Method for preparation of composite material

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for woodworking and construction industry, and also environmental protection, and may be used in production of different construction materials, furniture panels, etc. Particles of organic filler, in particular wastes of woodworking industry, are ground to size of 1-0.25 mm, fractioned and dried to moisture extent of 3% and below. Then particles of this component and thermoplastic binder are charged with opposite electric charges by means of their supply to surface of rotor that rotates with circumferential speed of 80-120 m/s. As thermoplastic binder you can use domestic waste, such as polyethylene bags, containers. Charged particles of filler and binder are mixed. Mass prepared in mixer is sent through overbridge equipped with bipolar ioniser. Length and diametre of overbridge are such that they provide time of 10-12 sec for mass staying, which is sufficient to achieve residual charge of static electricity by voltage value of 20-500 V/cm. Invention makes it possible to produce cheap items by simple method with density of 0.99-1.00 g/cm3 and flexural length of at least 42 MPa, to recycle wastes, improve ecology and reduce toxicity of items.

EFFECT: production of cheap items by simple method with density of 0,99-1,00 g/cm3 and flexural strength of at least 42 MPa, recycling of wastes, improved ecology and reduced toxicity of products.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the manufacture of composite materials of organic fillers of natural origin, such as sawdust, and glue. Products made from such composite materials can be used for various construction materials, furniture panels, etc.

At the present time in the manufacture of such materials as a binder are used mainly phenol and phenol-formaldehyde resins which retain their toxicity in products. Replacement of toxic phenol and phenol-formaldehyde resins for non-toxic thermoplastic polymers, such as polyethylene, eliminates this disadvantage, reduce the manufacturing cost and allows to solve the problem of using a large number of household and industrial waste. However, thermoplastic poorly or not at all moisten the filler, resulting in uneven distribution of the binder by volume, an increase in its consumption in the process and degradation of physical and mechanical properties of the composite.

In prior art solutions, which attempt to solve the problem.

In the patent RU 2076040 C1 (27N 3/00, 1997) described a method of manufacturing articles made of composite materials, including mixing shredded filler, mainly wood electrostatic fields of different polarity on the filler and/or a thermoplastic binder, subsequent mixing of the filler and the binder, and forming products. However, residual static electricity in the products obtained according to this method, remains relatively high, which does not provide features to meet modern requirements.

There is also known a method described in patent RU 2081135 C1 (08L 97/02, 2001), which consists in obtaining clean wood-filled plastics on the basis of thermoplastic polymeric binder and dispersed woody vegetation filler. This method includes defining component parameters: the concentration of acidic and basic centers on the surface of the filler and the binder, the polarity and the relaxation time remaining specific charge of filler particles, the subsequent modification of the filler by tabactivity for 2-1200 s temperature 10-220C and intensity sufficient to achieve the specific charge 510-7-510-5CL/kg and time relaxation of 0.05-1 KS. From this document it is also known that the mixing of the filler and the binder are beginning to produce during the period of time after tabactivity no more than the doubled value of the relaxation time remaining specific charge of filler particles. This method allows to obtain products with satisfactory characteristics is istiqama, however due to the complexity of the technology he has not found wide application.

Closest to the claimed is a method of manufacturing a composite material comprising a dispersion of particles of an organic filler, mainly arboreal origin, up 1-0,25 mm, fractionation and drying to the degree of humidity of 3% or less, the charging of the particles of this component and a thermoplastic binder opposite electric charges by submitting them to the surface of the rotor, rotating at a peripheral velocity of 80-120 m/s, the mixing of the charged particles of the filler and the binder, heating the mixture obtained in 10-12 s after mixing for the subsequent formation of the product (see U.S. Pat. EN 2164864, 27N 3/02, 2001).

A significant disadvantage of this method is that it does not provide a dense mass of mixed particles of the organic filler and the binder at the stage of transition from the mixer in a heating device, which leads to non-uniform heating of the mass and, as a consequence, the quality of the finished product. This is due to the presence of excess static electricity from the same charged particles of the organic filler, after the oppositely charged particles of the filler and the binder formed of electrically neutral conglomerates. This ocher is d', leads to the mutual repulsion of the particles, reducing the bulk density of the mass, reducing its conductivity.

The present invention is to eliminate the disadvantages inherent in the above-mentioned methods and materials.

This is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a composite material comprising a dispersion of particles of the organic filler to the size 1-0,25 mm, fractionation and drying to the degree of humidity of 3% or less, the charging of the particles of this component and a thermoplastic binder opposite electric charges by submitting them to the surface of the rotor, rotating at a peripheral velocity of 80-120 m/s, the mixing of the charged particles of the filler and the binder, heating the mixture obtained in 10-12 s after mixing for the subsequent formation of the product obtained in the mixer mass before forming passed through the underpass, equipped with bipolar ionizer, and the length and diameter of the cross these are what provide the time mass sufficient to achieve it residual static electricity charge on the amount of tension 20-500/see it is Preferable to use a filler of wood origin, in particular waste wood processing industry, which allows them to dispose of. Preferably, the contact time of the mass with the BIP is popular ionizer in the overpass did not exceed 10-12 C. Less contact time is not achieving the stated values of tension and, accordingly, high physical-mechanical characteristics of the products. More contact time does not significantly affect the magnitude of the intensity, but increases the length of the process, therefore reducing its efficiency.

It should be noted that industry are produced and manufactured bipolar ionizer to neutralize static electricity insulators such as plastics, for example 3MTM called isoniazid AIR BLOWER, information about which is contained in the Internet site http://www.3m.com/product/information/Ionized-Air-Blower.html. However, firstly, in the public domain there is no detailed information about this ionizer. Secondly, as shown by studies of the authors of this application, the ionizers of this type are used for ready-made products, which is unlikely to substantially improve their physical and mechanical characteristics which are laid at different stages of the technology.

This method is illustrated in the drawing, 1 is a device for grinding an organic binder, 2 - a device for fractionation of crushed particles, 3 - dryer, 4 - tank thermoplastic binder, 5 - dozer, 6 - device for charging particles of binder and filler, 7 - mixer, 8 - overpass, equipped with bipolar ionizer, 9 - ICI the EMA for heating the mixture, pressing and forming products 10 - system for cooling products in the form.

Examples of the method.

The feedstock organic, mainly wood, origin, such as shavings, sawdust or similar waste wood processing industry, crushed in the device 1 and fed to the fractionation in the device 2. Hence the particle size 1-0,25 mm direct in the dryer 3, and the larger particles are returned to the grinding. In the dryer 3 bring the moisture content of the filler to 3% or less. The dried particles are fed into the dispenser 5, where also send a thermoplastic binder from the hopper 4. The dispenser 5 both components are dosed according to a recipe for a specific product, and then serve them to the surface of the rotating rotor device 6. The rotor is equipped with a special, mainly rubber, coating and ledges, indicating to the particles of the axial component of velocity. Circumferential velocity at the surface of the rotor is about 80-120 m/s As shown by experiments, the interaction of particles with the surface rotating with the speed of the rotor provides efficient charging of almost all particles by static electricity and particles of binder and filler charged with opposite charges. Then both components are thoroughly mixed in the mixer 7. The result is a mixture in which the each particle of the filler is surrounded by oppositely charged particles of the binder. So get neutral conglomerates. However, to accurately calculate and obtain an equal number of oppositely charged particles is impossible, so the weight is always some amount of charged particles, informing her of static charge and gives it a loose, loose consistency. It doesn't matter what this charge: positive or negative. To remove static charge and giving the mass of the compacted consistency it is sent to the overpass 8, equipped with a bipolar ionizer, where excessive static electricity is neutralized.

As shown by numerous experiments, bulk density of the mixed mass after passing through the underpass 8 and contact with bipolar ionizer increases not less than 20%, provided that the residual static electricity on the magnitude of the electrostatic field does not exceed

20-500/see Therefore the length and diameter of the cross 8 pick as to provide a residence time of pulp in it, sufficient to achieve the specified value of the residual static electricity. It also depends on the specific formulation of the product, i.e. the number of filler and binder.

After the overpass 8 mass is fed into the system 9 that is used for heating the mixture, pressing and shaping the Oia products. The finished product is cooled in the system 10.

The table shows the characteristics of the composite material obtained according to the invention. From the experimental data shown in the table, there is a strong dependence between the ultimate bending strength of the finished product obtained at the output of the node 10, and the residual static electricity mass of the intermediate product coming out of the mixer 7 through 8 overpass. As an intermediate result, it should be noted the growth in the value of the bulk mass of the intermediate product at the exit of the underpass 8, which improves heat transfer processes in the heater 9, and also increases the density of the finished product at the exit of the node 10 (e.g., a worm press or extruder). This data also shows that the best performance (maximum bulk density and bending strength) have the product, the residual static charge which is in the range 20-500/see

Table
p/pResidual static electricity, In/cmBulk density of the mixture at the outlet of the mixer, g/cm3The density of the finished product at the outlet of the worm press, is/cm 3The ultimate bending strength of the finished material, MPa
1200,681,042
2750,681,042
31500,681,042
42500,681,042
55000,650,9942
62000of 0.58 to 0.600,9438
7150000,47-0,500,8520-30

Thus, the present invention allows to obtain products with improved characteristics is simple in hardware design method. Also what about the, products are non-toxic and cheaper, because for their manufacturing waste is used shavings, sawdust, waste, plastic bags, containers, etc. Therefore, along with the improvement of the performance of the products, the present invention also solves the problem of waste, improve the environment and reduce the toxicity of products.

1. A method of manufacturing a composite material comprising a dispersion of particles of the organic filler to the size 1-0,25 mm, fractionation and drying to the degree of humidity of 3% or less, the charging of the particles of this component and a thermoplastic binder opposite electric charges by submitting them to the surface of the rotor, rotating at a peripheral velocity of 80-120 m/s, the mixing of the charged particles of the filler and the binder, heating the mixture obtained in 10-12 s after mixing for the subsequent formation of the product, characterized in that obtained in the mixer a lot before the formation of the product passed through the underpass, equipped with bipolar ionizer, and the length and diameter of the cross are that provide the residence time mass sufficient to achieve it residual static electricity charge on the amount of tension 20-500/see

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use wood filler of origin Taiwan is born, in particular, waste wood industry.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that thermoplastic binder used household waste, particularly plastic bags, containers.



 

Same patents:

Chipboard // 2355569

FIELD: wood industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to production of chipboards. The board includes bottom and top surface layers with fine particles, and an intermediate layer with more coarse particles is placed between these surface layers. The intermediate layer has various density in the areas, where the board is supposed to be attached to an other object. The chipboard production method includes even distribution of fines followed by generation of the first particle matrix to form a bottom surface layer, distribution of more coarse particles followed by generation of the second particle matrix above the fine particle matrix using a distribution device so that at least in one zone the coarse particles are applied in a more thick layer than at least in one surrounding area, even distribution of the fine particles followed by generation of the third coarse particle matrix to form a top surface layer and compression of the first, second and third matrices, whereby the intermediate layer thickness remains virtually unchanged, so the intermediate layer has various density.

EFFECT: produced chipboards feature increased soundproof and heat-insulating properties, and light weight, that facilitates efficient shipment of the processed boards.

9 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of construction beam production out of modified wood involves wood modification by squeezing fine metal powder into lumber cavity, with further formation of lumber face by rolling even surface before feeding it into reverse mold, where lumber is put by metal faces together. Then ultra high frequency (UHF) current is applied to beam ends to mollify metal powder, and modified materials are connected in reverse mold by pressing, at the moment of which UHF current is switched off, and obtained seam is cooled, finished beam is extracted from reverse mold freeing it for next beam pressing.

EFFECT: obtainment of construction beams of specified shape and strength properties.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: converted timber or chip plate is made of eucalyptus breeds and connected by means of binding substance containing isocyanatic or phenol polymeric compound. Eucalypti of the following species were selected: Bluegum (E. Globulus), Karri (E. Diversicolor), Sydney Bluegum (E. Saligna), Marri (E. Calophylla) or Jarrah (E. Marginata).

EFFECT: high surface strength, wet resistance and low swelling ratios.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: method includes grinding of woodworking wastes or plant materials, mixing with binder and subsequent pressing. Binder is liquid sodium glass that contains dry substance of glass 30-70; water 70-130 wt parts; at that cold pressing is executed, and binder is taken in amount of 20-50 wt parts per 100 wt parts of wastes. Binder may additionally contain hardener - salts of mineral acids in amount of 3-5 wt parts, in this case liquid sodium glass is preliminarily homogenised with hardener.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to prepare ecologically clean, thermally resistant and moisture resistant items.

8 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: rush stems are flattened in rolls, laid mutually perpendicular and milled into shreddings with particle size of 5-15 mm or into powder with particle size of 100-300 mm, saturated with water solution of bakelite resin in amounts of 1-2% or with water solution of wax emulsion, or mixed with heated up to liquid state bitumen or with particles of wire in amounts of 0,5-2%. Then the raw material is heated up to release of proper bonding agents, pressed either in pressing molds or through shaped hole of pressing mold with required products forming and is hold in acclimatisator until cooling.

EFFECT: invention allows for reducing energy consumption and obtaining strong, durable and ecologically clean construction materials, products and structures.

2 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: reed laminose material is made of dace or southern reed, contains odd, maximum 15, quantity of the layers executed from cut lengthways on thin strips of a reed stalks and laid in an is mutual-perpendicular direction. Strips are impregnated by carbamide, urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde gluing compositions with hot solidification and are pressed in compression moulds at temperature 100-140°C and pressure 0.8-1.5 MPa. Equipment for manufacture of a reed-layered material has the conveyor consisting from plates for feed of a reed slab, the slab piercing gear, the directive conveyor connected to hydraulic system and executed with possibility of its movement by the rail together with a cutting frame by means of the longitudinal feed gear. Equipment also contains the horizontal dividing device for reed layer partitioning off from a total mass, directive bulwarks for the reed layer feed on a slab, glue feed system for reed impregnation by glue, the elevating device, the device for lowering of a reed layer on size of the removed layer, with possibility of feed of the received laying in system of hydraulic pressing for formation of a reed-layered material.

EFFECT: invention will allow receiving a material with high technological properties.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: wood=working industry, in particular, production of presswork from particles of vegetable origin.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for production of composite boards without addition of a binder, from a hydrolyzed lignocelluloses material, before hot pressing, the fibrous mat is formed with the use of a film of polyethylene, up to 0.2 mm thick, laid as a component of the external layers of the pressed composition. Pressing is performed at a temperature of 120 to 140 C and a unit pressure of 50 kg/sq.cm at a duration of pressing of 1 min/1 mm of the board thickness.

EFFECT: enhanced moisture resistance of composite material.

3 ex

FIELD: wood-working industry, and namely the method of manufacture of the structural unit, in particular, slab of wood fiber, wood chip and/or sawdust, and pressing of fiber, chip, and/or sawdust with applied glue for formation of the structural unit, in particular, slab.

SUBSTANCE: at first the wood fiber, chip and/or sawdust are decomposed by steaming into liquid components and hard components. The liquid components are separated and cooled inside the closed hermetic system up to their discharge from the system. During this process the ecological load caused by odor is sharply reduced. The invention also includes a device for realization of the method and a structural unit manufactured on it.

EFFECT: produced an ecologically pure method for manufacture of slabs and a device for its realization.

46 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: compositions used for manufacture of plates from wood laminate.

SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacture of plates contains rice shell or rice shell and sawdust mixture used as filler, liquid sodium glass having modulus of 2.4-3.6, and silicon dioxide. Artificial silicon dioxides or siliceous dust-like wastes of various industries may be used as silicon dioxides, with SiO2 content making at least 80%. Composition components are used in predetermined ratio.

EFFECT: improved strength and water tightness, and increased efficiency in utilization of various wastes.

2 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry.

SUBSTANCE: fiber or chip is dried, then it is mixed with glue at a temperature of below 100C, and a plate is formed at a temperature above 140C, wood is decomposed into solid and liquid components that are used as the glue. The installation for manufacture of the plate has a drying device, device for application of glue onto the fiber or chip, device for compaction, transport facilities for transferring the fiber or chip from the drying device to the device for application of glue, mixer having means for cooling the body. The contents of glue in a plate obtained with the use of the installation makes up 45 to 55 kg per cubic meter of plate.

EFFECT: produced plate with a lower contents of glue as compared with plates produced by the known methods.

31 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: wood-working industry; production of pressed building items.

SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertinent to the field of production of pressed building items made out of plant roughage and may be used in wood-working construction industries and other branches of economy. The panel made by pressing out of a carpet without synthetic binding materials consists of a mixture of a birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns and a filler predominantly out of cellulose filaments at the following ratios in respect to the total dry solid matter (in mass %): a birchen bark - 60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. In an alternative version of the panel, which is made the same way as the above, the outer surfaces of the carpet are strengthened with lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound including an excelsior and the KF-EC resin with a hardener or an excelsior and triturated secondary polymer taken in amount of 10-12 mass % to the weight of the excelsior. At that the share of the lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound makes 20-40 % to the total dry weight of the carpet. The method allows to use a ground birchen bark without synthetic binding agents for shaping a carpet and its consequent pressing. At that for a carpet formation they use the birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns, and a filler mainly made out of cellulose filaments taken in the following ratio in respect to the total dry weight(in mass %): a birchen bark-60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. Before formation of the carpet the filler is moistened up to 18-20 % of absolute humidity and is mixed with ground birchen bark. The carpet is formed with a thickness equal to 200-300 % of the thickness of a finished panel. The group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.

EFFECT: group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.

8 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: production of plate materials of the splint-slab type, applicable in the wood-working and building industries.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in processing of husk particles by a binder containing urea-formaldehyde resin, ammonium chloride, Aerosil butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2; butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.

EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical characteristics of the plates.

2 tbl

FIELD: production of building materials, applicable in the wood-working, furniture and building industries.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing together of wood particles with urea-formaldehyde resin, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, ammonium chloride and Aerosil, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.

EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical and ecological characteristics.

2 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry, in particular, methods for decreasing the content and emission of formaldehyde intended for fiber boards.

SUBSTANCE: the process of production of fiber boards is conducted with employment of aminated adhesive resins with an addition of substances binding the formaldehyde by compacting in running presses or continuous-action presses and by cooling. After compacting, but before cooling the fiber board is subjected to a short-time curing at 80 to 100C during 6 to 16 hours, depending an the expected level of decrease and emission of formaldehyde and used parameters of the process of production.

EFFECT: reduced content and emission of formaldehyde in the fiber board.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: wood-working industry, applicable in furniture, building, packaging and machine-building branches of industry.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that filings and sawdust composed of: coniferous needles - 80%< filings - 10%, sawdust - 5% and wood fibers - 5% are added to the ground pulp of coniferous needles. The obtained mass is fed to the forming unit, which forms the sheets, which are fed to a press, where they are compacted at a pressure of not more than 10 Mpa at a temperature of not higher than 250C during not longer than 30 S. The obtained coniferous-needle material is cooled down, packed and delivered to the consumers.

EFFECT: produced material with breaking load, high density, low water absorption.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: manufacture of substantially flat articles, for instance particle boards and other articles of industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials by hot pressing thereof.

SUBSTANCE: method for particle board production involves performing hot molding at temperature of 120-200°C and under pressure of 2.5 - 30.0 MPa for panel forming. Industrial waste, molasses, concentrated corn steep or mixture thereof are used as binding material, wherein lime and starch-containing materials are added to mixture including industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials and the binding material before hot molding operation beginning.

EFFECT: increased ecological safety and increased strength of the panels.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: production of plate material.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composition is made on base of dispersed raw material with modifying additive; plate material is made by molding the said composition at temperature of 160-190°C and pressure of 65-95 kg/cm2; molding time of 1 min per 1 mm of plate thickness. Used as modifying agent are acid by-products of oxidation of cyclohexane of caprolactam process at mass ratio to wood wastes of 50-70:30-50, respectively.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure of production of composition.

1 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry.

SUBSTANCE: fiber or chip is dried, then it is mixed with glue at a temperature of below 100C, and a plate is formed at a temperature above 140C, wood is decomposed into solid and liquid components that are used as the glue. The installation for manufacture of the plate has a drying device, device for application of glue onto the fiber or chip, device for compaction, transport facilities for transferring the fiber or chip from the drying device to the device for application of glue, mixer having means for cooling the body. The contents of glue in a plate obtained with the use of the installation makes up 45 to 55 kg per cubic meter of plate.

EFFECT: produced plate with a lower contents of glue as compared with plates produced by the known methods.

31 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: compositions used for manufacture of plates from wood laminate.

SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacture of plates contains rice shell or rice shell and sawdust mixture used as filler, liquid sodium glass having modulus of 2.4-3.6, and silicon dioxide. Artificial silicon dioxides or siliceous dust-like wastes of various industries may be used as silicon dioxides, with SiO2 content making at least 80%. Composition components are used in predetermined ratio.

EFFECT: improved strength and water tightness, and increased efficiency in utilization of various wastes.

2 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry, and namely the method of manufacture of the structural unit, in particular, slab of wood fiber, wood chip and/or sawdust, and pressing of fiber, chip, and/or sawdust with applied glue for formation of the structural unit, in particular, slab.

SUBSTANCE: at first the wood fiber, chip and/or sawdust are decomposed by steaming into liquid components and hard components. The liquid components are separated and cooled inside the closed hermetic system up to their discharge from the system. During this process the ecological load caused by odor is sharply reduced. The invention also includes a device for realization of the method and a structural unit manufactured on it.

EFFECT: produced an ecologically pure method for manufacture of slabs and a device for its realization.

46 cl, 3 dwg

Up!