Material that absorbs electromagnet radiation

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of nanomaterials application. It is suggested to use carbon of bulbous structure as sensitive element of detector in terahertz range of waves that absorbs electromagnet radiation (EMR) in the range of frequencies of 30 - 230 THz.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics.

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The invention relates to the field of nanomaterials that can be used as a material absorbing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the range 30 - 230 THz, as a sensitive element of various sensors registering AMY in the terahertz wave band, as well as material shielding from ELECTROMAGNETIC radiation in this range.

The analogue of this material is carbon onion structure (ULS) in the wavelength range 500 MHz to 30 THz (US 2006241236, Al, G01S7/00, 26.10/1006) and natural mineral shungite (US 7239261, NC/00, 17.02.2005)containing as a component similar to fullerenes hemisphere in size from 15 to 100 And

Shungite as materials of natural origin have uncontrolled particle size and morphology of graphene structures. In addition, they contain large amounts of mineral components, which leads to a significant change in the quantitative and structural characteristics from field to field, and, ultimately, also affects the sensitivity of the final product derived from them.

The previously described receiving carbon onion structure (ULS) and its use as a material weakening of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 500 MHz to 30 THz. Carbon onion structure (ULS) is obtained by annealing of ultra-dispersed diamonds in temp is the temperature 1100-2000°C in a vacuum at a pressure not higher than 10 -2PA or in an inert atmosphere. (EN 2094370, SW 31/00, 27.10.97; Kuznetsov V.L., Chuvilin A.L., Butenko Yu.V. et. al // Chem. Phys. Lett. 1994. V.222. P.343; Kuznetsov V.L., Butenko Yu.V. // Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Synthesis, Properties and Applications/ Ed. By O. Shenderova, D.Gruen. William Andrew Publishing, 2006. P.405).

The authors found that the above-described carbon onion structure (ULS) are able to absorb electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the frequency range 30-230 THz, has low reflectivity and capable of almost completely loosen AMY in this field.

These first discovered the properties of previously known material (EN 2094370, SW 31/00, 27.10.97) make possible its use as a sensitive element of the detector in the terahertz wavelength range of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the frequency domain in the range 30-230 THz.

The invention consists in that the carbon onion structure (ULS) is used as the sensitive element of the detector in the terahertz frequency range.

High absorbing properties and low coefficient of reflection of the material make it one of the possible materials sensitive material of the detector of terahertz radiation bolometer, as well as give incentives to use this material for shielding from ELECTROMAGNETIC radiation in the terahertz frequency range.

Getting the ULS is carried out by thermal annealing explosive nanomat is in (ON) in vacuum (EN 2094370, SW 31/00, 27.10.97).

Because the original nanodiamonds produced several tons per year, this method allows to obtain the ULS on a large scale. In the Institute of catalysis SB RAS was investigated the formation mechanism of carbon onion structure (ULS), developed methods of producing various kinds of ULS and sp2/sp3composites and investigated the properties of these materials.

Using transmission electron microscopy revealed that graphitization nanodiamonds begins when temperatures warm above 1200 K. the Sample is heated at 1170 K, is a diamond particles with an average size of primary particles of 4.2 nm. The distance between crystallographic planes is 2.06 A, which corresponds to the distance between the planes (111) diamond. Annealing at a temperature of 1800 K and above leads to the complete conversion of the particles Anastasov (ON) in the Urals. Obtained in this way the particles of the ULS are quasi-spherical multi-layered graphite-like particles formed by collapsed vysokodetalnye graphene sheets.

The study of the conductivity of the ULS and composites ON-ULS showed that they are characterized by the presence of hopping conductivity. Due to the peculiarities of these systems is the spatial dimensionality of the motion of charge carriers in them can vary from one-dimensional to Dumer the th. Figure 3 summarizes the data for the study of conductive properties of the ULS (also using data magnetoresistivity). You can see the hierarchical structure of a material on the basis of the Urals: the primary particles of the ULS size 4-6 nm (depending on the size of the source Anastasov ()) form aggregates with the size of 10-1000 nm, which in turn form the macroscopic particles of the sample. So, elementary particle is a primary particle; the aggregates formed by the primary particles of the Urals, formed as a result of annealing of the primary particles Anastasov with coherent and incoherent boundaries; the units are linked by van der Waals forces and electrostatic forces of interaction. Individual primary particles of the Urals within the same unit may have a common curved graphene membranes or contact between a C-C bonds. The number of carriers n may vary depending on the conditions of preparation of the sample in a fairly wide range: from 8*1021cm-1(for a sample obtained at a temperature of 1800 K) up to 3*1021cm-1(for the sample obtained at a temperature 2140). Free path length of electrons corresponds to the distance between the defects in the graphene layer, the region of localization of charge carriers is determined by the size of the unit the Urals.

The essence of the image is the shadow is illustrated by the following examples and illustrations.

Figure 1 - device (bolometer) for the registration of AMY in the terahertz range. Attached to substrate conductor that changes resistance with temperature change. Explorer caused to the sensitive layer, which represents the non-conductive suspension of the Urals in the polymeric matrix with a high thermal conductivity. The concentration of the Urals in the matrix must be below the percolation threshold, because otherwise the ULS will shunt conductor and introduce error in the measurement.

Figure 2 is another possible device bolometer. Here the ULS immediately converts the absorbed energy into electrical energy response of the detector. Is a substrate coated conductors. The wires caused the suspension of the Urals in the polymeric matrix with the concentration of particles ULS above the percolation threshold. The resistivity of the ULS is strongly dependent on temperature, therefore this option does not require additional conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy.

Figure 3 - transmission spectra in the range 30-230 THz samples for the ULS (DH1800) and in the matrix of CVG (thickness 0.25 mm, in parentheses indicate the weight content).

Example 1.

The absorption of infrared radiation in the range of 30-250 THz was investigated for samples and the Urals, distributed in a matrix of KBR.

Figure 3 compares the transmission spectra of the samples of the Urals and content 0.02-2 wt.%.

You can see that there is motrya similar to the composition of surface groups, the absorption of infrared radiation by the particles of the ULS is much more compared to similar or even higher concentrations.

Apparently the absorption of the incident EM radiation is not only due to its interaction with the surface groups of carbon sample, but due to energy dissipation in the internal structure, for example, through the activation of hopping conductivity in units of the Urals.

Figure 1-2 shows the device (bolometers) for reception of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the terahertz range using the above-described carbon onion structure.

The use of carbon onion structure as a sensitive element of the detector in the terahertz wavelength range of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the frequency range 30-230 THz.



 

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