Organic-inorganic nanostructures and materials, consisting nanoparticles of noble metals, and methods of its receiving

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and nanomaterials and can be used at receiving of inorganic and organic-inorganic fine-grained and nano-structured metallised materials, metal-polymers and nanocomposite. Suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures, containing nanoparticles of noble metals, implemented in the form of poly-complex in two-phase reacting system, consisting of two volume contacting immiscible liquids. Poly-complex includes organic molecules, containing amides in amount 2 or more, and nanoparticles of noble metals. Suspension is received by means of forming of two-phase reacting system, consisting of two contacting volumetric immiscible liquids, addition in it of restorative and synthesis of nanoparticles. Additionally metallised molecules of precursors are dissolved in hydrophobic phase, reducer is added into aqueous phase, and in the capacity of ligands there are used organic molecules, into content of which there are included amides in amount 2 or more. Invention provides receiving of new nano-structured organic-inorganic polymeric complexes on the basis of polyamines, containing nanoparticles of noble metals (Pd, Au) of size up to 10 nm, which allows high specific surface area and are characterised by narrow dispersion of dimensions.

EFFECT: it is provided high density of particles packing in organic-inorganic nano-structures and high performance of transformation of initial material into nanoparticles of noble metals.

23 cl, 12 dwg, 1 ex

 

The technical field

The invention relates to nanotechnology and nanomaterials, inorganic, organic-inorganic superfine and nanostructured metal-containing materials, metal polymers and nanocomposites.

The level of technology

Fine and nanostructured metal-containing materials are widely used nowadays in various areas of technology, including the development and production of electronic and optoelectronic devices, the production of composite materials for various purposes, electrically conductive adhesives, sealants, films, protective coatings and screens for protection from various environmental factors (corrosion, electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation), chemical industry, membrane and catalytic technologies in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, sensory, analytical and diagnostic technologies in the production of finishing materials and other fields.

It is known that with the decrease of the characteristic dimensions of the materials and the transition to the level of nanophase materials properties of materials can undergo significant changes. The share and role of surface atoms, there are quantum-size effects. The individual nano-objects and organized ensembles of nano-objects in senecaut new properties, important for technical applications [Petrov SCI, Clusters and small particles, M: Nauka, 1986, 366 S.; S. p. Gubin, Kataeva N.A., Kolesov V.V., Soldatov E.S., A.S. Trifonov, G.B. Khomutov, V. Shorokhov, Nanophase materials in electronics - materials, technology, device. Nonlinear world, 2005, v.3, №1-2, p.10-26.; Henglein, A. Small-particle research: Physicochemical properties of extremely small colloidal metal and emiconductor particles, 1989, Chemical Reviews, 89 (8), pp.1861-1873.; P.Moriarty, Nanostructured materials, Rep. Progr. Phys., 64 (2001) 297-381.; Rotello, V., (Ed.); Nanoparticles: Building Blocks for Nanotechnology; Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, 2004].

Metal nanophase materials in the state have practically important optical, electronic and magnetic properties that differ from the corresponding properties of the bulk materials. Materials containing nanoparticles of noble metals (palladium, gold and others), which have a number of important physical and chemical properties, have great potential for practical applications in catalysis, electronic and optical devices, biomedical, sensors and other systems [Rotello, V., (Ed.); Nanoparticles: Building Blocks for Nanotechnology; Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, 2004]. Physico-chemical properties of the material, including metal-containing particles strongly depend on the nature of the metal, the shape and size of particles, their orientation, number and distribution of particles in the material structure. The properties of the metal nanoparticles, in particular their Pho is mA crystal structure and crystallinity, optical, electronic characteristics and catalytic properties significantly depend on their size.

To date in the scientific literature describes a lot of different methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of noble metals, including: variations of the method of synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of noble metals in the bulk-phase liquid reaction system, based on the recovery of salts or complexes of metal ions in the presence of stabilizing ligands [J.Turkevich, P.L.Stevenson, J.Hiller, A study of the nucleation and growth processes in the synthesis of colloidal gold, Discuss. Faraday Soc., 11 (1951) 55-75.;

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2457-2463.], photochemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles in the bulk liquid phase [M.Y.Han, C.H.Quek, Photochemical Synthesis in Formamide and Room-Temperature Coulomb Staircase Behavior of Size-Controlled Gold Nanoparticles, Langmuir, 16(2) (2000) 362-367.], the synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of noble metals using laser destruction of metal targets in the bulk liquid [G. Compagnini, Noble metal particles for polymer-based nanostructured thin films. Applied Surface Science, 226, (2004), pp.216-225.; F. Mafune, J. Kohno-y., Takeda y, Kondow T., Sawabe, H., Formation of Gold Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution of Surfactant, J. Phys. Chem. Century, (2001), 105(22), 5114-512.; F. Mafune, J. Kohno-y., Takeda y, Kondow T., Formation of Stable Platinum Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Water, J. Phys. Chem. Century, (2003), 107(18), 4218-4223.; F. Mafune, J. Kohno-y., Takeda y, Kondow T., Sawabe, H., Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution, J.Phys. Chem. Century, (2000), 104(39), 9111-9117.], synthesis using ultrasound [J.Zhu, S.Liu, .Palchik, Y.Koltypin, A.Gedanken, Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Pulse Sonoelectrochemical Methods, Langmuir, (2000), 16(16), 6396-6399.; Wang Y.Q., Yin L.X., O. Palchik, Hacohen, Y.R., Y. Koltypin, A. Gedanken, Rapid Synthesis of Mesoporous Yttrium-Zirconium Oxides with Ultrasound Irradiation, Langmuir, (2001), 17(13), 4131-4133.; Okitsu, K.; Bandow, H.; Maeda, Y. Sonochemical Preparation of Ultrafine Palladium Particles, Chem. Mater., (1996), 8, 315-317.; Chen W.; Cat W.; Lei, Y.; Zhang L., A sonochemical approach to the confined synthesis of palladium nanoparticles in mesoporous silica, Mater. Lett. 2001, 50, 53-56.; Qiu, X.-F. Zhu, J.-J., Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles by a sonochemical method, Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 19, Issue 7, 1 July 2003, Pages 766-770.; Abderrafik Nemamcha, Jean-Luc Rehspringer, and Djameledine Khatmi, Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles by Sonochemical Reduction of Palladium(II) Nitrate in Aqueous Solution, J. Phys. Chem. In 2006, 110, 383-387.; Zhu, J.; Liu, S.; Palchik, O.; Koltypin, Y.; Gedanken, A., Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Pulse Sonoelectrochemical Methods, Langmuir; 2000; 16(16); 6396-6399.; D.N.Srivastava, N.Perkas, A.Gedanken, I.Felner, Sonochemical Synthesis of Mesoporous Iron Oxide and Accounts of Its Magnetic and Catalytic Properties, J.Phys. Chem. B, 106(8); 1878-1883.], synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles with controlled shape using nanostruc [C.J.Murphy, N.R.Jana, Adv. Mater., Controlling the aspect ratio of inorganic nanorods and nanowires. 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Chem., (2003) 544, 129-135.; Khomutov G.B., Gubin S.P., Interfacial synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles. Materials Science and Engineering C, 2002, Vol.22(2), p.141-146.], multilayer LB films [M.Fujihira, S.Poosittisak, Electrocatalysis by electrodeposited Pt from PtCl[6][2-] confined in a Langmuir-Blodgett film on a glassy carbon electrode, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1986, vol.199, no2, pp.481-484.; S.Ravaine, G.E.Fanucci, C.T.Seip, J.H.Adair, D.R.Talham, Photochemical Generation of Gold Nanoparticles in Langmuir-Blodgett Films, Langmuir; 1998; 14(3); 708-713.], lamellar structures [J.Wang, Y.Li, Rational Synthesis of Metal Nanotubes and Nanowires from Lamellar Structures, Adv. Mater., 15 (2003) 445-447.], microspheres formed by diplokaryon [Z.Lu, G.Liu, H.Phillips, J.M.Hill, J.Chang, R.A.Kydd, Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyst Prepared in Poly(Acrylic Acid)-lined Channels of Diblock Copolymer Microspheres, Nano Lett.; 2001; 1(12); 683-687.], micelles on the block copolymers [Beecoft LL, Ober CK, Nanocomposite Materials for Optical Applications, Chem. Mater.; 1997; 9(6); 1302-1317.; Corbierre, M.K.; Cameron, N.S.; Sutton, M.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Lurio, L..; Ruhm, A.; Lennox, R.B. Polymer-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2001; 123(42); 10411-10412], film diamatapoulou [Horiuchi, S., Fujita, T., Hayakawa, T., Nakao, Y. Three-dimensional nanoscale alignment of metal nanoparticles using block copolymer films as nanoreactors, (2003) Langmuir, 19 (7), pp.2963-2973.; Yin, D., Horiuchi, S., Masuoka, T., Lateral assembly of metal nanoparticles directed by nanodomain control in block copolymer thin films, (2005) Chemistry of Materials, 17 (3), pp.463-469.; Horiuchi, S., Fujita, T., Hayakawa, T., Nakao, Y., 3-D nano-scale arrangement of metal nanoparticles in block copolymer films by a simple dry process, (2002), Kobunshi Ronbunshu, 59 (10), pp.571-577.; Ciebien, J.F.; Cohen, R. E.; Duran, A. Membrane catalysts for the partial hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene: catalytic properties of palladium nanoclusters synthesized unit within diblock copolymer films. Mater. Sci. Eng. C, (1999), 7, 45-50.; Hwang, Y.K., Lee, J.-M., Sathaye, S.D., Cho, G., Hwang,

J.-S. Chang, J.-S., Palladium and gold nanoparticle array films formed by using self-assembly of block copolymer, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 6, Issue 6, June 2006, Pages 1850-1853.], dendrimers [Crooks, R.; Zhao, M.; Sun, L.; Chechik, V.; Yeung, L.K.Dendrimer-Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications to catalysis Ace. Chem. Res.; (Article); 2001; 34(3); 181-190. (p 445-447).; Ooe, M., M. Murata, T. Mizugaki, K. Ebitani, Kaneda K., Dendritic Nanoreactors Encapsulating Pd Particles for Substrate-Specific Hydrogenation of Olefins, Nano Lett., (2002), 2(9), p.p.999-1002.; Balogh, L.; Swanson, D.R.; Tomalia, D.A.; Hagnauer, G.L.; McManus, A.T., Dendrimer-Silver Complexes and Nanocomposites as Antimicrobial Agents, Nano Lett.; 2001; 1(1); 18-21.], a two-phase system of liquid-liquid [.N.R.Rao, G.U.Kulkami, P.John Thomas, Ved Varun Agrawal, P.SaravananJ., Films of Metal Nanocrystals Formed at Aqueous-Organic Interfaces, Phys. Chem. In 2003, 107, 7391-7395.; V.V.Agrawal, P.Mahalakshmi, G.U.Kulkami, C.N.R.Rao, Nanocrytalline Films of Au-Ag, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu Alloys Formed at the Organic-Aqueous Interface, Langmuir; 2006; 22(4); 1846-1851.; Yogev, S.Efrima, Novel silver metal liquidlike films, J. Phys. Chem.; 1988; 92(20); 5754-5760.; M.Brust, D.Walker, D.Bethell, D.J.Schiffrin, R.Whyman. Synthesis of Thiol Derivatised Gold Nanoparticles in a Two-Phase Liquid/Liquid System, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1994) 801-802.; P.R.Selvakannan, P.S.Kumar, A.S.More, R.D.Shingte, P.P.Wadgaonkar, M.Sastry, Free-standing gold nanoparticle membrane by the spontaneous reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions by oxyethylene-linkage-bearing diamine at a liquid-liquid interface, Selvakannan, Advanced Materials, 2004, 16 (12), pp.966-971.; PR. Selvakannan, P.Senthil Kumar, Arvind S.More, Rahul D.Shingte, Prakash P.Wadgaonkar, Murali Sastry, One-Pot, Spontaneous and Simultaneous Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous and Nonpolar Organic Solvents Using a Diamine-Containing Oxyethylene Linkage, Langmuir; 2004; 20(2) pp 295-298;], liquid crystals [Timothy M. Dellinger and Paul V. Braun, Lyotropic Liquid Crystals as Nanoreactors for Nanoparticle Synthesis, Chem. Mater. (2004), 16, 2201-2207.], silicates [Szucs, A.; Berger, F.; Dekany, I. Preparation and structural properties of Pd nanoparticles in layered silicate. Colloids Surf. A, 2000, 174(3), 387-402.], graphite [Mastalir, A.A.; Kira" ly, Z.; Walter, J.; Notheisz, F.; Bartok, M. Shape-selective catalysts: Quasi-two-dimensional Pd particles encapsulated in graphite. J. Mol. Catal. A 2001, 175, 205-209.], zeolites [Smolentseva, E., Bogdanchikova, N., Simakov, A., Pestryakov, A., Avalos, M. Farias, M.H., Tempos, A., Gurin, V., Catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles incorporated into modified zeolites. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, 7(6), (2007) 1882-1886.; Ren, N., Yang, Y.-H., Shen, J., Zhang, Y.-H., Xu, H.-L., Gao, Z., Tang, Y., Novel, efficient hollow zeolitically microcapsulized noble metal catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 251(1), (2007),

182-188.], nanoporous carbon [Joo SH, Chol SJ, Oh L, Kwak J, Liu Z, Terasaki O, R. Ryoo Ordered nanoporous arrays of carbon supporting high dispersions of platinum nanoparticles, Nature(2001)412: 169-171.].

An important role in the formation and stabilization of colloidal nanocast is C, and also in the formation of organized ensembles of nanoparticles and nanostructures of different dimensionality based on them playing ligands. In order to stabilize the colloidal suspension of metal nanoparticles using different ligands, as low-molecular and polymer, while the structural parameters and physico-chemical characteristics of the obtained nanoparticles typically depend on the nature of the ligands [Burda, X. Chen, R.Narayanan, M.A.El-Sayed, Chemistry and Properties of Nanocrystals of Different Shapes, Chem. Rev.; 2005; 105(4); 1025-1102.; V.F.Puntes, K.M.Krishnan, A.P.Alivisatos, Colloidal Nanocrystal Shape and Size Control: The Case of Cobalt, Science, 291 (2001) 2115-2117.; B.L.Cushing, V.L.Kolesnichenko, C.J.O''connor, Recent Advances in the Liquid-Phase Syntheses of Inorganic Nanoparticles, Chem. Rev.; (Review); 2004; 104(9); 3893-3946.; Ahmadi, T.S., Wang, Z.L., Green, T.C., Henglein, A., El-Sayed, M.A., Shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal platinum nanoparticles, (1996) Science, 272 (5270), pp.1924-1926.; .Teranishi and M.Miyake, Size Control of Palladium Nanoparticles and Their Crystal Structures, Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, 594-600.]. In the case of colloidal nanoparticles and nanoclusters of noble metals used molecule ligands, which predominantly contain thio group (primarily in the case of the gold nanoparticles) [Corbierre M.K., Cameron N.S., Sutton, M.; Mochrie S.G., L.B. Lurio, Ruehm A., R.B. Lennox Polymer-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2001; 123(42); 10411-10412.; Zhen Liu, Kristen Pappacena, Jane Cerise, Jaeup Kirn, Christopher J. Duming, Ben O Shaughnessy, and Rastislav Levicky, Organization of Nanoparticles on Soft Polymer Surfaces, nano-letters 2(3), pp 219-224.; Mirkin C.A., R.L. Letsinger, R.C. Mucic, J.J. Storhoff, A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materils. Nature, (1996), 382, 607-609.; Wueifmg W.P., S.M. Gross, Miles D.T., Murray R.W., Nanometer Gold Clusters Protected by Surface-Bound Monolayers of Thiolated Poly(ethylene glycol) Polymer Electrolyte, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 1998; 120(48); 12696-12697.;], as well as carboxyl groups, amino groups [Burda, X.Chen, R.Narayanan, M.A.El-Sayed, Chemistry and Properties of Nanocrystals of Different Shapes, Chem. Rev.; 2005; 105(4); 1025-1102.], phosphine group [G.Schmid (Ed.), Clusters and Colloids. From theory to Applications, VCH, Weinheim, 1994.; W.W.Weare, S.M.Reed, M.G.Wamer, J.E.Hutchison, Improved Synthesis of Small (dCORE 1.5 nm) Phosphine-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2000; 122(51); 12890-12891.; Gubin S.P., Gulayev Yu.V., G.B. Khomutov, Kislov V.V., V.V. Kolesov, Soldatov E.S., Sulaimankulov for K.S., A.S. Trifonov Monday, Molecular clusters as building blocks for nanoelectronics: the first demonstartion of a cluster of single-electron tunneling transistor at room temperature, Nanotechnology, 2002, 13, p.185-195.]. Surface modification of colloidal particles suitable ligands allows the transfer of nanoparticles from the aqueous phase in a hydrophobic liquid phase [Akima, .Mukherjee, A.Guha, S.D.Adyantaya, ..Mandale, R.Kumar, M.Sastry, Amphoterization of Colloidal Gold Particles by Capping with Valine Molecules and Their Phase Transfer from Water to Toluene by Electrostatic Coordination with Fatty Amine Molecules, Langmuir, 2000, 16(25), 9775-9783.; Zhu, H., Tao, S., Zheng, S., Li, J., One step synthesis and phase transition of phospholipid-modified Au particles into toluene, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2005, 257-258, pp.411-414.; Zhu, H., Tao, C., Zheng, S., Wu, S., Li, J., Effect of alkyi chain length on the phase transfer of surfactant capped Au nanoparticles across the water/toluene interface. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2005, 256, pp.17-20.] or Vice versa [..Foos, A.W.Snow, M.E.Twigg, Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Gold Nanoclusters of Varied Core Size, Cluster Sci., 13 (2002), 543-552.]. Opportunities organized the x-Packed nanostructure based on nanoparticles depend essentially on the nature and characteristics of the molecules, ligands, present in the system [P.J.Thomas, G.U.Kulkami, C.N.R.Rao, An Investigation of Two-Dimensional Arrays of Thiolized Pd Nanocrystals, J. Phys. Chem. Century; 2000; 104(34); 8138-8144.; J.R.Heath, M.C.Knobler, D.V.Leff, Pressure/Temperature Phase Diagrams and Superlattices of Organically Functionalized Metal Nanocrystal Monolayers: The Influence of Particle Size, Size Distribution, and Surface Passivant, J.Phys. Chem. Century; 1997; 101(2); 189-197.; J.E.Martin, J.P.Wilcoxon, J.Odinek, P.Provencio, Control of the Interparticle Spacing in Gold Nanoparticle Superlattices, J. Phys. Chem. Century; 2000; 104(40); 9475-9486.; I.Sloufova-Smova, B.Vickova, Two-dimensional Assembling of Au Nanoparticles Mediated by Tetrapyridylporphine Molecules, Nano Lett., 2 (2002) 121-125.]. The use of bifunctional ligands, such as developed, allowed to form a highly organized self-assembled nanostructures based on nanoparticles of noble metals [.Brust, C.J.Kiely, Some recent advances in nanostructure preparation from gold and silver particles: A short topical review, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 202 (2-3), pp.175-186]. Using ligands with a single amino groups were obtained planar and three-dimensional nanostructures based on gold nanoparticles [L.O. Brown, Hutchison JE., Formation and Electron Diffraction Studies of Ordered 2-D and 3-D Superlattices of Amine-Stabilized Gold Nanocrystals, J. Phys. Chem. Century; 2001; 105(37); 8911-8916.; Brown, L.O.; Hutchison, J.E., Controlled Growth of Gold Nanoparticles during Ligand Exchange, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 1999; 121(4); 882-883.; Brown, L.O.; Hutchison, J.E., Convenient Preparation of Stable, Narrow-Dispersity, Gold Nanocrystals by Ligand Exchange Reactions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997; 119(50); 12384-12385.; Woehrle, GH; Brown, L.O.; Hutchison, J.E., Thiol-Functionalized, 1.5-nm Gold Nanoparticles through Ligand Exchange Reactions: Scope and Mechanism of Ligand Exchange, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2005; 127(7); 2172-2183.]. Were obtained organized nanostructures n is the basis of Au nanoparticles using specific bridging molecule type glutaraldehyde [Z.Zhong, S.Patskovskyy, P.Bouvrette, J.H.T.Luong, A.Gedanken, The Surface Chemistry of Au Colloids and Their Interactions with Functional Amino Acids, J. Phys. Chem. C.; 2004; 108(13); 4046-4052.].

To obtain a nanocomposite polymer films immobilized on the surfaces of the substrates and containing nanoparticles of palladium was used the method of alternating layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged components of the aqueous phase and the recovery of palladium ions in the precursor molecules. In this way was formed complexes of metal-containing precursor (ions PdCl2-4and aminecontaining of polycation (quaternized pyridine, polyethylenimine, allylamine and others) on the surface of the substrate. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles of palladium was carried out in the course of the recovery processes of the precursor molecules electrochemically [Jianyun Liu, Long Cheng, Yonghai Song, Baifeng Liu, and Shaojun Dong, Simple Preparation Method of Multilayer Polymer Films Containing Pd Nanoparticles, Langmuir, Vol.17, No. 22, 2001, 6747-6750.] or using reductants [Kidambi, S., Bruening, M.L., Multilayered polyelectrolyte films containing palladium nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and application in selective hydrogenation, Chemistry of Materials, v.17(2), (2005),.p.p.301-307.]. In this way, in contrast to the claimed invention, the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles and their complexes with aminecontaining polymers were carried out in single-phase liquid (water) system, the precursor was added to the aqueous phase, and the resulting complexes of palladium nanoparticles and prelect Ritov were initially immobilized on the substrate surface.

Patent document also contains descriptions of known methods for producing nanoparticles of noble metals and composites on their basis. Thus, a method of obtaining metal nanoparticles of gold, silver, copper (U.S. patent No. 6,929,675, Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM), publ. 24.04.2003). The method involves dissolving the ORGANOMETALLIC compounds of these metals in a coordinating solvent (primary, secondary, or tertiary amines, primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphines, or alkyl thiols to obtain a solution of the precursor. Then this solution is injected into an organic solvent which is heated to about 100°C. After washing the product in an organic solvent such as alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propanol or high molecular weight alcohols), receive nanoparticles of metals, free from oxides, which can be extracted aromatic solvents (including toluene, benzene, pyridine) or alkanes (including pentane, hexane, heptane). By this method, in particular, received the gold nanoparticles in the size 8-80 nm. In contrast to declare this method is complex, multistage and does not involve the use of a two-phase reaction system.

A known method of producing nanocrystals of metals (patent US 6,645,444, A.N. Goldstein, publ. 11.11.2003). The method includes the formation of complexes of metal ions and organic ligands in plants is the PR with the subsequent introduction of a reductant. The method allows to obtain nanocrystals associated with molecules of ligands, including nanocrystals containing several different metals. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the use of a two-phase reaction system, it also allows you to get organized, organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of metals.

A method of obtaining a dense layer of metal particles inside the polymer film by the method of counterflow diffusion in a system of two liquid phases separated polymer film (U.S. patent No. 4692360, Manring LE and others, publ. 9.09.1987 and U.S. patent No. 4752529, Manring LE and others, publ. 06.21.1988). In this way the metal nanoparticles in a polymer film obtained by chemical reduction of metal to nonvalence status within the film. The process is to contact a solution of metal ions, at least part of the surface of the film and the solution of reducing agent, at least another part of the surface of the film. Metal ions and the molecules of the reducing agent are contacted in a particular reaction region where the metal ions are recovered by the reducing agent with the formation of the metal layer inside the film, the thickness of the layer of the reduced metal is less than the thickness of the entire film. This way inside the polymer film can be obtained bore is only layers of metallic impurities. The synthesis of metal particles is carried out in one stage. The position of the layer of metallic impurities in the film can be varied in a controlled way by changing the concentrations of the solutions of the starting reagents. Metal particles in a polymer matrix according to this method can be formed of metals, including cu, Ag, Au, Cd, Hg, Cr, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ga, In, Tl, Sn, Sb, Se and Te. As a reducing agent is used NaBH4. The essential requirements that must be met for the polymer matrix, it is good enough permeability for ions of the metal and the molecules of the reducing agent. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not imply the presence in the reaction system hydrophobic liquid phase, in which the injected precursor. Also, this method does not use amino compounds ligands.

A method of obtaining polymeric materials containing nanoparticles of metals and their oxides nanometric size (patent RU 2266920, Chains S.N. (RU) and others, publ. 27.12.2005). This method includes a procedure for the joint condensation in vacuum on a substrate vapor paraxylylene (its derivatives or blends)derived from cyclophane and its derivatives, and the deposition is carried out with pairs of metals (or their mixtures)obtained by pyrolysis of CARBONYLS of metals (or their mixtures). The method also involves joint is ondensation in vacuum on a substrate vapor paraxylylene (its derivatives or mixtures), derived from cyclophane and its derivatives, and the deposition is carried out with pairs of CARBONYLS of metals (or their mixtures) with further thermal decomposition of the CARBONYLS of metals to metal in the polymer. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids. Also, this method does not use amino compounds ligands.

A method of obtaining nanoparticles (patent RU 2242532, S.A. Gurevich and others, publ. 2004.12.20). The method is designed to obtain an amorphous particles of nanometric size, which find application in various branches of science and technology. In particular, the metal nanostructures are considered as promising material for creation of new touch, electronic and optoelectronic devices, as well as in the development of new types of highly selective solid catalysts. Method for producing nanoparticles involves the dispersing of the molten material, the supply of the liquid droplets of the material in the plasma, the parameters which satisfy the given ratios, formed in an inert gas at a pressure of 10-4-10-1PA, cooling in an inert gas formed in the above-mentioned plasma liquid nanoparticles before hardening and coating the obtained solid nanoparticles to the media. In ex the contrast of the proposed method this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids. Also, this method does not use amino compounds ligands.

A method of obtaining silver nanoparticles and composite nanoparticles consisting also of platinum, palladium, gold, aluminum, cadmium, sulfur (U.S. patent 6,660,058, Oh S.-G., and others, publ. 09.12.2003). The method involves the synthesis of single-phase liquid reaction system, in which there are surface-active molecule ligands adsorbed on the surface of the formed nanoparticles and stabilize them. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids.

A method of obtaining metal nanoparticles and fibers (U.S. patent No. 6346136, P. Chen and others, publ. 12.02.2002). The method involves the mixing of nanotubes and nanofibers with metal salts (copper, palladium, platinum, silver, gold) and subsequent decay and the restoration of the mixture. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids. Also, this method does not use amino compounds ligands.

The known method for producing metallic colloid particles in reverse micelles (U.S. patent No.,5147841, J.P. Wilcoxon, publ. 15.09.1992). The method allows to obtain catalytic colloidal particles of gold, palladium, silver, genus is I, iridium, platinum, Nickel, molybdenum, iron or mixed composition particles. The method includes forming a solution of the inverse micelles and solution of metal salt in an organic liquid phase containing surface-active compound. Then restore the salt of the metal (chemical or ultraviolet laser) and receive a colloidal metal particles. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids. Also, this method does not use the ligands containing 2 or more amino groups.

A method of obtaining organized nanostructures containing clusters of metal (U.S. patent No. 6,730,537, J.E. Hutchison, publ. 04.05.2004). The method involves the formation of special structures of the molecules (for example, polynucleotides or polypeptides on the surface of the substrate and the inclusion in the composition of the formed nanostructures of metal clusters. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids to obtain organic-inorganic nanostructures.

Known colloidal solution of metal nanoparticles, nanocomposites, metal-polymer, and methods for their production (patent RF №2259871, IF My sang and others, publ. 2005.09.10). The method can be used is in the manufacture of antibacterial and sterilizing means, conductive adhesives and inks, protective screens of graphical displays. A colloidal solution of metal nanoparticles obtained by dissolution of the metal salt and water-soluble polymer in water and/or non-aqueous solvent. Then the reaction vessel with the resulting solution is blown with gaseous nitrogen or argon, and irradiated with radioactive rays. You can then further dilute the solution and process it by ultrasound. As a metal salt, you can use a silver salt, such as nitrate, perchlorate, sulfate or acetate. You can also use a salt of Nickel, copper, palladium or platinum. As the polymer charge polyvinylpyrrolidone, copolymers of 1-vinylpyrrolidone and acrylic or vinylalcohol acid, styrene or vinyl alcohol. As the nonaqueous solvent can be used methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol or ethylene glycol. Upon receipt of the nanocomposites, metal-polymer instead of the water-soluble polymer using a polymer stabilizer, for example, polyethylene, polyacrylonitrile, polymethylmethacrylate, polyurethane, polyacrylamide or polyethylene glycol. In this case, to obtain emulsion can optionally enter in a reaction chamber surfactant. The colloidal solution is stable for 10 months preserve the shape of the particles and a minor increased the eating of their size. Freshly prepared colloidal solution contains nanoparticles of metal no larger than 8 nm. In the nanocomposite is observed uniform distribution of the metal nanoparticles in the polymer. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids to obtain organic-inorganic nanostructures.

Known methods for producing inorganic nanoparticles into highly ordered layered molecular structures - Langmuir-Blodgett films. For this pre-form multiline film, which comprises a metal-containing molecule precursor (or entirely consists of salts of fatty acids and metal), and then such a system is subjected to physical or chemical effects, leading to the formation of nanoparticles. Thus, a method of obtaining a flat gold nanoparticles in multiclonal film formed by amphiphilic amines and molecules predecessor HAuCl4by decomposition of the precursor under the action of ultraviolet radiation [Ravaine, S., G. E. Fanucci, C.T. Seip, J.H. Adair, D.R. Talham, Photochemical generation og gold nanoparticles in Langmuir-Blodgett films, Langmuir (1998), v.14, pp.708-713]. Unlike the proposed method, this method does not involve the formation of two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids to receive the deposits of organic-inorganic nanostructures, this method does not use a polyfunctional amino compounds ligands. The known method does not allow you to get organized nanostructures in the form of polycomplexes containing nanoparticles of metal in the bulk liquid phase.

Very close analogs of the invention are the known methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of noble metals and their complexes in two-phase reaction systems, representing contacting immiscible liquid phase containing precursors, ligands and other agents. Thus, in the known method of synthesis of gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-water-chloroform [PR.Selvakannan, P.Senthil Kumar, Arvind S.More, Rahul D.Shingte, Prakash P.Wadgaonkar, Murali Sastry, One-Pot, Spontaneous and Simultaneous Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous and Nonpolar Organic Solvents Using a Diamine-Containing Oxyethylene Linkage, Langmuir, (2004); 20(2) pp.295-298;] used spontaneous recovery ions AuCl4-caused by the formation of diaminobenzoic oxyethylene bridges. This resulted in the polymerization of the diamine and the formation of a polymeric shell around the nanoparticles. Thus synthesis of gold nanoparticles in aqueous phase and in chloroform. The disadvantage of this method is spontaneous and, therefore, uncontrolled nature of the recovery precursor, an exogenous reducing agent is not used at all. A significant difference from savla the constituent of the invention is the introduction of the precursor in the aqueous phase and the formation of metal nanoparticles in two phases. The known method does not allow you to get organized nanostructures in the form of polycomplexes containing nanoparticles of metal in the bulk liquid phase. Another known method of producing nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals, involves the formation of a two-phase system (toluene-water), the introduction of an ORGANOMETALLIC precursor in a hydrophobic phase and added to the system reductant (tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) [V.V.Agrawal, P.Mahalakshmi, G.U.Kulkami, C.N.R.Rao, Nanocrystalline Films of Au-Ag, Au-Cu, and Au-Ag-Cu Alloys Formed at the Organic-Aqueous Interface, Langmuir, 2006, 22(4), 1846-1851.]. The method allows to obtain a film of metal nanoparticles on the phase boundary or organosol (with additional add alcantera). Unlike the proposed method, this method does not use a polyfunctional amino compounds ligands. Also, the known method does not allow you to get organized nanostructures in the form of polycomplexes containing nanoparticles of metal in the bulk liquid phase. Thus, the claimed method of producing nanostructures and materials containing noble metal nanoparticles differs from known methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of noble metals in the two-phase reaction system in the absence of known methods, a combination of traits that make up the essence of the proposed method.

Close to the claimed HVL of the training are methods of producing nanoparticles of noble metals, associated with the use of two-phase systems of monomolecular layers at the interface gas/liquid. A method of obtaining metal nanoparticles of gold under a monolayer of surfactant (CSU, V.S.Mendieta, R.L.Castanares, F.C.Meldrum, C.Wu, J.H.Fendler, Gold paniculate film formation under monolayers, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, Vol.99, 9869-9875). According to this method, on the surface of the aqueous solution of HAuCl4form a monolayer of amphiphilic molecules containing SH groups. Then, using chemical or photochemical restoration of a layer of gold particles attached to the surface of a monolayer of amphiphilic molecules. The monolayer containing nanoparticles can then be transferred to a solid substrate. The above methods inherent disadvantage associated with the fact that they include the formation of a volume of the aqueous phase containing the source metal-containing reagents, while the result is only a monolayer of nanoparticles on the surface of the monolayer avifile connection. Consequently, a large part of the initial reagents is not converted into useful product that makes economiccost and the inefficiency of this method. This method does not use a polyfunctional amino compounds ligands. The known method does not allow you to get organized nanostructures in the form of polycomplexes containing nanoparticles of metal, about the roadways to the liquid phase.

The closest analogue (prototype) is a method of obtaining nanoparticles of noble metals and the manufacture of materials and devices containing nanoparticles (patent RF №2233791, S. p. Gubin, etc., publ. 2004.08.10). This method of producing nanoparticles includes forming a two-phase system - molecular layer on the surface of the aqueous phase containing the water-insoluble ORGANOMETALLIC precursor molecules (used connection - acetate, palladium, AI(P(C6H5)3)CL), and processes for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by chemical transformations of the source reagent precursor under the action of chemical effects or chemical and physical effects, or combinations thereof in a monomolecular layer on the surface of the liquid phase. When the reducing agent (borohydride sodium) were introduced in the aqueous phase. The method of manufacture of materials containing nanoparticles, is the introduction of the above particles in the material. The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of obtaining a relatively large quantity of the product and its low productivity (due to the fact that the monolayer is impossible to introduce a significant number of molecules of the precursor). Unlike the proposed method, this method does not use a polyfunctional amino compounds ligands. Known to the persons does not allow you to get organized nanostructures in the form of polycomplexes, containing nanoparticles of metal in the bulk liquid phase.

Analysis of scientific-technical and patent information on the state of prior art indicates a clear trend of development of modern technologies, which are characterized by the steady decrease of the characteristic dimensions of the structural and functional components, materials, systems and devices that are directly connected with steadily increasing technological demand, and expanding the scope of practical applications fine, nanostructured, nanocomposite materials and functional nanosystems. The variation and combination of the various functional nanocomponents and optimization of their spatial organization in nanostructured materials provide opportunities for design and development of new materials with predetermined, improved or new and unique properties and functions, as well as multifunctional materials. Analysis of scientific literature demonstrates the great practical importance of nanophase noble metals, in particular palladium, and nanocomposites, due to their unique physical and chemical properties, in particular catalytic properties, are important for various technological applications [Tsuji, J.Pallaium Reagents and Catalysis; Wiley-VCH: New York, 1995.; Sato, F.Handbook of Organopalladium Chemistry for Organic Synthesis; John Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, 2002; Vol.2, pp 2759-2765.; N.Lewis, Chemical catalysis by colloids and clusters, Chem. Rev., (1993), 93(8), 2693-2730.; Campbell, I.M.Catalysis at Surfaces, Chapman and Hall: London, 1988.; B.C.Gates, Supported Metal Clusters: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalysis, Chem. Rev. (1995), 95(3) pp511-522.]. In this regard, it is necessary to develop new effective methods of obtaining nanoparticles of noble metals and new composite organic-inorganic nanostructures containing such nanoparticles.

The objective of the invention is to develop a relatively simple, not requiring special conditions (implemented under normal conditions) of the method of obtaining organic-inorganic nanostructured material containing nanoparticles of noble metals.

Disclosure of inventions

The solution of this problem is achieved by the claimed invention, which describes the suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals, and the means of its production.

The invention consists in that the claimed organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals contained in the suspension, made in the form of polycomplex in a two-phase reaction system, consisting of two large contacting immiscible liquids, with polycomplex includes organic molecules in the composition to which that includes the amino group of 2 or more, and noble metal nanoparticles. Thus, the nanostructure can include a single metal or simultaneously several different metals. Organic molecules composed of amino groups in number of 2 or more, can be a simple linear polyamine or complex molecules such as dendrimers. Nanoparticles of noble metals in the inventive nanostructures have linear dimensions in the range 1-100 nm. Thus the neighboring nanoparticles of noble metals are localized at distances from each other corresponding to the linear dimensions of organic molecules composed of amino groups. In the composition of the claimed nanostructures may include palladium, gold and other precious metals. Organic molecules composed of amino groups in number of 2 or more, held in conjunction with nanoparticles through links amino groups and nanoparticles of noble metals. However, these molecules can be soluble in the aqueous phase and the hydrophobic phase and to ensure the effective transfer of metal atoms across the interface into the aqueous phase. Organic molecules may be linear polyamine, composed of amino groups in number of 2 or more. In particular, the organic molecules may be diamines, such as Ethylenediamine. Organic molecules m which may be molecules of natural polyamine of spermine or molecules of allylamine.

The inventive method of obtaining suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals is the formation of a two-phase reaction system, consisting of two contacting bulk immiscible liquids, with a metal-containing precursor molecules dissolved in the hydrophobic phase, the reducing agent added to the aqueous phase, and as ligands using organic molecules composed of amino groups in number of 2 or more. As organic molecules composed of amino groups in number of 2 or more can be used simple linear polyamine or complex molecules such as dendrimers. The reaction system can also include compounds that regulate the processes of growth and stabilization of the synthesized nanoparticles. When this two-phase reaction system of two immiscible liquids can be emulsion. In the hydrophobic phase enter the same or different ORGANOMETALLIC molecule precursors containing atoms of one noble metal or atoms of different noble metals. In particular, the use of ORGANOMETALLIC molecule precursors containing palladium, such as palladium acetate. You can also use precursors containing gold, for example ORGANOMETALLIC molecules AU(P(C6 H5)3)CL. Organic molecules containing amino groups in number of 2 or more is dissolved in the aqueous phase. However, these molecules can be soluble in the aqueous phase and the hydrophobic phase and thereby to ensure the effective transfer of metal atoms in the aqueous phase through the phase boundary. As organic molecules is possible using a linear polyamines, which are composed of the amino group of 2 or more. You can also use complex and branched molecules such as dendrimers. As organic molecules it is possible to use diamines, such as Ethylenediamine. As organic molecules possible use of natural polyamine of spermine or allylamine. As a reducing agent it is possible to use sodium borohydride.

The method of obtaining material containing organic-inorganic nanostructures, is the introduction into the composition of the material organic-inorganic nanostructures contained in the inventive suspension obtained by the claimed method. The claimed organic-inorganic nanostructures can be localized on the surface of the substrate. Suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures can be modified under the action of a chemical and/or physical effects or combinations thereof. Suspension of organic-neorg the technical nanostructures carry out the process of bonding with organic-inorganic nanostructures additional components or component, in particular, polymers such as polyelectrolytes, which are added to a suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures. Such a polyelectrolyte can be DNA molecules. The reactivity of the amino groups used in organic molecules-ligand opens opportunities for interaction with the claimed organic-inorganic nanostructures various molecules, materials and surfaces, which opens up opportunities for further functionalization, modification and/or immobilization in a variety of molecular or inorganic matrix, or on a variety of surfaces.

Significant differences of the claimed organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals from analogs and prototypes are that they are made in the form of suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures, representing organized at the nanoscale ensembles of nanoparticles of noble metals in the volume of the aqueous phase, while to obtain used water-insoluble ORGANOMETALLIC molecules of the precursor and the organic molecule ligands containing amino groups in number of 2 or more, and to initiate processes of synthesis of nanoparticles of noble metals in the aqueous phase is added a reducing agent.

Advantages of the claimed invention is the high degree is narodnosti the resulting metal nanoparticles. A distinctive feature and advantage of the developed method is that it relies on relatively simple synthetic principles, is not associated with the use of high vacuum, high pressure, strong electric and magnetic fields, high or low temperatures, it is quite acceptable from an environmental point of view. Easy way to obtain organic-inorganic nanostructures provides, accordingly, a simpler and cheaper technology. The method can vary within wide limits and to optimize the composition, structure and properties of the inventive material. The possibility of incorporating in the resulting material nutrient or bioactive components allows this material is biocompatible or bioactive. The method allows to directly get organized, organic-inorganic nanostructures without the intermediate stage of the synthesis of individual colloidal particles and their subsequent integration into the molecular matrix. In the result of the inventive method is much easier, faster, cheaper and, consequently, better known multistage methods of forming nanocomposite materials using alternating layer-by-layer adsorption of the components on the substrate and other similar methods. The developed method allows to improve the performance of those is technological processes of forming such materials. The high reactivity of the amino groups in organic molecules, the ligands used in the present invention, provides opportunities for interaction with the claimed organic-inorganic nanostructures various molecules, materials and surfaces, which opens up opportunities for their technical application.

A useful effect of the invention is that it enables you to receive new organized at the nanoscale ensembles of nanoparticles of noble metals in the volume of the aqueous phase, which can be included in the composition of different functional coatings, materials, and devices. As a result, the invention contributes to the expansion of the Arsenal of methods of nanotechnology and opens opportunities for new nanomaterials. It is known that complexes of palladium nanoparticles with polycation containing amino groups, have strong selective catalytic properties [Kidambi, S., Bruening, M.L., Multilayered polyelectrolyte films containing palladium nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and application in selective hydrogenation, Chemistry of Materials, v.17(2), (2005), pp.301-307.]. This makes the inventive nanostructures are particularly useful for creating effective kataliticheskih nanosystems. Developed a way to get organic-inorganic nanostructure based on polyamines with inclusions of inorganic nanoparticles do not require the use of the Oia energy-intensive and difficult to produce vacuum and high-temperature equipment, it is relatively simple and environmentally friendly, which makes it promising for practical use.

The technical result of the invention is that it enables you to receive new nanostructured, organic-inorganic polymeric complexes on the basis of polyamines containing nanoparticles of noble metals (Pd, Au) up to 10 nm, which have a large specific surface and are characterized by a narrow dispersion of sizes. The method allows to provide a high packing density of particles in organic-inorganic nanostructures and high conversion efficiency of the source material (metal-containing ORGANOMETALLIC precursor) in the nanoparticles of noble metals

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1. The scheme of the two-phase reaction system is formed to obtain the claimed nanostructured, organic-inorganic polycomplexes containing noble metal nanoparticles and molecules of polyamines.

Figure 2. Typical images of the nanoparticles of palladium in polycomplexes Pd-spermin. Image obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy. Images a) and b) differ in the increase.

Figure 3. Typical detailed image of nanoparticles of palladium in polycomplexes Pd-spermin. The image obtained by the method of transmission electron is Oh microscopy.

Figure 4. A histogram of the size distribution of the palladium nanoparticles synthesized in a two-phase system of chloroform-water using palladium acetate as precursor in the presence of polyamine of spermine in the aqueous phase.

Figure 5. Typical images of polycomplex Pd-spermine-DNA. Image obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy. Images a) and b) differ in the increase.

Figure 6. Typical images of the nanoparticles of palladium in polycomplexes Pd-Ethylenediamine. Image obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy. Images a) and b) differ in the increase.

Figure 7. Typical images of the nanoparticles of palladium in polycomplexes Pd-allylamine. Image obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy.

Figure 8. Typical electron diffraction pattern, obtained using the method of transmission electron microscopy on samples obtained polycomplexes containing nanoparticles of palladium.

Figure 9. Typical images of gold nanoparticles synthesized in a two-phase system of chloroform-water using AI(P(C6H5)3)CL as a precursor in the presence of polyamine of spermine in the aqueous phase. Image obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy.

Figure 10. The character is haunted detailed images of the gold nanoparticles, synthesized in a two-phase system of chloroform-water using

AI(P(C6H5)3)CL as a precursor in the presence of polyamine of spermine in the aqueous phase. Image obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy. Images a) and b) differ in the increase.

Figure 11. Histogram of gold nanoparticles synthesized in a two-phase system of chloroform-water using AI(P(C6H5)3)CL as a precursor in the presence of polyamine of spermine in the aqueous phase.

Figure 12. Typical electron diffraction pattern of gold nanoparticles obtained by the method of transmission electron microscopy on samples obtained polycomplexes containing gold nanoparticles.

An example of carrying out the invention

In an example embodiment of the invention were synthesized nanostructured polymeric complexes containing nanoparticles of palladium and gold in the two-phase system formed by two immiscible liquids (water and chloroform), and the chloroform contained the original metal-containing compound precursors (acetate, palladium and AI(P(C6H5)3)CL), and the aqueous phase was added to the oligomeric or polymeric polyfunctional ligands on the basis of polyamines.

Used connection AI(P(C6H5)3 )CL, palladium acetate, spermin, Ethylenediamine manufacturing firms "Aldrich and Fluka"sodium salt of native DNA salmon production company "Sigma", the chloroform brand "chemically pure", borohydride sodium NaBH4mark "analytical grade". As solvents for the preparation of solutions used ultrapure deionized water (resistivity 18 Mω/cm)obtained using water purification systems "MilliQ" company "Millipore", and chloroform. Used freshly prepared water and aqueous solutions on its basis. There were prepared aqueous solution of spermine (concentration of 10-2M), aqueous solution of ethylene diamine (concentration of 10-2M), an aqueous solution containing DNA molecules (concentration of 10-4M per monomer), a solution of AI(P(C6H5)3)CL in chloroform (concentration of 10-3M), a solution of palladium acetate in chloroform (concentration of 10-3M).

An example implementation of the proposed method of obtaining organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals is the formation volume of a two-phase system of two immiscible liquids-chloroform and water, containing ORGANOMETALLIC precursor ligands (amines or DNA) and a reducing agent. As a precursor for the synthesis of nanostructures containing palladium, used palladium acetate, which was dissolved in chloroformed as a precursor for the synthesis of nanostructures, containing gold, used AI(P(C6H5)3)CL, which was dissolved in chloroform. The aqueous phase in contact with the precursor solution in chloroform contained polyamine and in some cases DNA molecules. Developed reaction scheme for carrying out the synthesis of organic-inorganic nanostructures presented in Figure 1. After forming the two-phase reaction system in the aqueous phase were added borohydride sodium (final concentration of 10-3M). Immediately after addition of sodium borohydride was observed color change of the aqueous phase (formation of dark component)caused by metallic nano-phase. Then after 60 min from the aqueous phase samples were taken and deposited on the substrate to research by method of transmission electron microscopy. Using the method of transmission electron microscopy was performed structural studies of samples of nanostructured organic-inorganic polymeric complexes containing the synthesized nanoparticles of palladium and gold. For this received organic-inorganic nanostructures was applied to the surface of the substrate for electron microscopic studies (copper grid, 3 mm diameter carbon and polymer coating) by placing drops of the aqueous suspension containing such nanostructures, is it drying.

Figure 2 represents a characteristic electron microscopic images of nanostructures based on palladium nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of spermine in the aqueous phase. The Figure 3 presents a detailed picture of nanostructures based on palladium nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of spermine in the aqueous phase. The Figure 4 shows the histogram of size distribution of nanoparticles of palladium, depicted in Figure 3. As follows from Figures 2, 3 and 4, the synthesized nanostructures are dense anisotropic aggregates of palladium nanoparticles, the size of which does not exceed 10 nm, and an average of ~ 4-5 nm. The Figure 5 presents the image of the nanostructures obtained by introducing a solution of DNA molecules in the aqueous phase, containing the synthesized organic-inorganic nanostructures based on nanoparticles of palladium and polyamine of spermine. From Figure 5 it is seen that the close-Packed surface complexes of palladium nanoparticles and polyamine forms additional polymer layer. The Figure 6 presents representative images of nanostructures containing palladium nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of ethylene diamine in the aqueous phase under the same conditions as in Figures 2 and 3. From these Figures it is seen that the morphology of received organic-inorganic polycomplexes containing NAS the phase palladium and molecules of polyamines (spermine and Ethylenediamine) are very similar. The Figure 7 presents typical image of organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanophase palladium, obtained by the claimed method in the presence of the polycation of allylamine in the aqueous phase. From the Figure it is seen that the morphology of the obtained palladium nanostructures in the case of use as a water-soluble macromolecular ligand polyamine significantly different from the morphology of the nanostructures obtained using low molecular weight amines. The Figure 8 presents typical electron diffraction pattern observed in the above samples containing nanoparticles. This electron diffraction pattern characteristic of the palladium nanoparticles. The Figure 9 presents the characteristic electron microscope images of gold nanostructures obtained in the two-phase system of chloroform-water using AI(P(C6H5)3)CL as a precursor in the presence of polyamine of spermine in the aqueous phase. The Figure 10 presents detailed images of the obtained nanostructures. From Figure 10 it is seen that the gold nanoparticles form a close-Packed anisotropic aggregates. The Figure 11 presents the results of the quantitative analysis of the size distribution of the synthesized gold nanoparticles in the samples presented on Figure 10 - histogr the MMA distribution of nanoparticle sizes. From the results of the quantitative analysis shows that the average size (diameter) gold nanoparticles in the obtained nanostructures is ~ 4 nm. The Figure 12 presents typical electron diffraction pattern obtained on the samples corresponding to the images shown in Figures 9 and 10. This electron diffraction pattern characteristic of gold nanoparticles.

Industrial applicability

The invention can be used to produce metal-containing nanostructured materials, nanocomposite materials, metal polymers, for the development of functional elements in electronics, electrical engineering, optics, for the development of catalytic systems for the production of bactericidal and sterilizing means, in technologies for materials and coatings with special properties (optical, thermal, electrical, absorption of radiation, bioactivity, and others).

1. Suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals, characterized in that it is made in the form of polycomplex in a two-phase reaction system, consisting of two large contacting immiscible liquids, with polycomplex includes organic molecules containing amino groups in number of 2 or more, and nanoparticles of noble metals.

2. WM is ensia nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the nanoparticles of noble metals in polycomplexes have linear dimensions in the range 1-100 nm.

3. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the nanoparticles of noble metals it contains palladium.

4. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the nanoparticles of noble metals it contains gold.

5. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the organic molecules are held in the complex through links amino groups and nanoparticles of noble metals.

6. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the organic molecules it contains linear polyamine containing amino groups in number of 2 or more.

7. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the organic molecules it contains the diamines.

8. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the organic molecules it contains molecules of natural polyamine of spermine.

9. Suspension of nanostructures according to claim 1, characterized in that the organic molecules it contains molecules of allylamine.

10. A method of obtaining a suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures containing nanoparticles of noble metals, including the formation of the reaction system containing the metal-containing molecules, precurso the s and ligands, adding thereto a reducing agent and the synthesis of nanoparticles, wherein forming the two-phase reaction system, consisting of two contacting volume of immiscible fluids hydrophobic and aqueous phase, as a ligand organic molecules containing amino groups in number of 2 or more metal-containing precursor molecules dissolved in the hydrophobic phase, the ligands in the aqueous phase, to which is added a reducing agent.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the hydrophobic phase of the injected molecule precursors containing atoms of one noble metal or atoms of different noble metals and the same or different organic molecules.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the molecules of the precursors contain palladium.

13. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the molecules of the precursors contain gold.

14. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the quality of organic molecules using linear polyamine containing amino groups in number of 2 or more, or complex branched molecule.

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that the quality of organic molecules using diamines.

16. The method according to 14, characterized in that the quality of organic molecules using natural polyamine spermine.

17. The method according to 14, characterized in that as PR is hanicheskih molecules using allylamine.

18. The method of obtaining material containing organic-inorganic nanostructures, including the introduction of organic-inorganic nanostructures in material composition, characterized in that the material contains a suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures according to claim 1, obtained by the method according to claim 10.

19. The method according to p, characterized in that organic-inorganic nanostructures localize on the surface of the substrate.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures modify under the action of a chemical and/or physical effects or combinations thereof.

21. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that the suspension spend the binding process with organic-inorganic nanostructures additional components or component.

22. The method according to item 21, characterized in that organic-inorganic nanostructures link the polymers.

23. The method according to item 22, characterized in that organic-inorganic nanostructures associated polyelectrolytes, which are added to a suspension of organic-inorganic nanostructures.

24. The method according to item 23, characterized in that organic-inorganic nanostructures bind DNA molecules.



 

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FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and can be used for effective change of physicochemical properties of formed on nanoparticles surface inorganic nature of ligand envelope. For receiving of nanoparticles solution with ligand envelope into solution of metal salt in water or organic vehicle is successively introduced stabiliser solution, consisting ligands, and solution of reducer. After it is changed charge sign of ligand envelope by means of one-sided diffusion of substance molecules, changing charge sign of ligand envelope through the semipermeable membrane, into solution of nanoparticles. Additionally it is used membrane, allowing pores size less than size of nanoparticles, but more than size of substance molecules, changing charge sign of ligand envelope. In the capacity of stabiliser it is used substance, molecules' size of which less than size of semipermeable membrane pores.

EFFECT: it is provided receiving of nanoparticles with ligand envelope with specified properties.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of nanodisperesed metals in a liquid phase. One provides for passage of alternating current between electrodes immersed in a liquid phase and particles of metal being dispersed introduced into the interelectrode space. Ratio of the electrode length to the width of the spacing between the electrodes is equal to 20÷200:1. The electric current voltage and frequency are maintained at the level of 1.5-5.5 kV and 0.25-0.8 MHz accordingly. Additionally an inert gas is injected into the liquid phase in the form of bubbles sized 0.1-0.5 mm. The liquid phase is agitated due to continuous circulation of the liquid phase, particles of metal being dispersed and the inert gas within a looped circuit including the interelectrode space.

EFFECT: provision for extension of the functional capabilities of the method for production of nanodispersed metals in a liquid phase, its simplification, performance enhancement and improvement of working conditions.

4 cl, 14 dwg, 2 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metal plastic working and may be used in manufacturing of multiplane pipelines for pneumatic hydraulic systems of aggregates and machines. Module for electropulse and sphere-dynamic power plasticisation of pipeline billet metal comprises device for electropulse processing and device for power processing with sphere-dynamic impact pulses. Device for electropulse processing comprises current collectors connected to generator of electric pulses, and two faceplates. Faceplates are connected by two vertical stands with elastic elements. One of faceplates has the possibility of reciprocal displacement along vertical stands. Device for power processing has two strikers. Working surfaces of strikers are arranged along differently directed curves of logarithmic spiral of Ya.Bernoulli with different lifting angles.

EFFECT: provision of generation of regulated field of compressive stresses in metal purified from dislocations, which guarantees preservation of geometry of pipelines made of billets.

2 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metal plastic working and may be used in manufacturing of multiplane pipelines for pneumatic hydraulic systems of aggregates and machines. Pipe billet is exposed to initial impact pulses of sphere dynamic action. Pulses are applied to diametrically installed sections of external surface of billet along curve having shape of logarithmic spiral of Ya.Bernoulli. Moreover, deformation extent is provided on every side of billet along its whole length, which is identified from the given expression. Then series of electric current pulses are applied to billet with current density in pulse Q=(1.2…2.0) 104. Duration of electric current pulses action τ=(0.3…0.4) T, where: T is duration of action at pipe billet with initial impact pulses. Then secondary impact pulses of sphere dynamic action are applied on external surface of pipe billet. Value of deformation extent from every side of pipe billet from secondary impact pulses is identified from given expression.

EFFECT: provision of generation of regulated field of compressive stresses in metal purified from dislocations, which guarantees preservation of geometry of pipelines made of billets.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of applying electroconductive nanostructurised coverings with high electroconductivity and wear-resistance. Method includes supply of powder composition with reinforcing particles from four measuring apparatuses into supersonic stream of heated gas and application of powder composition on product surface. First, from first measuring apparatus reinforcing ultra-dispersive particles of ZrO2 with fraction from 0.1 to 1.0 mcm are supplied and product surface is processed until juvenile surface is formed. Then powder composition based on Cu or Al is applied on product surface by supplying powder from four measuring apparatuses. From the first measuring apparatus reinforcing ultra-dispersive ZrO2 particles are supplied, from the second - Cu or Al powder, form the third - reinforcing nanoparticles of quasi-crystalline compound of system Al-Cu-Fe, and from the fourth measuring apparatus - reinforcing particles Y2O3. Rate of heterophase flow during application of composition based on Cu or Al is changed within the range from 450 to 750 m/sec.

EFFECT: reduction of porosity, increase of wear-resistance, adhesive and cohesive strength of covering preserving its high electroconductivity.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention is provided for nanoelectronics, analytical chemistry, biology and medicine and can be used for manufacturing of sensors, polymers and liquid crystals. Between volumes of liquid hydrocarbon composition and electrically conducting liquid it is formed boundary, on which there are actuated microplasmous discharges by means of voltage application between electrodes, located in these volumes. Using power supply with frequency 50 Hz, providing smoothly varying of preset voltage from 0 up to 4000 V, it is implemented anodic or cathodic high-voltage polarisation of boundary and high-temperature electrochemical conversion with formation of carbon-bearing nano-materials. In the capacity of liquid hydrocarbon compound can be used, for instance, benzol or octane; in the capacity of electrically conducting liquid - solution of potassium hydroxide, solutions of halogenides of alkaline metals. On boundary it can be located diaphragm, implemented of glass or from aluminium foil with oxide coating.

EFFECT: receiving the ability to implement controllable synthesis of carbon-bearing nano-materials.

8 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of powder of nano-crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite. Nano-crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite is received by interaction of calcium hydroxide and solution, containing phosphate-ions, herewith suspension of calcium hydroxide is prepared directly before interaction with solution, containing phosphate-ions from solutions of calcium acetate and potassium hydroxide, herewith amount of calcium hydroxide is from 50 up to 100% in mixture of calcium-bearing components.

EFFECT: receiving of hydroxyapatite powder with particles size 30 - 50 nm.

3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite. According to the invention calcium nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite is received by interaction of compound of calcium and ammonium hydro-phosphate. In the capacity of calcium compound it is used sugar lime C12H22-2nO11Can, at n, which is situated in the range from 0.5 up to 2. Particles size of the received hydroxyapatite is 30-50 nm.

EFFECT: receiving of nano-crystalline powder of calcium hydroxyapatite, which contains unaggressive biocompatible accompaniment of the reaction and that provides its usage in medicine.

3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to micro system hardware, and can be used in producing sensors based on tunnel effect to convert displacement into electric signal in monitoring data processing systems that serve to forecast, diagnose and control the effects of impact waves and acoustic oscillations exerted onto various structures, vehicles, industrial buildings and structures, as well as to control temperature, develop supersensitive mikes and medicine hardware. In compliance with this invention, the sensor cantilever electrode represents a bimorph beam made up of consecutively formed layers differing in thermal expansion factors. Note that the lower layer thermal expansion factor is lower as compared with that of the upper layer. Note also that the tunnel electrode represents a bundle of nanotubes. The proposed nanosensor incorporates thin-film heater to allow desorption of low-molecular substances, precision alignment of tunnel gap and formation of nanotubes after removal of "sacrificial" service layer.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity, vibro- and impact resistance, manufacturability and reproducibility, lower costs of manufacture.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: two fullerenes 1 C20 are put into a closed carbon nanotube 2, at the opposite end of which there is spherical fullerene 3 C60, acting as a plunger, applying a pressure of 43.24 hPa on two fullerenes 1 C20.

EFFECT: obtaining dimers of fullerene C20 without impurity atoms.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor electronics and can be used for making heavy duty and high-precision transistors. The transistor contains a first set, which includes N1>1000000 regions with the same conductivity, a second set which includes N2 >1000000 regions with the same conductivity, as well as a third set, which includes N3>1000000 regions with opposite conductivity. The regions are made with formation of a first set of separate same-type point p-n junctions between regions from the first and third sets and a second set of separate same-type point p-n junctions between regions from the second and third sets. Electrodes, adjacent regions included in at least one of the said sets, for which the condition Ni>1000000, where i∈{1, 2, 3}, is satisfied, are connected in parallel by one conductor, i.e. are connected into a single current node.

EFFECT: obtaining high-precision heavy duty transistors with stable electrical parametres.

21 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of nanomaterials application. It is suggested to use carbon of bulbous structure as sensitive element of detector in terahertz range of waves that absorbs electromagnet radiation (EMR) in the range of frequencies of 30 - 230 THz.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the high-strength epoxide composition used for impregnation at production of high-strength glass-, carbon,- organic-, and boron plastics working in the wide temperature range and used in different industrial sectors (machinery construction, shipbuilding, aircraft and space industries, for production of the parts of complicated configuration e.g. thin- and thick-walled casings). The invention refers also to the method for preparation of the said composition including the following components (weight parts): 10-100 - diglycidyl resorcinol ether, 10-100 - product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol, 6-12 - oligoether cyclocarbonates with mass ratio of cyclocarbonate groups in the range from 18 to 29, 28-50 - curing agent (primary aromatic amine), 0.5-2.5 - curing agent (tertiary amine), 0.25-1.25 - mixture of carbon and silicate nanomaterials. The mass ratio of diglycidyl resorcinol ether to product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol is in the range from 1 : 9 to 9 : 1. Metaphenylen diamine or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane or their eutectic mixtures in ratio from 40 : 60 to 60 : 40 are used as primary aromatic amine. Mono-, di and trimethylsubstituted pyridine or monovinylsubstituted pyridine are used as tertiary aromatic amine. The carbon nanomaterial is fullerene C2n, wherein n is no less than 30, the silicate nanomaterial is organobentonite, the fullerene : organobentonite ratio is in the range from 1 : 3 to 3 : 1. The method of composition preparation consists in stirring of nanomaterials mixture with oligoether cyclocarbonates by ultrasonic action at frequency 22-44 kHz during 30-45 min. Then the obtained suspension is mixed with beforehand prepared mixture of diglycidyl resorcinol ether and product of epichlorohydrin condensation with triphenol. After that the curing agent in the form of aromatic primary and tertiary amine mixture is added. The ready composition is cured in step mode with maximal curing temperature 155°C.

EFFECT: invention allows obtaining of the composition with high physical, mechanical and dissipative properties.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, namely to the field of construction works with application of water cement systems, and may be used in construction and repair works with application of concrete or mortar based on water-cement mixture. Method for control of setting and hardening processes in water-cement systems includes mixing of cement and water with previous treatment of water with acoustic oscillations with frequency from 17.5 to 22.5 kHz until level of energy introduced in water is from 3.0 to 40 kW-hr per 1 m3 of water. Invention is developed in dependent clauses.

EFFECT: expansion of facilities for effect at water-cement mixtures in process of their setting and hardening.

8 cl, 9 ex

Masonry mortar // 2363679

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to masonry mortars and may be used for making structures out of bricks, concrete stones and light rock stones. Masonry mortar contains cement, filler, additive in the form of nano-catalysts and water. Filler used is fly ash created in gas treatment systems during sand drying, as nano-catalysts - carbon tubes or fullerenes at the following ratio of components: cement - 400 kg/cub.m; fly ash - 1250 kg/cub.m; nano-catalysts - 0.02 kg/cub.m; water - 340 kg/cub.m.

EFFECT: increased strength and frost resistance of masonry mortar.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of transparent composition, applied, for instance, as under crystal filler, to solid-body device, and to method of transparent composition production. According to first version transparent composition contains, at least, one hardened aromatic epoxy resin, at least, one solvent, filler, and at least, one component selected from group including cycloaliphatic epoxy monomer, aliphatic epoxy monomer, hydroxyaromatic compounds and their combinations and mixtures. Filler represents colloidal silicon dioxide, functionalised with organosiloxane, and has particle size from 20 nm to 100 nm. If necessary, composition contains, at least, one component, selected from group including epoxy resins, acrylate resins, polyimide resins, fluoropolymers, benzocyclobutene resins, bismaleimide triazine resins, fluorinated polyallyl ethers, polyamide resins, polyimidoamide resins, phenolic cresol resins, aromatic polyester resins, resins of polyphenylene ester and polydimethylsiloxane resins. According to second version composition of under crystal filler contains cresol-novolac epoxy resin, at least, one component selected from group including cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, aliphatic epoxy resin, hydroxyaromatic compounds and their mixtures and combinations, at least, one solvent, dispersion of functionalised colloidal silicon dioxide, which has size of solid particles from 50 nm to 100 nm, and, at least, one catalyst. Solid-body device contains crystal, padding and transparent hardened composition of filler, located between crystal and padding. Filler composition contains, at least, one aromatic epoxy resin, dispersion of functionalised colloidal silicon dioxide, at least, one solvent, and, at least, one component selected from group including cycloaliphatic epoxy monomer, aliphatic epoxy monomer, hydroxyaromatic compounds and their combinations and mixtures. Functionalised colloidal silicon dioxide has size of solid particles from 50 nanometers to 100 nanometers. Method of manufacturing transparent under crystal filler composition includes the following stages. First, colloidal silicon dioxide is functionalised. Stable concentrated dispersion of functionalized colloidal silicon dioxide, with solid particle size from 50 nm to 100 nm, containing from 15 wt % to 75 wt % of silicon dioxide, is formed. Aromatic epoxy resin solution is mixed with, at least, one component, selected from group including cycloaliphatic epoxy monomer, aliphatic epoxy monomer, hydroxyl aromatic compounds and their mixtures and combinations, in solvent, with dispersion of colloidal silicon dioxide. Further solvent is removed and filler composition is hardened.

EFFECT: reduction of composition heat expansion coefficient and increase of temperature of its vitrifying.

9 cl, 6 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the preparation of the materials for ferroelectric ceramics used in electronics. The method includes the hydrolysis of rare metal compound with formation of rare metal precipitate which is then separated and suspended. The compound of the alkali or bivalent metal is fed into suspension at pH 5.5-13 and temperature 71-95°C. The suspension is vigorously mixed during 15 min or more at the value of Reynolds criterion (8-20)·104. The ferroelectric powder is washed and dried at the temperature 40-95°C. The rare metal compounds are compounds of titanium, zirconium, tantalum or niobium in the form of fluorides, chlorides, sulphates or phosphates. The alkali metals compounds are used in the form of hydroxides, chlorides, nitrates or sulphates. The bivalent metals compounds are compounds of barium or strontium in the form of hydroxides, nitrate, chlorides, sulphates as well as lead nitrate.

EFFECT: providing of the particle size control of the nanodimensional powders of the titanates, zirconates, tantalates or niobates of mono- and bivalent metals and obtaining of stoichiometric powders with narrow grading and saving of monophasity

8 cl, 10 ex

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to quantum electronics. Solid-state silicon nanostructures intended for lasers and optical amplifiers are formed by consecutive application of silicon oxides layers on silicon body. Resulted structure is subjected to annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. This allows the silicon monoxide layers transform into the silicon nanocrystal layers separated by those of silicon dioxide. Erbium ions are implanted into the formed structure silicon dioxide layer for the structure to be subjected again to annealing. Above described silicon nanostructure can be used for laser and optical amplifier optical pumping out.

EFFECT: laser and optical amplification in solid-state and silicon nanostructures.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to micro system hardware, and can be used in producing sensors based on tunnel effect to convert displacement into electric signal in monitoring data processing systems that serve to forecast, diagnose and control the effects of impact waves and acoustic oscillations exerted onto various structures, vehicles, industrial buildings and structures, as well as to control temperature, develop supersensitive mikes and medicine hardware. In compliance with this invention, the sensor cantilever electrode represents a bimorph beam made up of consecutively formed layers differing in thermal expansion factors. Note that the lower layer thermal expansion factor is lower as compared with that of the upper layer. Note also that the tunnel electrode represents a bundle of nanotubes. The proposed nanosensor incorporates thin-film heater to allow desorption of low-molecular substances, precision alignment of tunnel gap and formation of nanotubes after removal of "sacrificial" service layer.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity, vibro- and impact resistance, manufacturability and reproducibility, lower costs of manufacture.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: composition hardened with the help of radiation includes abrasive grain and binders. Binder contains from 10 wt % to 90 wt % of cation-polymerised composition, not more than 40 wt % of radical-polymerised composition and from 5 wt % to 80 wt % of powder filler in conversion to binder weight, and powder filler contains dispersed submicron particles. Abrasive products containing different composite binding materials are described, and also methods for manufacture of abrasive products.

EFFECT: improved working characteristics of abrasive products, prolonged service life.

158 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes combined deposition of silver and cadmium hydroxides, washing of prepared hydroxides mixture, drying and thermal decomposition. Hydroxides deposition is carried out at the temperature of 15÷30°C with continual mixing from mixture of silver nitrate solution with density of 1.4÷1.45 g/dm3 and cadmium nitrate solution with concentration of 280÷320 g/dm3 and introduction of sodium hydroxide with density of 1.10÷1.20 g/cm3 with the rate of 5÷9 l/min. Moreover, specified solutions are taken in ratio of 1:(0.1÷0.45):(0.28÷0.41) accordingly. Afterwards prepared deposit of hydroxides mixture is separated from solution, deposit is flushed, and thermal decomposition of silver dioxide is carried out in process of silver and cadmium dioxides mixture drying at the temperature of 180÷250°C for 20÷24 hours. Then thermal reduction of silver oxide and thermal decomposition of cadmium dioxide are carried out at the temperature of 450÷540°C for 50÷60 minutes. Silver-cadmium oxide powder is produced by specified method and contains 5÷25 wt % of cadmium oxide.

EFFECT: production of silver-cadmium oxide powder with specified structural and technological characteristics.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

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