limiting oxygen concentration leads to the development of the reaction in greater volume. This makes it possible to carry out reactions between more sparse reagents, and, consequently, the development rate of reaction slows down. This in turn slows down the formation of temperature peaks, which would have been the predominant formation of nitrogen oxides (thermal NRx).

Known percentage of preheated air in quantities of from 0 to 30% of the total amount of air admitted to the burner, is drawn into the cavity 34 through a group of calibrated nozzles 20 that provides a flow of oxidant required for complete combustion reaction, and recycling the burnt gases.

During operation in mode "run" (or mode with the formation of a flame) the combustible gas is injected into the combustion chamber through one Central inner tube 11.

While working in flameless mode, the gas can be injected:

in parallel with the flow of preheated air

or

- it can be injected in such a way that the jet of combustible gas and preheated air meet at a pre-specified distance, or

gas can be injected so that a jet of combustible gas and preheated air are not met due to geometry (diverging outwardly the s tube 10).

Thanks to the strong momentum of the jets of air blown out of the group of nozzles 20, a group of calibrated holes 16 and possibly injector 119, the air and gas are mixed with gases, which are products of combustion, in the whole volume of the combustion chamber of the furnace.

Gas burner can operate with gas, injected through the Central inner tube 11 or through the specified at least two lateral outer tube 10.

Percent change of gas distributed through a regulating valve between the inner tube 11 and the specified at least two outer tubes 10, allows you to adjust the temperature profile inside the combustion chamber and, as already noted, provides a smooth transition of the operation mode with the flame in flameless mode.

Gas is injected through the side of the tube with an angle of inclination of the jets of gas in the range from -10 to 10 with respect to the axis of the injection of combustible gas Central inner tube 11.

Percentage distribution of gas passing through the specified at least two tube 10, is in the range from 0% in the operation mode with flames up to 100% in flameless mode.

Preferably, if the outer diameter of the cavity 34 is Da2, the length La1, and the inner diameter Da1.

Form groups of calibrated holes 16 does not necessarily have to be round.

The cross section of flow of the mountains is what air support combustion produced from the zone 31, which is denoted as AI.

The ratio between the depth of La1 cavity 34 and its inner diameter Da1 is set in the range from 0 to 5; preferably, when the ratio s is in the range from 0 to 1.5.

In addition, the outer diameter Da2 exceeds the internal diameter Da1 or equal to.

X, equal to the distance between the centers of mass of the first and second holes from a group of calibrated holes 16, divided by the minimum diameter selected from the hydraulic diameters of the first and second openings is at least 1.

Preferably, if the specified value x is at least 2.

The cross section of each of the nozzles 20 are also not necessarily be circular.

The cross-section of the entire stream of hot air that supports combustion produced from the second zone 32, designated as AE.

The ratio of the cross section Ai of the entire stream of air coming from a group of calibrated holes 16, and section AE of the entire flow of the air leaving the group of nozzles 20 is in the range from 0.01 to 0.9; preferable, if this ratio is in the range from 0.05 to 0.5.

The ratio y is equal to the distance between the centers of mass of the first and second nozzles of the group of nozzles 20, divided by the minimum diameter selected from the internal hydraulic diameters of the first and second with the sang, is in the range from 1 to 10.

Preferably, if the specified value y is in the range from 2 to 5.

The ratio of z, equal to the distance between the center of mass of one of the holes of at least two of these holes 21 and the center of mass of one of the nozzles 20, divided by the minimum diameter selected from a hydraulic diameter of the hole and the hydraulic diameter of the nozzle is in the range from 1 to 50.

Preferably, if the specified value z is in the range from 3 to 30.

In addition, the burner 1 comprises at least two protective element 7 for the specified at least two outer sides of the tubes 10, the flange 9, which is connected with the pipe 8, which is designed to supply preheated air, perforated flange 5, used for fixing these at least two outer tubes 10.

Two protective element 7 for the specified at least two outer sides of the tubes 10, intended for the passage of combustible gas, are located on the lateral surface of said main metal shell 6.

From all the above with reference to the drawings clear how useful and beneficial gas burner made in accordance with the invention. Thus, the target specified in the introductory part of the description is reached.

On Fig and IG shows a valve for regulating flow in single pipes 8 and one valve or two valves for regulating the supply of combustible gas, respectively, for the two preferred embodiments of the present invention, not limit its legal protection.

Naturally, the form and materials of a gas burner according to this invention may vary from what is presented in the drawings are only for illustrative purposes and does not limit the scope of legal protection.

Thus, the scope of legal protection of the invention defined by the attached claims.

1. Gas burner (1), containing the main metal housing (6), the inner tube (11) for combustible gas, at least two outer tube (10) for combustible gas, single pipe (8) to summarize the preheated air, the system of regulation of the supply of combustible gas, a refractory block (30) and a group of nozzles (20) for injection into the combustion chamber preheated air, located on a circle coaxial with the inner tube (11).

2. Gas burner (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the refractory block (30) has a coaxial zones: the first zone (31), a second zone (32), a third zone (33), and specified the first zone, in turn, has a group of calibrated holes (16) and, in the preferred case, a free annular ridge (119), which is intended to provide passage of a sufficient amount of air needed to prevent overheating of the inner tube (11).

3. Gas burner (1) according to claim 2, characterized in that said group of nozzles (20) for air is located in the second zone (32).

4. Gas burner (1) according to claim 2, characterized in that the nozzle (20) has ten nozzles, while the group of calibrated holes (16) contains three calibrated holes.

5. Gas burner (1) according to claim 2, characterized in that the first zone has a cavity (34), which communicates with the combustion chamber in which air from a group of calibrated holes flows together with a combustible gas that can be injected through the inner tube (11).

6. Gas burner (1) according to claim 2, characterized in that the first zone (31) of the burner (1) is a flame detector, located in the socket (18), and the ignition device located in the socket (17).

7. Gas burner (1) according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the first zone has a cavity (34), which communicates with the combustion chamber in which air from a group of calibrated holes flows together with a combustible gas that can be injected through the inner tube (11)and the holes of the specified group of holes (16) are located at equal distances along the circumference coaxial with the inner tube (11), and are at the bottom of the cavity (34) the first zone (31).

8. Gas burner (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the nozzles (20) are located at equal distances and are on the surface of the second zone (32).

9. Gas burner according to claim 1, characterized in that it has, IU the greater extent, two through holes (21) to accommodate the above, at least two outer side tube (10).

10. Gas burner (1) according to claim 2, characterized in that it has at least two through holes (21) to accommodate the above, at least two outer side tube (10)with the above, at least two through holes (21) are arranged at equal distances around the circumference coaxial with the inner tube (11), and are located on the surface of the third zone (33).

11. Gas burner (1) according to claim 3, characterized in that the nozzle (20) has ten nozzles, this group of calibrated holes (16) contains three calibrated holes, and the ratio of the specified section of the full flow of the air leaving the calibrated holes (16), and a section full of air flow emerging from the nozzle (20)is in the range from 0.01 to 0.9.

12. Gas burner (1) according to claim 11, characterized in that the ratio of the cross section of the full flow of the air leaving the calibrated holes (16), and a section full of air flow emerging from the nozzle (20)is in the range from 0.05 to 0.5.

13. Gas burner (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that the nozzle (20) for air is located in the second zone (32), and the ratio of (x), is equal to the distance between the centers of mass of the first and second holes from the group cal is browarnik holes (16), divided by the minimum diameter selected from the hydraulic diameters of the first and second openings is at least 1.

14. Gas burner (1) according to item 13, wherein the specified ratio (x) is at least 2.

15. Gas burner (1) according to claim 8, characterized in that the ratio (y), is equal to the distance between the centers of mass of the first and second nozzles of the group of nozzles (20)divided by the minimum diameter selected from the hydraulic diameters of the first and second nozzles is in the range from 1 to 10.

16. Gas burner (1) of clause 15, wherein the specified ratio (y) is in the range from 2 to 5.

17. Gas burner (1) according to claim 10, characterized in that the ratio (z), is equal to the distance between the center of mass of one of these holes, at least two holes (21) and center of mass of one of the nozzles (20)divided by the minimum diameter selected from a hydraulic diameter of the hole and the hydraulic diameter of the nozzle is in the range from 1 to 50.

18. Gas burner (1) according to 17, characterized in that the aforementioned ratio (z) is in the range from 3 to 30.

19. Gas burner (1) according to claim 5, characterized in that said cavity (34) has an outer diameter (Da2), inner diameter (Da1) and depth (La1), and the relation (s) between depth (La1) of the cavity (34) and inner diameter(Da1) is in the range from 0 to 5.

20. Gas burner (1) according to claim 19, characterized in that the outer diameter (Da2) of the said cavity (34) is greater than its inner diameter (Da1).

21. Gas burner (1) according to claim 19, characterized in that the specified value (s) is in the range from 0 to 1.5.

22. Gas burner (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the main metal housing (6) has an internal surface (4)made of refractory material, and an insulator (3), made of fiber.

23. Gas burner (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains at least two side protective element (7) for the specified at least two outer tube (10) for fuel gas.

24. Gas burner (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the said protective elements (7) are located on the main metal housing (6).

25. Gas burner (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a perforated flange (5), intended to support the above, at least two outer side tube (10).

26. Gas burner (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a Central channel (19) and found the Central inner tube (11), and the ratio (K) between the hydraulic diameter of the channel (19) and an outer diameter of the tube (11) is in the range from 0.3 to 3.

27. Gas burner for p, characterized in that the aforementioned ratio (K) is in the range of the 0.5 to 1.5.

28. Gas burner according to claim 8, characterized in that it has at least two through holes (21) to accommodate the above, at least two outer side tube (10)with the above, at least two through holes (21) are arranged at equal distances around the circumference coaxial with the inner tube (11), and are located on the surface of the third zone (33), and the surfaces of the bases of the second zone (32) and the third zone (33) refractory block (30) are flat and aligned.

29. Gas burner for p, characterized in that the surface of the bases of the second zone (32) and the third zone (33) refractory block (30) are aligned with the inner wall (70) of the furnace.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder engineering. The method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance of l1 from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1sr fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. Oxygen containing gas with low oxygen content is injected at the distance l2 from the fuel jet providing the firing together with the said outlet gases after 1st firing, where l2>l1.

EFFECT: firing gas with low oxygen content.

25 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. The proposed method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1st fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. The oxidiser primary jet is divided into two primary jets, that is, 1st primary jet, called the central primary oxidiser jet injected into fuel jet centre and 2nd primary jet called the embracing primary jet injected coaxially and around the fuel jet. The rate of the oxidiser central primary jet injection exceeds that of fuel jet injection. The fuel jet injection rate exceeds that of the 1st embracing oxidizer injection. The oxidiser 2nd jet injection rate exceeds that of the oxidiser embracing primary jet. The distance between the oxidiser central primary jet injection and its 2nd jet injection vs the rate of injection of the oxidiser 2nd jet varies between 10-3 and 10-2. The oxidiser 3rd jet is injected at the point located between the point of injecting the oxidiser central primary jet and that of injecting 2nd oxidising jet. The rate of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet exceeds that injecting oxidiser 3rd jet. The distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet and that of injecting oxidiser central primary jet vs the distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 3rd jet and that of injecting oxidiser primary jet varies from 2 to 10. Two primary oxidiser jets feature identical oxygen concentration. The oxidizer central primary jet oxygen concentration exceeds that of oxidiser embracing primary jet.

EFFECT: higher furnace reliability.

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FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of fuel combustion when at least one fuel and at least two oxidants are injected: the first oxidant is injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum from point of fuel injection. The second oxidant is injected at I2 distance from point of fuel injection while I2 is greater than I1. Oxidants are injected in such amounts that sum of their amounts is equal to at least stoichiometric amount of oxidant required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The first oxidant is oxygen-enriched air at maximum temperature of 200 C, and the second oxidant is air preheated to temperature of at least 300 C. Air is enriched with oxygen so that oxygen concentration in enriched air is at least 30%. Oxygen-enriched air is obtained by mixing ambient air with oxygen from cryogenic source. Preheated air is heated by means of heat exchange using part of hot combustion products. At least two oxidants are injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum while one oxidant called primary is injected mixed with fuel or near fuel and another oxidant called secondary is injected at distance from fuel. Amount of oxidant injected by means of primary oxidant jet ranges from 2 to 50% of oxygen stoichiometric amount required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The secondary oxidant is separated into multiple jets of secondary oxidant. The second oxidant injected at distance I2 is separated into multiple jets of oxidant.

EFFECT: fuel combustion using oxygen as oxidant suitable for retrieving energy from furnace gases.

8 cl

FIELD: the invention refers to the technology of using a cumulative jet.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of formation of at least one cumulative jet includes feeding of at least one gas jet out of at least one nozzle with a converging/diverging configuration located in an injector having a face surface of the injector. At that the face surface of the injector has openings located along the circumference around at least one nozzle, moreover the indicated at least one gas jet has a supersonic speed when it is formed at the output from the face surface of the injector and remains supersonic on a distance coming to at least 20d, where d- the diameter of the output opening of the indicated at least one nozzle. Feeding of fuel from the first group of openings located along the circumference and feeding of an oxidizing agent from the second group of openings located along the circumference. Incineration of fuel and the oxidizing agent fed from the first and the second groups of openings located along the mentioned circumference for formation of a flame shell around at least one gas jet. A great number of gas jets are fed from the injector. The fuel and the oxidizing agents are fed from the first group of openings and from the second group of openings correspondingly alternate with each other on the circumference along which they are located. At least one gas jet, the fuel and the oxidizing agent are fed from the injector directly into the space for injection without passing the zone of recycling formed with the extender of the injector. At least one gas jet passes at a prescribed distance coming at least to 20d, where d- is the diameter of the output opening of the nozzle from which exits a gas jet keeping the diameter of the mentioned gas jet in essence constant.

EFFECT: the invention allows make an arrangement with the aid of which it is possible to form effective cumulative gas jets without need in an extender in the injector or in any other element for forming recycling zone for gases fed from the injector.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting at least one type of fuel and at least one oxidizer. The primary oxidizer is injected together with the fuel to generate first incomplete burning. The gases emitting from the first burning comprises at least a part of the fuel, whereas the secondary oxidizer is injected downstream of the site of the fuel injection at a distance larger than that between the fuel injection and primary oxidizer closest to the fuel injection so that to be burnt out together with the fuel part. The flow of the first oxidizer is branched into at lest two primary flows.

EFFECT: reduced emission of nitrogen oxides.

40 cl, 8 dwg

The invention relates to a method for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide

Gas burner // 2213300
The invention relates to a power system, can be used in stoves for burning gaseous fuel and improves the reliability and durability of the burner, to exclude the output of the fuel outside the torch

Hearth burner // 2211403
The invention relates to bottom (horizontal slot) single tube burners with forced air for combustion of gaseous fuel and can be used in heating sectional boilers, Asilah, etc

The invention relates to techniques using coherent jet

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting at least one type of fuel and at least one oxidizer. The primary oxidizer is injected together with the fuel to generate first incomplete burning. The gases emitting from the first burning comprises at least a part of the fuel, whereas the secondary oxidizer is injected downstream of the site of the fuel injection at a distance larger than that between the fuel injection and primary oxidizer closest to the fuel injection so that to be burnt out together with the fuel part. The flow of the first oxidizer is branched into at lest two primary flows.

EFFECT: reduced emission of nitrogen oxides.

40 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the technology of using a cumulative jet.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of formation of at least one cumulative jet includes feeding of at least one gas jet out of at least one nozzle with a converging/diverging configuration located in an injector having a face surface of the injector. At that the face surface of the injector has openings located along the circumference around at least one nozzle, moreover the indicated at least one gas jet has a supersonic speed when it is formed at the output from the face surface of the injector and remains supersonic on a distance coming to at least 20d, where d- the diameter of the output opening of the indicated at least one nozzle. Feeding of fuel from the first group of openings located along the circumference and feeding of an oxidizing agent from the second group of openings located along the circumference. Incineration of fuel and the oxidizing agent fed from the first and the second groups of openings located along the mentioned circumference for formation of a flame shell around at least one gas jet. A great number of gas jets are fed from the injector. The fuel and the oxidizing agents are fed from the first group of openings and from the second group of openings correspondingly alternate with each other on the circumference along which they are located. At least one gas jet, the fuel and the oxidizing agent are fed from the injector directly into the space for injection without passing the zone of recycling formed with the extender of the injector. At least one gas jet passes at a prescribed distance coming at least to 20d, where d- is the diameter of the output opening of the nozzle from which exits a gas jet keeping the diameter of the mentioned gas jet in essence constant.

EFFECT: the invention allows make an arrangement with the aid of which it is possible to form effective cumulative gas jets without need in an extender in the injector or in any other element for forming recycling zone for gases fed from the injector.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of fuel combustion when at least one fuel and at least two oxidants are injected: the first oxidant is injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum from point of fuel injection. The second oxidant is injected at I2 distance from point of fuel injection while I2 is greater than I1. Oxidants are injected in such amounts that sum of their amounts is equal to at least stoichiometric amount of oxidant required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The first oxidant is oxygen-enriched air at maximum temperature of 200 C, and the second oxidant is air preheated to temperature of at least 300 C. Air is enriched with oxygen so that oxygen concentration in enriched air is at least 30%. Oxygen-enriched air is obtained by mixing ambient air with oxygen from cryogenic source. Preheated air is heated by means of heat exchange using part of hot combustion products. At least two oxidants are injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum while one oxidant called primary is injected mixed with fuel or near fuel and another oxidant called secondary is injected at distance from fuel. Amount of oxidant injected by means of primary oxidant jet ranges from 2 to 50% of oxygen stoichiometric amount required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The secondary oxidant is separated into multiple jets of secondary oxidant. The second oxidant injected at distance I2 is separated into multiple jets of oxidant.

EFFECT: fuel combustion using oxygen as oxidant suitable for retrieving energy from furnace gases.

8 cl

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. The proposed method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1st fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. The oxidiser primary jet is divided into two primary jets, that is, 1st primary jet, called the central primary oxidiser jet injected into fuel jet centre and 2nd primary jet called the embracing primary jet injected coaxially and around the fuel jet. The rate of the oxidiser central primary jet injection exceeds that of fuel jet injection. The fuel jet injection rate exceeds that of the 1st embracing oxidizer injection. The oxidiser 2nd jet injection rate exceeds that of the oxidiser embracing primary jet. The distance between the oxidiser central primary jet injection and its 2nd jet injection vs the rate of injection of the oxidiser 2nd jet varies between 10-3 and 10-2. The oxidiser 3rd jet is injected at the point located between the point of injecting the oxidiser central primary jet and that of injecting 2nd oxidising jet. The rate of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet exceeds that injecting oxidiser 3rd jet. The distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet and that of injecting oxidiser central primary jet vs the distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 3rd jet and that of injecting oxidiser primary jet varies from 2 to 10. Two primary oxidiser jets feature identical oxygen concentration. The oxidizer central primary jet oxygen concentration exceeds that of oxidiser embracing primary jet.

EFFECT: higher furnace reliability.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder engineering. The method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance of l1 from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1sr fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. Oxygen containing gas with low oxygen content is injected at the distance l2 from the fuel jet providing the firing together with the said outlet gases after 1st firing, where l2>l1.

EFFECT: firing gas with low oxygen content.

25 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to gas burners with separate air and gaseous fuel supply. The effect is achieved in gas burner (1) containing main metal housing (6), an inner tube for fuel gas, at least two outer tubes (10) for fuel gas, single tube (8) for supplying pre-heated air, fuel gas supply control system, refractory block (30) and a group of nozzles (20) which are located in a circumferential direction coaxially in relation to inner tube and meant for spraying pre-heated air into combustion chamber.

EFFECT: limit reduction of NOx concentration in exit combustion products.

29 cl,13 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention related to energy, particularly to burner devices and can be used in gas turbine equipment. Burner device consists of a case (1), a fuel nozzle (2), a front device (3), a fire tube (4). The burner device belongs to gas-turbine engine combustion chamber. The front device executed with holes for fuel nozzles installation (2). The fire tube (4) with the front device (3) located inside of the combustion chamber cage (5). Fuel nozzles (2) connected to a gas ring collector (6). In combustion chamber fire tube and cage (5) between wall area air nozzles (7) located radically. Air nozzles (7) connected to the common ring air collector (9). The air collector (9) located in the case (1).

EFFECT: invention allows to regulate primary air supply to the combustion chamber section during equipment operation, burning device design simplification, it operation safety stays constant, possibility of device change on the running gas turbine equipment.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel combustion process. Fuel combustion method is implemented by means of oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content, in accordance with which to combustion chamber there sprayed is fuel jet and at least two jets of oxygen-containing gas; at that, the first or primary jet of oxygen-containing gas is supplied through the hole having diametre D and sprayed around the above fuel jet in such quantity which allows providing the first incomplete fuel combustion; at that, gases formed as a result of the above first combustion contain at least some part of unburnt fuel, and the second jet of oxygen-containing gas introduced through the hole having diametre d and located at some distance 1 from the hole of introduction of the first or primary jet of oxygen-containing gas so it can be possible to enter into combustion reaction with the fuel portion which is contained in gases formed as a result of the above first incomplete combustion; at that, fuel jet opens inside the jet of primary oxygen-containing gas at some point located at some distance in backward direction from combustion chamber wall; at that, the above point is located at distance r from that wall, and oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content is pre-heated at least to 300C. Ratio r/D has the value either lying within the range of 5 to 20, or lying within the range of 0.75 to 3, and ratio 1/d has the value equal at least to 2. Oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content represents oxygen concentration which is at least 70% by volume. Fuel is subject to pre-heating up to temperature comprising at least 300C.

EFFECT: increasing fuel combustion efficiency.

15 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: burner for fuel combustion comprises fuel supply line. The fuel supply line consists of several fuel sections. Also each fuel section is connected to another section and is designed for supply of fuel flow. Further, the burner includes a fuel inlet section. This section has the first fuel inlet and the first fuel outlet located at a distance from the first fuel inlet. The fuel inlet section has the first through cross section area and is designed to supply fuel flowing into the first fuel inlet and coming out the first fuel outlet. The burner has an intermediate section of fuel with fuel inlet and outlet device, notably the fuel outlet device is located at a distance from the fuel inlet device. The intermediate fuel section is designed for supply of at least part of flow coming into the inlet fuel device and going out of the outlet fuel device and has the second through cross section area. The second through cross section area changes from the initial through cross section area in the fuel inlet device to different through cross section area in the fuel outlet device. The burner has the fuel outlet section. The fuel outlet section has the second inlet of fuel and the second outlet of fuel located at a distance form the second inlet of fuel. The fuel outlet section is designed for supply of at least part of fuel flow coming onto the second fuel inlet and going out the second fuel outlet and it has the third through cross section area. This third through cross section area in essence is uniform along the whole outlet section of fuel. The burner comprises the first line of oxidant with several oxidant sections. Each oxidant section is connected to another oxidant section. It is designed to supply flow of oxidant. It includes an oxidant pressure chamber letting though oxidant flow and having the fourth through cross section area. At least part of oxidant pressure chamber is located in essence at least next to a part of at least one inlet section of fuel, intermediate section of fuel and outlet section of fuel. The oxidant outlet section lets through at least part of oxidant flow and has the fifth through cross section area. Also the fifth through cross section area is less or equal to the fourth through cross section area and in essence is uniform along the whole outlet section of oxidant. At least part of oxidant outlet section in essence is positioned next to the fuel outlet section.

EFFECT: facilitating upgraded quality of fuel combustion and reduced level of nitrogen oxide exhaust into atmosphere.

28 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene and synthetic gas via thermal partial oxidation of hydrocarbons which are gaseous at temperatures used for preheating, in a reactor which is fitted with a burner with through holes, characterised by that the starting substances to be converted are quickly and completely mixed only directly in front of the flame reaction zone in through holes of the burner, where in the mixing zone within the through holes the average flow rate is higher than the propagation speed of the flame under the existing reaction conditions. The invention also relates to a device for realising the said method.

EFFECT: possibility of avoiding preliminary and reverse inflammations.

9 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg

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