Forming method of surface of synthesised nanoparticles
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and can be used for effective change of physicochemical properties of formed on nanoparticles surface inorganic nature of ligand envelope. For receiving of nanoparticles solution with ligand envelope into solution of metal salt in water or organic vehicle is successively introduced stabiliser solution, consisting ligands, and solution of reducer. After it is changed charge sign of ligand envelope by means of one-sided diffusion of substance molecules, changing charge sign of ligand envelope through the semipermeable membrane, into solution of nanoparticles. Additionally it is used membrane, allowing pores size less than size of nanoparticles, but more than size of substance molecules, changing charge sign of ligand envelope. In the capacity of stabiliser it is used substance, molecules' size of which less than size of semipermeable membrane pores.
EFFECT: it is provided receiving of nanoparticles with ligand envelope with specified properties.
2 cl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the field of nanotechnology and can be used for effective changes in the physico-chemical properties formed on the surface of nanoparticles of inorganic nature of the ligand shell.
The prior art method of forming the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, comprising synthesizing nanoparticles by successive introduction into the solution of metal salt in water or an organic solvent solution of the stabilizer and the solution of reducing agent (WO 2006025627 A1, B62B 3/00, 2006). However, in some cases it is not possible to obtain the required properties formed on the surface of the nanoparticle ligand shell directly with the introduction of the stabilizer.
The invention is aimed at creating an efficient method of forming the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles of an inorganic nature (metal or poluprovodnikov) with desired functional properties formed on the surface of the nanoparticle ligand shell.
The solution of this problem is provided by the fact that in the method of forming the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, comprising synthesizing nanoparticles by successive introduction into the solution of metal salt in water or an organic solvent solution of the stabilizer and the solution of reducing agent according to the invention is raissadat functionalization formed in the process of synthesizing ligand shell by one-way diffusion of molecules in solution functionalizing substances in the resulting solution of the nanoparticles through a semi-permeable partition - the membrane that separates the solution functionalizing substances from a solution of the nanoparticles, the pore size which is smaller than the size of the nanoparticles, but larger molecules functionalizing substances that form - functionalitywith ligand shell.
In addition, the stabilizer is used as the substance, the size of the molecules smaller than the pore size of the semi - permeable walls of the membrane.
Declared functionalization formed in the process of synthesizing ligand shell by one-way diffusion of molecules in solution functionalizing substances in the resulting solution of the nanoparticles through a semipermeable wall membrane, separating the solution functionalizing substances from a solution of the nanoparticles, ensures the formation on the surface of the nanoparticle ligand shell of molecules functionalizing substances with desired functional properties, concentration equal to the concentration in the original solution functionalizing substances, thus there is significant thinning of undesirable impurities. In addition, when the stabilizer substances, the size of the molecules is less than the pore size of the semi - permeable walls of the membrane, it is possible to replacement educated ligand shell of the stabilizer on the ligand shell of functionalizing is his substance.
The claimed method of forming the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles is carried out as follows.
At the first stage produce silver nanoparticles stabilized 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. For this purpose, 100 ml of 1.34·10-3M silver nitrate solution injected 10 ml 5,56·10-6M 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, linear defines the size of the molecules which ~1,3÷1,4 nm, and thoroughly shaken. Then to the solution with vigorous stirring on a magnetic stirrer is added in portions of 30 µl with an interval of 3 minutes 120 μl of 0.1 M solution of reducing agent is sodium borohydride. After adding the first portion of the solution of sodium borohydride almost immediately, the suspension becomes a bright yellow color, the intensity of which increased with the addition of new portions of the reducing agent. The color of the resulting suspension was intensively bright yellow with no signs of sedimentation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles in an electric field moving towards the positively charged electrode, which speaks to their negative charge arising from carboxyl groups mercaptoundecanoic acid.
In the second stage are diffusion funcionalities substance - lysine, which determines the size of the molecules which ~0,7÷0,9 nm, a suspension of nanoparticles through a semipermeable membrane, which determines the size of the diameter of pores is by toroi ~1,5÷2,0 nm. To this 5 ml of the particle suspension is placed in a cell, separated by a semi-permeable membrane from 1 l of 0.02 M solution of lysine. At the end of the diffusion process (after 2 days) when applying the electric field silver nanoparticles begin to move towards the negatively charged electrode, which confirms the change of the sign of the charge on the positive and replaced on the surface of the nanoparticles initial stabilizing substances ligand shell 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid molecules funcionalities substance - lysine.
In the first stage, prepare silver nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol. For this purpose, 100 ml of 1.34·10-3M silver nitrate solution injected 10 ml of 1% solution of polyvinyl alcohol, which determines the size of the molecules of which ~10÷15 nm, and thoroughly shaken. Then to the solution with vigorous stirring on a magnetic stirrer is added in portions of 30 µl with an interval of 3 minutes 120 μl of 0.1 M solution of reducing agent is sodium borohydride. After adding the first portion of the solution of sodium borohydride almost immediately the suspension becomes orange-yellow color, the intensity of which increases with the addition of new portions of the reducing agent. The color of the resulting suspension was intensively orange-yellow without visible signs of sedimentation. The synthesized nanoparticles sulfur is RA in the electric field unchanged since polyvinyl alcohol is weakly dissociating substance.
In the second stage are diffusion funcionalities substance - lysine, which determines the size of the molecules which ~0,7÷0,9 nm, a suspension of nanoparticles through a semipermeable membrane, which determines the pore size of which is ~1,5÷2,0 nm. To this 5 ml of the particle suspension is placed in a cell, separated by a semi-permeable membrane from 1 l of 0.02 M solution of lysine. At the end of the diffusion process (after 2 days) when applying the electric field silver nanoparticles begin to move towards the negatively charged electrode, indicating that the substitution on the surface of the nanoparticles initial stabilizing weakly dissociating substances polyvinyl alcohol on positively charged molecules funcionalities substance - lysine. When this occurs, the dilution of polyvinyl alcohol, the molecules of which remain in the solution - suspension of nanoparticles in a cell.
1. The method of forming the surface of the nanoparticles during synthesis, comprising the sequential introduction into the solution of metal salt in water or an organic solvent solution of the stabilizer-containing ligands, and the solution of reducing agent and obtaining a solution of nanoparticles with a ligand shell, characterized in that after receiving the nanoparticles with a ligand shell change the sign of the charge is handey shell by one-way diffusion of the molecules of the substance, changing the sign of the charge of the ligand shell through a semipermeable membrane into a solution of nanoparticles, using a membrane having a pore size smaller than the size of the nanoparticles, but more the size of the molecules of a substance that changes the sign of the charge of the ligand shell.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the stabilizer is used as the substance, the size of the molecules smaller than the pore size of the semi-permeable membrane.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of nanodisperesed metals in a liquid phase. One provides for passage of alternating current between electrodes immersed in a liquid phase and particles of metal being dispersed introduced into the interelectrode space. Ratio of the electrode length to the width of the spacing between the electrodes is equal to 20÷200:1. The electric current voltage and frequency are maintained at the level of 1.5-5.5 kV and 0.25-0.8 MHz accordingly. Additionally an inert gas is injected into the liquid phase in the form of bubbles sized 0.1-0.5 mm. The liquid phase is agitated due to continuous circulation of the liquid phase, particles of metal being dispersed and the inert gas within a looped circuit including the interelectrode space.
EFFECT: provision for extension of the functional capabilities of the method for production of nanodispersed metals in a liquid phase, its simplification, performance enhancement and improvement of working conditions.
4 cl, 14 dwg, 2 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metal plastic working and may be used in manufacturing of multiplane pipelines for pneumatic hydraulic systems of aggregates and machines. Module for electropulse and sphere-dynamic power plasticisation of pipeline billet metal comprises device for electropulse processing and device for power processing with sphere-dynamic impact pulses. Device for electropulse processing comprises current collectors connected to generator of electric pulses, and two faceplates. Faceplates are connected by two vertical stands with elastic elements. One of faceplates has the possibility of reciprocal displacement along vertical stands. Device for power processing has two strikers. Working surfaces of strikers are arranged along differently directed curves of logarithmic spiral of Ya.Bernoulli with different lifting angles.
EFFECT: provision of generation of regulated field of compressive stresses in metal purified from dislocations, which guarantees preservation of geometry of pipelines made of billets.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metal plastic working and may be used in manufacturing of multiplane pipelines for pneumatic hydraulic systems of aggregates and machines. Pipe billet is exposed to initial impact pulses of sphere dynamic action. Pulses are applied to diametrically installed sections of external surface of billet along curve having shape of logarithmic spiral of Ya.Bernoulli. Moreover, deformation extent is provided on every side of billet along its whole length, which is identified from the given expression. Then series of electric current pulses are applied to billet with current density in pulse Q=(1.2…2.0) 104. Duration of electric current pulses action τ=(0.3…0.4) T, where: T is duration of action at pipe billet with initial impact pulses. Then secondary impact pulses of sphere dynamic action are applied on external surface of pipe billet. Value of deformation extent from every side of pipe billet from secondary impact pulses is identified from given expression.
EFFECT: provision of generation of regulated field of compressive stresses in metal purified from dislocations, which guarantees preservation of geometry of pipelines made of billets.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of applying electroconductive nanostructurised coverings with high electroconductivity and wear-resistance. Method includes supply of powder composition with reinforcing particles from four measuring apparatuses into supersonic stream of heated gas and application of powder composition on product surface. First, from first measuring apparatus reinforcing ultra-dispersive particles of ZrO2 with fraction from 0.1 to 1.0 mcm are supplied and product surface is processed until juvenile surface is formed. Then powder composition based on Cu or Al is applied on product surface by supplying powder from four measuring apparatuses. From the first measuring apparatus reinforcing ultra-dispersive ZrO2 particles are supplied, from the second - Cu or Al powder, form the third - reinforcing nanoparticles of quasi-crystalline compound of system Al-Cu-Fe, and from the fourth measuring apparatus - reinforcing particles Y2O3. Rate of heterophase flow during application of composition based on Cu or Al is changed within the range from 450 to 750 m/sec.
EFFECT: reduction of porosity, increase of wear-resistance, adhesive and cohesive strength of covering preserving its high electroconductivity.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is provided for nanoelectronics, analytical chemistry, biology and medicine and can be used for manufacturing of sensors, polymers and liquid crystals. Between volumes of liquid hydrocarbon composition and electrically conducting liquid it is formed boundary, on which there are actuated microplasmous discharges by means of voltage application between electrodes, located in these volumes. Using power supply with frequency 50 Hz, providing smoothly varying of preset voltage from 0 up to 4000 V, it is implemented anodic or cathodic high-voltage polarisation of boundary and high-temperature electrochemical conversion with formation of carbon-bearing nano-materials. In the capacity of liquid hydrocarbon compound can be used, for instance, benzol or octane; in the capacity of electrically conducting liquid - solution of potassium hydroxide, solutions of halogenides of alkaline metals. On boundary it can be located diaphragm, implemented of glass or from aluminium foil with oxide coating.
EFFECT: receiving the ability to implement controllable synthesis of carbon-bearing nano-materials.
8 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of powder of nano-crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite. Nano-crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite is received by interaction of calcium hydroxide and solution, containing phosphate-ions, herewith suspension of calcium hydroxide is prepared directly before interaction with solution, containing phosphate-ions from solutions of calcium acetate and potassium hydroxide, herewith amount of calcium hydroxide is from 50 up to 100% in mixture of calcium-bearing components.
EFFECT: receiving of hydroxyapatite powder with particles size 30 - 50 nm.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite. According to the invention calcium nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite is received by interaction of compound of calcium and ammonium hydro-phosphate. In the capacity of calcium compound it is used sugar lime C12H22-2nO11Can, at n, which is situated in the range from 0.5 up to 2. Particles size of the received hydroxyapatite is 30-50 nm.
EFFECT: receiving of nano-crystalline powder of calcium hydroxyapatite, which contains unaggressive biocompatible accompaniment of the reaction and that provides its usage in medicine.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to micro system hardware, and can be used in producing sensors based on tunnel effect to convert displacement into electric signal in monitoring data processing systems that serve to forecast, diagnose and control the effects of impact waves and acoustic oscillations exerted onto various structures, vehicles, industrial buildings and structures, as well as to control temperature, develop supersensitive mikes and medicine hardware. In compliance with this invention, the sensor cantilever electrode represents a bimorph beam made up of consecutively formed layers differing in thermal expansion factors. Note that the lower layer thermal expansion factor is lower as compared with that of the upper layer. Note also that the tunnel electrode represents a bundle of nanotubes. The proposed nanosensor incorporates thin-film heater to allow desorption of low-molecular substances, precision alignment of tunnel gap and formation of nanotubes after removal of "sacrificial" service layer.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity, vibro- and impact resistance, manufacturability and reproducibility, lower costs of manufacture.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: two fullerenes 1 C20 are put into a closed carbon nanotube 2, at the opposite end of which there is spherical fullerene 3 C60, acting as a plunger, applying a pressure of 43.24 hPa on two fullerenes 1 C20.
EFFECT: obtaining dimers of fullerene C20 without impurity atoms.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemistry; photographic industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to photographic industry, particularly to technology of silver-halide photographic emulsion preparation. According to the invention the production of photographic emulsion based on silver-halide laminate microcrystals (LMC) with epitaxial nanostructures is started from preparing nuclear emulsion from solution of AgNO3 and KBr. Thereafter, substrate LMC AgBr are derived by adding solution of AgNO3 and KBr in the nuclear emulsion. Annular epitaxial nanostructures containing AgBr/AgCl are formed on the produced LMC AgBr by adding Kl and KCl solutions in reaction mixture. At the final stage, firstly, epitaxial nanostructures are converted by adding solution of KBr into reaction mixture, thereafter the second conversion is carried out by adding small particle emulsion prepared separately and containing AgBr0.98l0.02-AgBr0.90I0.10.
EFFECT: simplification of photographic emulsion preparation with optimal photographic characteristics of light sensitivity, as well as microcrystal dispersion characteristics used in industrially produced photomaterials.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly to silver powders for electrodes of chemical current source and metalceramic contacs and method of its receiving. It is precipitated silver hydroxyde from the solution of silver nitrate by solution of potassium hydroxide. Received silver hydroxyde is flushed and thermally disintegrated for silver oxide and water. Received silver oxide is mechanically treated and it is implemented thermal reconditioning up to metallic silver. Received powder is flushed from potassium hydroxyde at temperature 60÷80°C during 30÷60 minutes, crushed and compacted in ball crusher during 15÷20 minutes and separated for particle fractions by sizes. Received silver powder consists of cellular particles of value less than 56 mcm, with pores size in particles 0.3-3.0 mcm, allows specific surface area 0.07-0.12 m2/g and packed density 1.4-1.7 g/cm3 or from porous particles of size 56-160 mcm, with pores size in particles 0.3-5.0 mcm, allows specific surface area 0.1-0.2 m2/g, packed density 1.8-2.4 g/cm3 and fluidity 7-12 g/s or from porous particles of value 160-450 mcm, with pores size in particles 0.3-5.0 mcm, allows specific surface area 0.15-0.25 m2/g, packed density 1.8-2.7 g/cm3 and fluidity 8-14 g/s.
EFFECT: it is provided receiving of powder with defined structural and processing characteristics.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes combined deposition of silver and cadmium hydroxides, washing of prepared hydroxides mixture, drying and thermal decomposition. Hydroxides deposition is carried out at the temperature of 15÷30°C with continual mixing from mixture of silver nitrate solution with density of 1.4÷1.45 g/dm3 and cadmium nitrate solution with concentration of 280÷320 g/dm3 and introduction of sodium hydroxide with density of 1.10÷1.20 g/cm3 with the rate of 5÷9 l/min. Moreover, specified solutions are taken in ratio of 1:(0.1÷0.45):(0.28÷0.41) accordingly. Afterwards prepared deposit of hydroxides mixture is separated from solution, deposit is flushed, and thermal decomposition of silver dioxide is carried out in process of silver and cadmium dioxides mixture drying at the temperature of 180÷250°C for 20÷24 hours. Then thermal reduction of silver oxide and thermal decomposition of cadmium dioxide are carried out at the temperature of 450÷540°C for 50÷60 minutes. Silver-cadmium oxide powder is produced by specified method and contains 5÷25 wt % of cadmium oxide.
EFFECT: production of silver-cadmium oxide powder with specified structural and technological characteristics.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves neutralisation of solution of sulphate compound of transition metal or solution of sulphate compounds of transition metals, separation of extrinsic sulphates from the obtained metal hydroxide or from the obtained metal hydroxides, and subsequent treatment of the metal hydroxide or metal hydroxides. Neutralisation of the solution is achieved at pH in the range of 7.0-7.5, and subsequent treatment is done using microwave radiation with frequency in the 2450-3000 MHz range, with 600-700 W power.
EFFECT: shorter duration of process of obtaining powders and lower power input.
3 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of direct or reverse micelles with further reduction of metal precursors in them. Prior to preparation of micelles they are concentrated from water solutions by means of ion flotation or flotation extraction with application of surface agents and hydrocarbons. As water solutions artificial mixtures of dissolved water solutions are used, sewage waters, solutions of ores or their wastes that are poor in platinum metals, solutions of anode slimes of metals electrolytic cleaning.
EFFECT: preparation of platinum metals nanoparticles from wastes of mining industry; ores poor in platinum metals and sewage waters.
FIELD: chemical nano-structural preparations, liquid-phase compositions containing nano-particles of metals and having bactericidal, catalytic, corrosion-preventing and magnetic properties, possibly used in bio-technologies, medicine and nano-electronics.
SUBSTANCE: in order to receive micellar solution of stable metal-containing nano-structure particles, inverse-micellar dispersion is prepared on base of solution of surface-active matter in non-polar solvent, metal salt solution is added and then dispersion is agitated or it is subjected to ultrasound treatment for further deaeration of it. Metal ions are reduced by means of solvated electrons and radicals generated due to action of ionizing irradiation upon dispersion. Nano-structural particles are particles of metals, bimetals, sulfides or metal oxides. Metal salt is added in the form of aqueous, water-alcohol or water-ammonia solution. Sodium bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate is used, mainly as surface-active matter. Normal alkane, cyclic or aromatic hydrocarbons are used as organic solvent. Reduction by means of solvated electrons and radicals is realized in range of absorbed dozes 1 - 60 kGy by means of ionizing irradiation 60Co.
EFFECT: higher efficiency on uses the preparation.
26 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: nano-chemistry, chemical preparations containing metal nano-particles.
SUBSTANCE: metal nano-particle preparation is produced in quazi-equilibrium system of inverse micelles due to reducing metal ions in complex [ mX...nMen+ ... pO2 ] where mX -heterocyclic compound with chelating properties, nMen+ - ions of metals, pO2 - oxygen molecules, m, n, p - quantity of respective components in complex, due to charge transfer inside complex initiated by excess of free energy provided due to presence highly developed interface between dispersed phase and dispersion medium. Method comprises steps of preparing inversely micellar solution of surface active matter in non-polar solvent; preparing and introducing to vessel with inversely micellar solution metal salt ion solution or solution of its complex; introducing into vessel with reaction mixture in solid state structuring heterocyclic compound forming oxocomplexes with metal ions; aerating reaction mixture; soaking colloidal solution for time period sufficient for finally forming stable nano-structural aggregations of metal. Invention allows produce by chemical way in industrial scale nM metal particles at wide selection of compounds as initial reagents.
EFFECT: reduced number of operations, accelerated process for preparing reaction mixtures, possibilities for regulating mode and condition of synthesis.
30 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for producing silver powder used in electrical engineering industry branches, possibly for making electrodes of chemical electric current sources, electric contacts and so on.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of depositing silver chloride from solution of silver nitrate with use of water soluble chloride at temperature 20 - 50°C and pH 1 - 5; decanting mother liquor; treating suspension with solution of alkali metal hydroxide at concentration in reaction medium 12 - 200 g/l; reducing silver from suspension by means of Formalin or formate at temperature 40 - 90 c for 10 -60 min; washing out successively in hot deionized water, in ammonium solution and in cold deionized water; filtering and drying deposit of silver powder at 70 - 120°C.; sifting dried powder through sieve with mesh 250 micrometers.
EFFECT: improved electrochemical, chemical and physical properties of silver powders.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of platinum powder.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of heating solution of platinum IV chloride to which hydrazine compound is added; agitating it for producing of alkali-ammonium solution of platinum II tetra-amine chloride; cleaning alkali-ammonium solution of ammonium-containing salt of platinum II by removing suspensions by filtering; depositing ammonium-containing salt of platinum II out of filtrate of alkali-ammonium solution; separating it from mother liquor, washing and baking it. According to invention composition of water and ammoniumchloroplatinate at predetermined relation of ingredients is used as initial chloride solution. Suspensions is removed out of alkali-ammonium solution of platinum II tetra-amine chloride at sustaining said solution in heated state. Filtrate of alkali-ammonium solution is cooled till crystallization. Crystals of platinum II tetra-amine chloride are deposited as ammonium-containing salt of platinum II.
EFFECT: possibility for producing highly pure powder of platinum with small content of additives at lowered expenses.
5 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of metal containing nanoparticles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of interaction of aqueous solution of natural water-soluble arabin
galactan polysaccharide with concentration 1 - 50% as stabilizer and reducer of formed nanoparticles and aqueous solutions with content of metal salts 0.0067 -
2 mmol at presence of ammonium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide; soaking solution for 5 - 60 min at temperature 20 - 90°C; filtering it; precipitating formed filtrate into ethyl alcohol; separating it and drying deposit. It allows produce metal-containing nanoparticles with metal content in range 0.1 - 21.0%.
EFFECT: possibility for producing stable water-soluble metal containing structures, increased life period of nanoparticles.
4 cl, 7 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of copper powder.
SUBSTANCE: electrolyte contains anhydrous copper sulfate, sulfuric acid and copolymer of acrylamide and acrylic acid as flocculant at next relation of ingredients, g/l: anhydrous copper sulfate, 55-69; sulfuric acid, 160 -170; copolymer of acrylamide and acrylic acid, 0.003 -0.006. Invention provides increased by 19 - 24 % yield of copper powder with fraction size more than 75 micrometers.
EFFECT: lowered labor consumption at taking powder, reduced consumption of cathode rods.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: production of submicron powders of pure metals and of metal compounds in bath with liquid.
SUBSTANCE: method for preparing liquid dispersion including metal-containing submicron particles comprises steps of creating bath with selected liquid in reactor; preparing mixture having metal- containing fluid capable at predetermined condition to be decomposed in selected liquid for forming metal-containing submicron particles; introducing prepared mixture to bath with selected liquid; providing in bath condition suitable for decomposition at least of some part of metal-containing liquid in selected liquid for forming metal-containing submicron particles dispersed in selected liquid. According to invention mixture including metal-containing fluid is added by bubbling into bath with selected liquid in the form of mixture formed by mixing metal-containing fluid with inert carrier gas.
EFFECT: possibility for realizing continuous process of improved economical effectiveness.
30 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex