Method, device, system and heat exchanger to increase temperature of substance that was initially contained in container in at least partially hardened condition

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method to increase temperature of substance contained in container in partially hardened condition, at that at least one heat exchanger is installed in container. It is achieved by installation of pumping device for substance mixing, heat exchange between heat exchanger and substance, substance displacement by pumping device to improve heat exchange between heat exchanger and substance, and also by mixing of substance with the help of pumping device during substance displacement inside container. When substance is displaced, then not only stagnated substance is in contact with heat exchanger for heat exchange. Amount of substance in contact with heat exchanger, therefore, considerably rises, and heat transfer depends less on substance heat conductivity.

EFFECT: invention objective is to obtain possibility of relative fast variation of substance temperature.

23 cl, 12 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method for increasing the temperature of the substance, which was originally in the container to at least partially cured state, and the container has at least one heat exchanger. In addition, the invention relates to apparatus, system and heat exchanger.

Usually tanks for the storage of substances can be equipped with a spiral heat exchanger, immersed in the substance, or a helical coil wrapped around the tank, for heating of such substances. Heating substances can be produced for different purposes, for example, to weld substance, to change the viscosity of the substance, accelerate the chemical process between the compounds in the substance and so on

The active surface of the heat exchanger is heated at least up to such a temperature as the desired temperature of the substance, i.e. there is a temperature difference. In order to obtain the desired temperature in a short time, the temperature difference is usually increased. However, if the substance or one or more fractions of a substance sensitive to high temperatures, the temperature of the coil should be kept less than or equal to the maximum allowable temperature. For some substances, the maximum temperature may be quite low, and if the tank is to place a large number of the substances, the time for heating substances can be very long. The same problem exists when a substance is cooled. This phenomenon is known also by the example of the snowman. When the snow is compacted into large balls, as is the case for the snowman takes a lot of time, so it melted, compared with the same amount of snow lying loose when it falls on the lawn.

One example of a situation when a temperature change occurs for a long time, is a large amount of vegetable oil in a plastic container. Such plastic containers are known, for example, as soft tank, or equivalent, with capacity from one to many hundreds of liters, as produced for sale companies Trans Ocean Distribution (www.todbulk.com or John S Braid & Co Ltd (www.braidco.com). During transportation, the ambient temperature may be below the melting point of the oil, so the oil gradually hardens. To empty the container, hardened oil should be melted at the destination. So first container is placed on a heating Mat before you fill it with oil. After arrival at the destination endpoint heating Mat must be switched on for several days, for example, from four to five days, depending on the size of the container, before the butter is melted and can be bottled. A long time caused by lane is left turn, a large number of oil and that the temperature of the heating Mat should be limited. The limitation is due to the plastic from which the container, which can only withstand a certain temperature, and more importantly, the quality of vegetable oil will completely deteriorate if it is heated too much. Also the pressure of the heating medium (water or steam) can not be increased further, if the pipe in a heating Mat and fittings are not designed to withstand high loads due to high blood pressure.

In another heating system described in the patent US 2522948, is used for cooling water or some other liquid. The liquid is pumped into the tank through the heat exchanger, consisting of a number of parallel tubes in the casing. After passing through the tube, the cooled fluid flows then from the other, the far open end of the casing inside the tank and mixed with the rest of the liquid. Fluid is pumped from the exhaust holes on the bottom of the tank and circulates until it reaches the desired temperature. Although the heat exchanger can probably also be used for heating, the pump can only operate on liquids, and not on the substance, which was originally partially hardened and not amenable to pumping by the pump. In addition, subjected to heat exchange between the heat exchange fluid and the other aspects of the substance may not be very effective, as the fluid merely circulates around the system, and therefore, the mixing takes place only near the inner edge of the heat exchanger. This leads to large changes in temperature at different locations within the tank and to a greater total cooling time. Also, the system takes a lot of space inside the tank as the fluid and, thereby, the pipe out of the tank at one end and is comprised of approximately with the other. Thus, in the tank requires several connecting elements and openings, as well as access to the main part of the outer surface of the tank, which is not always possible in practice.

In the patent US 6002838 describes the storage tank and unloading liquids heated during unloading. The tank is divided into two branches only with a relatively small hole in the middle and with a heat exchanger placed in the smaller compartment. The liquid is pumped through a heat exchanger and pumped, where part of it is drained out and the residue is then pumped back into the small compartment. As described earlier patent, the liquid recycle to provide heating of the remaining fluid. However, the effect of mixing is not obtained. Moreover, the above method requires a special design of storage tanks with built-in compartments, and therefore, this method does not Ave the manim on standard tanks. Finally, the method cannot solve the problem of heating a substance which is initially in the state, is not amenable to pumping by the pump.

A little bit like the heating device described in patent US 3856078. Here, the heat exchanger is placed in a separate and well-isolated chamber in the lower part of the tank, with only one hole in the rest of the tank. Near the inner edge of the heat exchanger, the pump, which causes the fluid, in particular, heavy oil, can flow along the steam pipe in the heat exchanger and to some extent to circulate in an isolated chamber. Heating is carried out in parallel with the discharging side of the fluid, when a portion of the heated liquid is discharged directly when warms up, and the other part is again in the tank, moving back along the outer surface of the heat exchanger, but still within an isolated chamber. However, this device, like the previous one, is designed to heat not only the tank filled with liquid, but to heat a limited number together with his rake.

One challenge is to obtain a relatively rapid temperature increase of the entire tank is filled with material that was originally in at least partially hardened state. Another challenge in that is, to get a relatively quick temperature rise, even when the allowable limited temperature difference or the maximum allowable temperature.

The following tasks will be understood from further description. Thus, the invention provides a method of raising the temperature of the substance, and the substance is initially at least partially hardened condition, as indicated in paragraph 1 of the claims, and are provided with pumping means for moving a substance, comprising the following steps:

a) providing a heat exchange between the heat exchanger and the substance,

b) moving the substance transfer device to enhance heat transfer between the heat exchanger and the substance,

c) mixing the substance transfer device by moving substances within the container using at least one device type nozzle to increase the flow rate with stirring.

When a substance which is initially in at least partially hardened condition, move according to step b), then in contact with the heat exchanger for heat exchange in accordance with step (a) is not only stagnant substance. Thereby significantly increasing the amount of a substance in contact with the heat exchanger, and the heat transfer is less than what avisit from thermal conductivity of the substance. When the substance is stirred further in accordance with step C), it turns out that the substance after contact with the heat exchanger removed from the heat exchanger and mixed with the rest of the substance, in accordance with what will also be subjected to heat exchange between the heat transfer substance and the rest of the substance, which represents a great improvement compared to the heat exchange only with heat exchanger. In stage C) get that stuff away from the heat exchanger is transferred to the heat exchanger, in accordance with which the heat exchanger may be a short time to exchange heat with the whole matter, which again reduces the dependence on thermal conductivity of the substance. When increasing the flow rate improves the mixing effect, and thereby also the transfer of heat to or from the substance. Having multiple nozzles or devices such as nozzles of different sizes and in different places, mixing can be adjusted so that the mixing of the heated substance with unheated substance could have been received in all parts of the tank, and even in the most remote from the heat exchanger corners. In the simplest case, the nozzle may be holes.

The method may preferably include the connection of the heat exchanger with external power devices to transfer heat to the substance in the container, and a power device and perekachivayuschih the device are coordinated by a control device for regulating the temperature of the substance. Thus the external power device to transfer heat to or from the substance must be equipped only in places where should be the transfer of heat. Through the coordination of the power devices and the pumping device can be obtained softer transporting substance, for example, by adjusting the volume pumped per unit time, compared to the amount of heat transferred to or from the power devices to, for example, to prevent overheating and, in addition, to gain complete control over the temperature range of substances.

The heat exchanger may preferably contain an elongated cylindrical surface and a guiding device for holding the material along a given surface when carrying out step b), and specified a guiding device connected to the pumping device. When the substance is conducted along the surface of the heat exchanger, achieve improved heat transfer between matter and heat exchanger, as the substance can interact with the heat exchanger along the surface, and not limited to a certain limited part of the surface.

A guiding device in the preferred embodiment, may include a casing situated essentially concentrically arranged around the heat exchanger and the casing contains a number the holes, situated in a specific order along the length of the casing to distribute the substance when carrying out step C). Thereby achieve improved heat transfer between matter and heat exchanger, as well as the effect of mixing substances, when it is spread over the holes. Compared to heat transfer to or from a substance, which is in a static state, the effect of the distribution and the resulting blend effect significantly improve the heat transfer to or from the total number of substances. In the case where the method comprises melting the hardened substance, thanks to the guiding device containing casing, mounted essentially concentrically arranged around the heat exchanger, receive that the substance contained in the guiding device may be first melted by heat from the heat exchanger, after which the melted substance is then spread throughout the rest of the substance that remains hardened in accordance with what get direct heat transfer to this part.

External device power can in a preferred execution to include a device for heating water. A device for heating water can usually be bought relatively inexpensively. Water is neutral to the environment, and if the amount of water accidentally occur, will not have done any harm.

Sposobrostey can be used then when the substance is initially in an at least partially cured state, and when the exchange of heat between the heat exchanger and the substance takes place in accordance with step (a) at least until melted a number of substances before you begin the steps b) and c). The method is especially suitable for partially melting the hardened substance.

Application of the method is preferably for melting solidified edible oil or fat. Oil or fat, for example, of vegetable origin, often produce about the place of growth or technological installations in places very remote from where they are used. Therefore they are transported on ships, so they can be on the path of days or weeks, which is sufficient time to cool ambient temperature to a temperature below the melting temperature. To empty the containers, which store such oil or fat, oil or grease should be melted, to allow draining or pumping of the pump.

In addition, since the heat exchanger is located inside the container, the apparatus requires a minimum amount as during transportation of the container, and when the heating process. Thus, the heating method can be used even where space is limited. Yes is it the heat exchanger according to the invention is inserted and mounted on the container in only one place, and therefore have access to the other sides of the container is not needed. It is also very advantageous when the method is applied to the substance, as, for example, an edible oil or fat, originally nalita soft tank placed inside the shipping container for extra stability and durability during transportation. In this case, the access soft tank is limited to only one side of the bag, just inside the drain hole of the container, but if you use the present invention, it will not cause any problems.

In addition, the invention relates to apparatus for increasing the temperature of a substance when the substance is initially in the container to at least partially hardened condition, and said apparatus includes at least one heat exchanger adapted to transfer heat to the substance, when the heat exchanger is installed in the container, and the apparatus contains, in addition, uploaders and guiding device to move the substance in the container, and uploaders and guiding device adapted for mixing substances by the movement of a substance through at least one device type nozzle to increase the velocity and increase the of teploobmena between the heat exchanger and the substance, when a substance moves. When there is a heat exchange between the substance and the heat exchanger in the container and the substance moves through the pumping and guide device for mixing substances in contact with the heat exchanger for exchange of heat is not only stagnant substance, in accordance with which the heat transfer is greatly improved. The amount of a substance in contact with the heat exchanger increases, and the heat transfer is less dependent on thermal conductivity of the substance.

Preferred embodiments of the apparatus according to the invention are subject of the dependent claims 11-13.

In addition, the invention relates to a system that contains a container for storing a substance, a heat exchanger with at least one elongated cylindrical inside surface of the container, and a guiding device for holding substances along the surface of the heat exchanger, and a guiding device includes a casing situated essentially concentrically arranged around the heat exchanger, and is able to accept the flow of the material, and the casing has a number of holes arranged in a specific order along the length of the casing for distributing the flow of a substance when it is present.

Preferred embodiments of the system according to the invention ablauts is the subject of the dependent claims 14-17.

In addition, the invention relates to a heat exchanger containing an elongated and substantially cylindrical section, intended for heat exchange with the substance, and a guiding device containing casing, positioned essentially concentrically arranged around the heat exchanger and adapted for receiving and holding the substance flow from one end of the casing along the section, and the casing has a number of holes arranged in a specific order along the length of the casing for the discharge of the flow of a substance when it is present.

Preferred embodiments of the heat exchanger according to the invention are subject of the dependent claims 19-23.

Hereinafter the invention is described with reference to the drawings, which illustrate examples of embodiments of the invention.

On figa shows a side view of the heat exchanger according to the invention,

on fig.1b shows the front view of the heat exchanger presented on figa,

figure 2 shows the cross-section Y-Y with fig.1b,

figure 3 shows the cross-section x-X with figa,

figure 4 shows a side view in section of a heat exchanger installed inside the container

on figa shows a top view of the heat exchanger that is installed in the container

on fig.5b shows the detail Z in figa in enhanced format,

figure 6 shows a simplified diagram of the recirculation of the heat transfer medium in the heat exchanger

on IG shows a simplified diagram of the recirculation substances

on Fig shows a cross-section corresponding to figure 2, which shows the flow direction of the heat transfer medium and substances

figure 9 shows one variant of implementation of the heat exchanger according to the invention,

on figa shows one variant of implementation of the heat exchanger according to the invention in side view,

on fig.10b shows the heat exchanger on figa in top view,

on figs shows the heat exchanger on figa as from the end.

The figures shows the number of different pipes, which are presented without welding and brazing, etc. for connection and Assembly of these tubes. However, such connections are common for a specialist, and therefore are omitted for simplification. The relative sizes of the heat exchanger in figure 1-3 and 9-10 is shown as being in the scope.

On figa and 1b depicts a heat exchanger 2, which contains the guiding device which includes a casing 6 with holes 7. The heat exchanger 2, in addition, contains holes 18, 19, 20, 21 and 24. Holes 19 and 20 are adapted for connection to the power supply units to transfer heat to or from the heat exchanger, for example, heated water or steam is returned to the heat exchanger 2 through the holes. To form the inner path in the heat exchanger 2, has a tubular sections 31-33. In addition, the heat exchanger includes an exhaust portion 29 having an aperture 24, which is connected with the hole 18. Release the flanged portion 29 has a cylindrical section 14, adapted for the reception of fasteners.

Figure 2 and 3 shows the heat exchanger 2, containing elongated cylindrical section 4 formed by the pipe 8, with the first end 9 and a second end 10. The pipe 8 is connected to a pipe 32 and from her hole 20. Inside the pipe 8 installed in the second pipe 15, having an open first end 16 located near the closed first end 10. The pipe 15 to the second end 17 is connected to a pipe 33, which passes up into the hole 19. The pipe 8 is concentrically surrounded by a guiding device, which here is a casing 6 formed by a pipe having a number of holes 7, and the holes are preferably facing upwards and sideways. The casing 6 is connected to the pipe 31 and away from the hole 21. The discharge portion 29 is fastened around the casing 6 and has a hole 24. The discharge portion 29 includes, in addition, the connection hole 18.

Figure 4 shows the heat exchanger 2 with the casing 6 and an elongated cylindrical surface 4, and the final part 29 containing cylindrical section 14. The heat exchanger 2 is attached to the wall 25 shown container casing 6 and the surface 4, passing on the length L in the container. The length L is preferably essentially corresponds to the length/depth/width of the container to strengthen the work of the heat exchanger when it is turned on. The heat exchanger 2 is connected with the pipe 23 through nepo is asanoha the coupling element, for example, Straub, which effectively closes any gaps between the pipe 23 and the cylindrical section 14 of the outlet part 29. The pipe 23 is connected to the flanges 27 and 26, which are attached to the wall 25. To attach the pipes 23 are used, the bolts 28. In this way not shown, the hole 24 (see, e.g., figure 2) can take the substance from the container through the pipe 23. On figa and 5b of the heat exchanger 2 is attached through flanges 26 and 27 to the wall 25 of the container 34. The casing 6 and an elongated cylindrical surface 4 are inside the container 34.

Figure 6 shows the heat exchanger 2, is placed, as shown in figa and 5b. The container 34, the casing 6 and an elongated cylindrical surface 4 for simplicity omitted. A heat transfer medium is heated in the boiler 44, for example, running on heavy fuel oil, and the connection 37 is transferred to the hole 20. Holes 19 and 20 are provided with shut-off valves 35 and 36. A heat transfer medium enters through the opening 19 and the connection 38 is transmitted to the transfer pump 42. From pumping pump a heat transfer medium is transferred back to the boiler 44 by connection 39. The surge tank 43 is connected to the connection 38 through the connection 40. Various fittings, valves, etc. that are common for professionals, for simplicity, omitted. The direction of movement of the transfer medium through the heat exchanger can, of course, be the opposite of the one.

7 the substance of the connection 50 is pumped by the centrifugal pump 48 through the opening 21 into the heat exchanger 2. Holes 18 and 21 are equipped with shut-off valves 45 and 46. The temperature sensor 47 monitors the temperature of the substance. The substance out of the container through the opening 18 and is directed to a centrifugal pump 48 via a connection 49. Various fittings, valves, etc. that are common for professionals, also omitted for simplicity.

It should be understood that external objects shown on both 6 and 7 should be connected simultaneously to the operation of the heat exchanger 2. Two separate figures are used only for simplicity. Device to control the boiler 44, pumping by the pump 42 and the centrifugal pump 48 is not shown.

In the following embodiment of the invention for the external system can use additional heat exchanger, before or after pumping device, thereby accelerating the heating process.

On Fig shows the heat exchanger 2, containing elongated cylindrical section 4, formed by a pipe 8 with the first end 9 and a closed second end 10. The pipe 8 is connected to a pipe 32 and from her hole 20. Inside the pipe 8 installed in the second pipe 15, having an open first end 16 located near the closed first end 10. The pipe 8 to the second end 17 is connected to a pipe 33 to ora passes up into the hole 19. A heat transfer medium enters through the hole 20 and passes in the direction of the arrows A. The closed second end 10 of the tube 8 in the direction of the transfer medium is reversed to enter the second pipe 15 at its first open end 16. A heat transfer medium exits through a hole 19 in the direction indicated by the arrow B. the Pipe 8 is concentrically surrounded by a guiding device, which is a casing 6 formed by a pipe having a number of holes 7, and the holes are preferably facing upwards and sideways. The casing 6 is connected to the pipe 31 and away from the hole 21. The substance enters through the hole 21 and passes through the opening 7 in the casing 6, where the substance is expelled from the heat exchanger 2. Direction of the passage indicated by arrows C. Thus, the substance is first gets the opportunity to exchange heat with a heat transfer medium through the surface 4, after which it is expelled through the openings 7 to receive the mixing effect in the material surrounding the heat exchanger. The discharge portion 29 is fastened around the casing 6 and has a hole 24. In addition, the drain part 29 has a connection hole 18. The substance surrounding the heat exchanger can thus be merged in the hole 24 of the holes 18 in the outlet part 29. Holes 7 can be equipped with nozzles to increase the speed of the substance to Wuxi the possible effect of mixing.

Typically, the heat exchanger 2 is placed in a container, such as a soft tank is made essentially of a polymeric material. Shut-off valves installed in the holes 18-21. Then the container is filled is suitable for pumping the substance, preferably through the opening 18, or alternatively through the hole at the top of the container. Entrapped air in the container is produced, for example, through the outlet valve. After filling the container outlet portion 29 and the casing 6 will be filled with substance. Then the container can be sent to storage or transported to another location where the substance may eventually harden to the consistency, not amenable to pumping by the pump. If this happens, then through the pipes 8 and 15 during a certain period of time circulating the heated medium, for example hot water, as described above in connection with Fig. This restores at least in substance in the casing 6 and the drain part 29 viscosity, which is pumping and the circulation of substances resumes. Circulation of the substances described above in connection with Fig. When the substance comes out of the holes 7 in the casing 6, the pressure in the casing is converted into kinetic energy of the fluid. The substance here moves with the speed-dependent pressure added by the pump, and essentially in the radial upravleniyafederaljnogo casing. Therefore subjected to heat a substance can affect the hardened substance, remote from the heat exchanger 2, and thereby to improve the heat transfer. The direction in which the speed with which it is moving the substance is regulated by the position and size of the holes 7. Thus the effect of stirring, as if it was found that the heated substance is mixed with the rest of the substance is not only just around the heat exchanger, but in the entire tank. This greatly improves the heat transfer in comparison with the heat transfer through the stagnant substance. The effect of mixing can be obtained by forming holes 7 as relatively small compared to the dimensions of the tube holes. The hole may also be provided with nozzles for even higher kinetic energy floating substances. After you have obtained the proper viscosity of part or all of the substances, you can remove the desired quantity of substance from the container, for example, by pumping or by using the force of gravity, for example, by tilting the container.

As an alternative to the circulating heat transfer medium in the heat exchanger, the heat exchanger can be equipped with built-in electric heating element.

Figure 9 shows a variant implementation of the heat exchanger 2 according to the present invention. Ka is in the previous versions of the implementation, the heat exchanger 2 includes an elongated cylindrical section 4, passing inside of the container (not shown), similarly as shown in figa, full length which corresponds to the dimensions of the container. The heating medium passes within an elongated cylindrical section 4, by heating the substance in the casing 6 surrounding the cylindrical section 4. A heating medium, for example, water or steam enters and leaves the heat exchanger through the holes 19, 20. Uploaded substance enters into the casing 6 through the opening 21 and extends from the housing 6 through a series of holes 7, operating as a nozzle, converting the pressure energy of the material inside the casing into kinetic energy. The casing section 6 is shown in the figure to increase. Here the position of the holes 7 can be seen in detail. These holes (which for clarity shows only a few) are located in several places along the length of the casing 6. Position and size of the holes determines the net direction of the floating substances together with his speed. So the holes have to obtain maximum mixing and blending of substances across the container. As the heat exchanger 2, shown in Fig.9, designed to be mounted near the bottom of the container and a little on one side, the holes 7 are located in the upper side of the casing 6. Further, the diameter of the hole 90 is made so that in order to get the most speed roaming substance there, where the distance from the hole to the container wall, the biggest. To further enhance the effect of the nozzle of the holes, the edges of the holes can be laser cut, thus preventing the formation of burrs.

As described above, the substance is extracted from the container through the opening 24 in the outlet part 29, and exits the heat exchanger through the opening 18. In this embodiment, the discharge portion 29 deepened at some distance inside the container and is provided with numerous small holes 91, which can be seen in the expanded view, included in Fig.9. Small holes prevent the collapsing or folding of the discharge portion 29 due to the pressure difference between the substances inside and outside the exhaust part. The heat exchanger 2 is installed on the container, the flanges 26 and 27 by conventional means, such as bolts or the like.

Such an implementation option of the heat exchanger 2 shown in figures 10a-c, side view, top and end, respectively. The substance enters and leaves the heat exchanger in the same way as described with reference to Fig.9. In this embodiment, the heating medium passes through the hole 19 through one pipe 93 connected with the second pipe 94 is essentially parallel to the first, and out through the opening 20. This is best seen on fig.10b. Pipes 93, 94 are held inside the casing 6 by Saigo length. This alternative implementation is beneficial in that it provides high efficiency heating and is simple and inexpensive to manufacture.

Example 1 a Steel tank of size 1×1×1 m, 1 m3equipped with a heat exchanger having a structure corresponding to figure 1-3 and 8. The casing 6 is made of steel pipe 83×80 mm (internal diameter of 80 mm and an outer diameter of 83 mm). The pipe 8 is made of steel pipe 63×60 mm, and the pipe 15 is made of steel pipe 32×30 mm Length L is 0.9 m, and a casing 6 provided with two holes 7, facing up, and four holes 7, facing to the side (two on each side), and the hole 7 has a diameter of 10 mm Steel tank fill 800 kg Confao™35 (provider: Aarhus United, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark). Confao™35 is a confectionery fat based on hydrogenated vegetable oils non-lauric origin, with the following typical parameters:

The intermediate melting temperature = 37°C (according to AOCS CC 3-25)

- TRANS-isomers of fatty acids = 43% (according to IUPAC 2.304)

Vegetable oils typically have the following associated with warmth parameters:

Liquid fats: specific heat = 2.1 kJ/(kg·K)

The heat of fusion = 185-210 kJ/kg.

After filling the tank was three days in the storage room having a temperature of 5 degrees Celsius, resulting Mac is on the box. The heated water used as a heat transfer medium circulating in the heat exchanger, as described above with reference to Fig.6. After the hardened oil in the heat exchanger melted starts the movement and circulation of melted butter, which continues until all the butter is not melted and not a homogeneous temperature of the oil.

There were three experiences with the temperature transfer medium (water) 90°C, 75°C and 65°C, respectively. The rate of water flow through the heat exchanger was approximately 1 liter/second. There were four experiences with steam as heat transfer medium, at a pressure of 1.8 bar and a temperature of 131°C. For all four experiments, the oil temperature in the tank was recorded at the beginning and the end. Also record the time.

Table 1
The results of the tests
TemperatureEndTime
heat transferThe initial replication. the pace.rate*. oilmelting point
environmentoil [°C][°C] [watch]
90°C water11,939,56,33
75°C water11,938,18,33
65°C water11,936,410,50
1.8 bar steamthe 9.736,43,33
*Oil temperature at the time when all the butter is melted, which is determined by visual observation.

Example 2

24000 litre multilayer soft tank disposable from Braid & was placed in a 20'-s ' dry container. Soft tank was equipped with a heat exchanger, as shown in figa. The heat exchanger (see Fig) had a length of 5.3 meters and a diameter of 84 mm, an Outer cylindrical casing had twenty 10-millimeter holes, evenly distributed on both sides and at the top for the distribution of material flow.

Then a soft tank filled to 17.5 metric tons Shokao™94 (Aarhus United Denmark). Shokao™94 is a cocoa butter substitute on the basis of fractional the frame and dehydrogenation non-lauric oils, with a melting point of 32°C. the Fat is polymorphic and behaves like cocoa butter. To cool and crystallize the fat, the container was placed into the open air for six weeks at an average temperature of about 2°C. the heat Exchanger was connected to a heating device, as shown in Fig.6. Pump, item 42, was a Grundfoss pump SR-40, adjusted for the circulation of water at a flow rate of 11 m3/H. Further, the heat exchanger was connected to the circulation device, as shown in Fig.7. Pump, item 48, was a pump KSB Etachrom VS-125/302 adjusted to a flow rate of 15 m3/h Temperature sensors were installed in the water circulation lines and the material being tested. Similarly, one sensor was attached to the top of the bag. All temperatures were recorded simultaneously with 10-minute intervals.

The trial began on 24 February 2004 and the installation procedure was as described in example 1. The results were as follows:

Time, in hoursThe heating temperature of water, °CThe temperature of the circulating oil, °CThe temperature at the top of the bag, °C
580,442,9 7,7
1080,439,3the 5.7
1571,039,34.6
2077,739,34,6
2580,439,38,4
3075,039,314,5
3572,339,332,2
4072,339,333,3
4576,340,534,1
5072,342,936,5

In the period from 10 to 40 hours, the melt was in a stationary state, which is indicated by the constant temperature circulating oil. In addition, you can see that the volume of material RASPLAV is camping for the time period from 35 to 40 hours that indicates a temperature equal to or above the melting point of the material at the top of the bag. When considering it was discovered that left a layer of only about 1 cm of solid material at the remote end of the bag.

At the end of the test substance was drained, this soft tank remained approximately 30 kg of substance.

Example 3

This example is essentially a continuation of example 2, except that the heat exchanger and installation of mixing were optimized and the scheme melted substance was introduced external heat exchanger to enhance heat transfer. In addition, the substance was transported to another continent, to check out the industrial applicability of the idea of the invention applied on the substance of the food quality, which tend to deteriorate during transport.

24000-liter multi-layer disposable soft tank from Braid & was placed in a 20'-s ' dry container. Soft tank was equipped with a heat exchanger and installation of mixing, as shown in figa. The heat exchanger (see figures 9 and 10a-c) had a length of 5.3 meters and a diameter of 76 mm, an Outer cylindrical casing had thirty-five holes that serve as a simple nozzles uniformly distributed along the length of the casing on both sides and the top, to distribute the flow of material. Holes in the casing and the spruce of different diameter and position, to effect complete mixing of the substances (see Fig.9). Then a soft tank filled to 20.5 metric tons Illexao™30-61 (Aarhus United Denmark). Illexao™30-61 represents the equivalent of cocoa butter based on fractionated and dehydrogenation exotic oils, with intermediate melting point 34°C. the Fat is polymorphic and behaves as cocoa butter. After cooling, the container was sent as a normal cargo tank in Brazil. Upon arrival, the container was placed in a room under the roof and the heat exchanger was connected to a heating device, as shown in Fig.6, and in the scheme of circulating molten substance was included external heat exchanger (7).

Heating and melting the substances was carried out with the following parameters:

- The ambient temperature is approximately 20°C (night) and 35°C (day)

The flow rate of the heating water is 12 m3/PM

The flow rate of the circulating molten substances - 15 m3/PM

Temperature sensors were installed in the line for circulating water and melted substance. Similarly, one sensor was installed at the top of the bag. All temperatures were recorded simultaneously with 3-minute intervals. The trial began on January 11, 2005, the start-up procedure was described in example 1. The results were as follows:

TimeTemperature*TemperatureTemperaturehoursheatingcirculatingtop softwater, °Coil, °Ctank, °C580303010805330158051302080535222,580575725806365* Step thermostat ±10°C.

In the period from 10 to 20 hours melting was the stationary state, as indicated by the constant temperature circulating oil. In addition, you can see that the amount of material melted in 20 hours, which indicated almost the same temperature circulating substances and the temperature at the top of the bag. After discharging the molten substance was discovered that in the soft tank has less than 25 kg

The results of the analysis carried out before loading and after melting, proved that as a result of all loading and unloading operations as the matter has not suffered. Was noted only minor oxidation or thermal decomposition.

Example 4 (comparative)

This example is a comparative example based on the method according to the prior art, which is widely used simultaneously with the present invention.

So, 24000 litre multi-layer disposable soft tank was placed in a 20'-s ' dry container on top of the heating Mat, also known as a heating cushion. Then a soft tank was filled with Cebes™30-86 (Aarhus United Denmark). Cebes™30-86 is a cocoa butter substitute based on fractionated and hydrogenated stone palm oil, with intermediate melting point of 35°C. After cooling, the container was sent as a normal cargo tank in Australia.

The closest international and pipe heating pads were connected with the circuit of the heating water. Heating and melting the substances was carried out with the following parameters:

The flow rate of heating water to 2.5 m3/h at differential pressure of 2.3 bar.

- The inlet temperature of the heating water is 85°C.

- Output temperature of heating water to 60°C.

Heating is continued until until all the material has not passed in the liquid state and was not ready for unloading. The following results are the average value based on approximately 240 supply, as described above.

SummerWinter
Daily ambient temperature28°C15°C
Night temperature environment15°C3°C
Time melting in hours7090

The results show that this method of treatment of liquid products in large volume, which is solid at ambient temperature, and is inefficient and therefore expensive.

Definition

Whenever in the present context, neither mentioned the matter, it should be understood in W the rock sense, as including any material or combination of materials that at least one condition to have such viscosity/consistency that the substance can move known pumping devices.

A non-exhaustive list of such substances include:

- vegetable oils and fats;

- edible oils and fats;

- fatty alcohols;

- polyglycols;

- petroleum jelly;

- solid paraffin;

natural or synthetic rubber;

- tar.

It should be understood that the invention as it is disclosed in the description and figures can be modified or changed, but will remain within the scope of the invention, as discussed below in the claims.

1. The method of raising the temperature of the substance in the container, where the substance is initially in at least a partially cured state, and the container has at least one heat exchanger and pumping device for moving substances, comprising the following steps:
a) providing a heat exchange between the heat exchanger and the substance,
b) moving the substance transfer device to improve heat transfer between the heat exchanger and the substance,
c) mixing the substance transfer device by moving substances within the container through the at least one device type nozzle d is I increase the speed of passing under stirring.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the heat exchanger is connected to external power devices to transfer heat to the substance in the container, with the power device and the transfer device are coordinated by a control device for regulating the temperature of a substance.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the heat exchanger includes an elongated cylindrical surface and a guiding device for the passage of material along the surface when carrying out step b), and a guiding device connected to the pumping device.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the guiding device includes a casing situated essentially concentrically arranged around the heat exchanger and the casing contains a number of holes arranged in a specific order along the length of the casing for distributing substances when carrying out step C).

5. The method according to claim 2, in which the external power device include a device for heating water.

6. The method according to claim 1, in which the substance is initially in an at least partially cured state, and the heat exchange between the heat exchanger and the substance, in accordance with step a) occurs at least up until the material melts before steps b) and c).

7. The method according to claim 1, which is used for melting solidified edible oil or fat.

9. The apparatus of claim 8, in which the heat exchanger is adapted for connection with an external power devices to transfer heat to the substance in the container.

10. The apparatus according to claim 8 or 9, which contains a control device for controlling the flow of heat transfer medium between the external power devices and heat exchanger.

11. The apparatus of claim 8, in which the container is adapted to transport at least one substance of a great volume, including at least one fluid in a fluid and/or hardened state.

12. The apparatus of claim 8, which is joined in one piece with the container on technologists who eskay installation.

13. System with a container adapted for storing the substance, a heat exchanger with at least one elongated cylindrical inside surface of the container, and a guiding device for holding substances along the surface of the heat exchanger, and a guiding device includes a casing mounted essentially concentrically arranged around the heat exchanger and adapted to receive flow of the material, and the casing has a number of holes arranged in a specific order along the length of the housing, for distributing the flow of a substance when it is present.

14. The system of item 13, in which the heat exchanger is installed on the bottom side of the container.

15. The system of item 13 or 14, in which the heat exchanger is connected to a connecting device for connection to the pumping device for the flow of a substance.

16. The system of item 13, in which the container is adapted to transport at least one substance of a great volume, including at least one fluid in a fluid and/or hardened state.

17. The system of item 13, in which the container is a container made primarily of polymeric material.

18. A heat exchanger containing an elongated and essentially cylindrical section, which is adapted for heat exchange with the substance, and around the heat exchange of the ICA, essentially concentrically mounted guiding device containing a housing designed for receiving and holding the substance flow along the partition and the casing has a number of holes arranged in a specific order along the length of the specified casing, to distribute the flow of the substance when it is present.

19. Heat exchanger according to p, which includes a connecting device adapted for connecting the heat exchanger with a flange or pipe end.

20. Heat exchanger according to p or 19, in which the cylindrical section is a first tube having first and second ends, the second end is closed and the second pipe is situated essentially concentrically within the cylindrical section, and the first end of the second tube is adjacent to the second end of the cylindrical section, and the other end near the first end of the cylindrical section, and a heat transfer medium passes from the second to the first end of the second pipe and then from the second to the first end of the cylindrical section.

21. Heat exchanger according to claim 20, in which the second end of the second pipe is connected to the device for receiving the heat transfer medium, and the first end of the cylindrical section is connected to the return heat transfer medium.

22. Heat exchanger according to p or 19, in which the cylindrical section has two essentially parallel t the UBA, United at their inner ends, with a heat transfer medium passes through the connected pipes.

23. Heat exchanger according to p, which contains at least one hole adapted for release of the substance from the side of the heat exchanger to the outside through the hole, and part of the heat exchanger has a hole adapted to receive the substance, when the heat exchanger is installed in the container that contains this substance.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. The proposed device allows heat exchange between fluid medium and gas and comprises the casing, at least, one flat screen carcass made up of several heat-conducting-material capillaries arranged in parallel and equidistant relative to each other, and several heat-conducting-material wires connected to aforesaid capillaries to transfer heat via metal contacting, and pass at equal distance and crosswire relative to capillaries. The distance between wires approximates to that of their diametre. Gas flows along the wires to transfer heat to fluid medium that flows in capillaries, through capillary walls and via wires. The heat exchanger design allows the gas flowing along each screen carcass, lengthwise relative to the wires, and prevents flowing of a notable amount of gas through screen carcasses. The hothouse comprises soil surface with plants arranged thereon or in bearing pots, cultivation chute and, at least one heat exchanger. Note here that one gas inlet or outlet holes is located above leaf surface, while the other one is located below the said level, or both holes are located within the limits of the said surface. At least one heat exchanger purifies air. Several heat exchangers make the central heating system. Thermal pump system incorporates the heat exchanger.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and simplified servicing.

28 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely may be used at manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing of heat exchanging finned tubes, manufacturing of a frame, at least one heat exchanging section with lateral walls and interconnecting beams, manufacturing of chambers of input and output of gas, packing the bundle of heat exchanging tubes, manufacturing of collectors of input and output of gas, a supporting construction for the apparatus with supports for the engines of the ventilators and assembling of the elements of the apparatus. At that each lateral wall of the heat exchanging section is fulfilled in the shape of a channel with shelves inverted to the heat exchanging tubes and located on the interior surface of the channel's wall longitudinally oriented by dispersers-cowls of the flow of cooling environment forming the channel's ribs of rigidity which are installed in accord with the height of the channel's wall with a pitch in the axles corresponding to the double pitch between the rows of the tubes in the bundle. At that at least part of the volume of each marginal tube in the row and/or its finning is placed at least in a row under the overhang of the channel's shelf corresponding to the lateral wall of the heat exchanging section of the apparatus. At that the support for the engine of each ventilator consisting out of a central supporting element and tension bars is fulfilled suspended connecting it with corresponding bundles of the supporting construction of the gas air cooling apparatus.

EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of assembling the apparatus and its elements at simultaneous decreasing of labor and consumption of materials and increasing thermal technical efficiency of the heat exchanging sections and reliability of the apparatus in the whole due to manufacturing walls of heat exchanging sections allowing to use to optimum the heat exchanging volume of the section and to optimize the feeding of the exterior cooling environment to the tubes at the expense of reducing energy waists for feeding the exterior cooling environment with excluding the necessity in reverse cross-flows in the wall zones of the chambers and combining of functions of the chambers' elements providing the indicated thermal technical effect and simultaneously increasing rigidity of the frame of the heat exchanging sections.

13 dwg, 23 cl

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely may be used at manufacturing of heat exchanging apparatus particularly at manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing and mounting of heat exchanging sections with chambers of input and output of gas and with a bundle of heat exchanging finned tubes, collectors of input and output of gas and supporting construction of the apparatus with supports for the engines of the ventilators. At that the support for the engine of each ventilator is made suspended consisting of a central supporting element and tension bars connecting it with corresponding bundles of the supporting construction of the gas air cooling apparatus. At that the central supporting element is fulfilled in the shape of a many-sided socket with a supporting site with a central transparent opening for the engine of the ventilator and connected with it and between themselves the supporting and connecting plates forming lateral edges of the socket interchanging along its perimeter supporting and connecting plates. The supporting plates are fulfilled with configuration corresponding to the configuration of supporting sites of tension bars of end plots predominantly rectangular inverted to them, the supporting plates are located with possibility to contact along its surface with the surface of the supporting site of the end plot of corresponding tension bar. The connecting plates are fulfilled in the shape of pairs of identical trapezes inverted with their smaller foundations to the supporting site for the engine of the ventilator. At that the trapeze of each pair is located diametrically opposite to each other and the central supporting element is fulfilled preferably on the slip.

EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of the gas air cooling apparatus, to simplify the assembling of its elements at simultaneous decreasing of men-hours and material consumption and increase reliability and longevity of the manufactured construction due to simplification of manufacturing of supports for the engines of the ventilators and the supporting construction of the apparatus as a whole and using for manufacturing of the elements of the apparatus of the technological rigging developed in the invention that allows to increase accuracy of assembling and to reduce labor-intensiveness.

15 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering namely it may be used at manufacturing of heat exchanging apparatus particularly for manufacturing of heat exchanging sections of gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing and assembling of a frame of a heat exchanging section, a chamber of input and a chamber of output of cooling gas with upper, lower walls, lateral walls forming correspondingly tube and exterior plates with openings, gables and at least one power bulkhead, assembling the walls of the heat exchanging section with wall dispersers-cowls of the flow of the exterior cooling environment predominantly of air, packing the heat exchanging section with a bundle of heat exchanging finned, single passing tubes with their installation in the heat exchanging section in rows along the height with dividing the rows with elements on different distances and fixing the ends of the tubes in the openings of the tube plates. At that the number n on a meter of the width of the transversal section of the bundle of the heat exchanging tubes is taken out of condition where FT - arelative total square of the heat exchanging surface of the bundle of finned tubes falling on 1 m2 of the square of the transversal section of the flow of the heat exchanging environment predominately of air taken in the diapason 72,4<FT < 275,8, a stretched magnitude; D1- a diameter of a heat exchanging tube with finning, m; D2 -a diameter of the same heat exchanging tube without finning, m; Δ -the thickness of the fin of the finning or an average thickness of a fin, m; Β - a pitch of the fin of the tube, m.

EFFECT: allows to decrease labor-intensiveness of manufacturing and assembling of a heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus at simultaneous increasing of heat exchanging effectiveness and manufacturability due to optimization of the quantity of heat exchanging tubes in a bundle and as a result of mass of elements of the chamber of input and of the chamber of output of gas namely tube and exterior plates, optimal number of openings in which their mass is decreased at simultaneous security of demanded solidity and longevity of separate elements of a heat exchanging section and as a result of the whole gas air cooling apparatus.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely is used for manufacturing of heat exchanging equipment particular for gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a tube chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or a section of the gas air cooling apparatus fabrication of half-finished articles out of metallic sheet for lateral, upper, lower and butt-ends walls and for no less than two power bulkheads of the tube chamber with openings for passing of a gas flow. At that the length of the half-finished articles for lateral walls are fulfilled correspondingly the width of the apparatus or of the section of the apparatus. All half-finished articles are fabricated for the lateral walls with fulfilling chamfers for welding. At that at least the chamfers on the half-finished articles for the lateral walls forming the tube and the exterior plates of the chamber and also the chambers on upper and lower walls are fulfilled of broken configuration in the transversal section with forming support regions and edges of a welding mouth with a technological angle of opening-out 41-53°. After fabrication of half-finished articles an in series assembling and connection on welding of lateral walls with power bulkheads are executed and trough them a united rigid construction to which the upper and the lower walls are connected is formed. After that in one of the lateral wall forming a tube plate openings for the ends of the heat exchanging tubes openings are made and in the other lateral wall forming an exterior plate threading openings coaxial with the openings in the tube plate are fulfilled for providing possibilities of introduction of technological instruments for fixing the ends of the tubes in the tube plate and the subsequent installation of caps predominantly along the thread in the openings of the exterior plate and in the upper and/or in the upper walls openings for sleeves predominantly with flanges for connection with a collector of feeding or for offsetting of gas are fulfilled. At that the power bulkheads are installed in a high range making up ±1/4 of the high of the chamber counting from medium horizontal flatness along the height of the chamber, and the gables of the chamber are mounted after installation and fixing of the ends of the heat exchanging tubes of the chamber.

The tube chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or the section of the gas air cooling apparatus, the gas input chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or the section of the gas air cooling apparatus and the gas output chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or of the section of the gas air cooling apparatus are manufactured in accord with the above indicated mode.

EFFECT: allows to decrease the labor-intensiveness of the mode, increase manufacturability of the measuring chambers and improve their strength characteristics and thermal efficiency.

15 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering namely in the technology of manufacturing and construction of heat exchanging sections of a gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus includes manufacturing predominantly on a loft of the lateral walls of the frame of the

section with wall displacers-cowls of air environment, assembling on a slip with support poles of the elements of the frame of the section - lateral walls, lower transversal beams and gas input-output chambers forming gables of the frame and also of frame rigidity elements with the following packing of the multi-row bundle with single-passing finned heat exchanging tubes with forming with them and the gas input-output chambers of a vessel working under pressure, installation of upper transversal beams and carrying out hydraulic tests of the assembled section. At that the terminal poles of the slip are executed with locating their leaning sites at different levels with height difference making ( 1,1-4,6)d, where d - an interior diameter of a tube of the bundle and at assembling the frame the gas input-output chambers are installed on the final poles of the slip.

The heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus is fabricated in accord with above indicated mode. The mode of manufacturing of the heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus includes manufacturing on the loft of the lateral walls of the frame of the section with wall dispersers-cowls of air environment, and also elements of rigidity of the frame, assembling on the loft with support poles of the elements of the frame - lateral walls , lower transversal beams and forming gables of the walls of the frame of the chambers of input-output of the gas and also of the elements of rigidity of the frame with following packing of the multi-row bundle out of single-passing finned heat exchanging tubes forming with their help and the gas input-output chambers of a vessel working under pressure, installation of upper transversal beams and carrying out of hydraulic tests of the assembled section. At that the low and the upper transversal beams of the frame of the section are installed along the length of the lateral walls with spacing overall of height marks, equal (0,12-),51)d, where d - an interior diameter of the tube of the bundle and cuts of different height predominantly for dimensions of the transversal section of the chambers are made for installation of gas input-output chambers on the final plots of the lateral walls in the upper belt and the overall part of the height of the walls. The heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus is characterized with the fact that it is manufactured in accord with this mode.

EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of fabricating of the heat exchanging sections at simultaneous lowering of metal consuming of construction, simplification of the process of fabricating and lowering labor-intensiveness.

13 cl, 10 dwg .

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in the field of heat exchange-and-power engineering namely in heat exchanging apparatus of the type of a gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the heat exchanging apparatus of the type of a gas air cooling apparatus has an arrangement for drawing off and feeding into the zone of the bundle of heat exchanging tubes of exterior heat exchanging environment fulfilled in the shape of a vessel open from the side of the gables. The vessel is formed in the zone of location of the heat exchanging tubes with the help of lateral and gables walls of the heat exchanging section of the apparatus and a multi-row bundle of heat exchanging tubes. At the input it is fulfilled with multi-mouth section formed by the mouths of the casings of ventilators for feeding the cooling environment . Each of them has a baffle with a round transversal section in the zone of locating the ventilator and a multi angular predominantly rectangular transversal section in the zone adjoining to the heat exchanging section c with at least two opposite edges adjoining to the corresponding contact plots of the lateral walls of the heat exchanging section. AT that the lateral walls from the interior side of the vessel are provided with longitudinal cowl-displacers in the shape of the elements forming in the vessel extensive projections at least on the most part of the length of the interior wall of the vessel and the gables of the vessel are formed with the help of the tube plates of the gas input-output chambers of the heat exchanging section at least at the part of their height making up 0,5-0,85 of the height of the lateral walls. The tube plates are installed as piers of different height in the final ends of the plots of the lateral walls of the vessel. AT that the correlation of the total square of the multi mouth section at the input of the vessel formed with the help of mouths of the casings of the ventilators in the vessel to the square of the section of the vessel at its output makes according to overall dimensions of the vessel ∑Flow:FUPPER=0,42-0,9 and in the flatness of aerodynamic shading formed by the upper row of the bundle of the heat exchanging tubes the mentioned correlation makes 0,51±11,5% where ∑low- total square of the multi mouth input section of the vessel, m2; F upper - the dimension square of the working section of the vessel in its upper part without taking into consideration the aerodynamics shading developed by the heat exchanging tubes of the bundle,m2.

EFFECT: allows to increase efficiency of a gas air cooling apparatus due to constructive decisions of the walls of a vessel securing better aerodynamics of passing of the cooling environment including wall zones of the vessel and also in high adaptability of the system of the vessel to seasonal changes in exterior environment and mass of the cooling gas passing through the heat exchanging tubes of the bundle of the vessel at the expense of optimization of correlation of parameters of passing sections of the vessel and of the whole apparatus.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in heat exchanging apparatus namely in heat exchanging sections and may be used in air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus has a frame consisting of lateral walls provided with wall displacers of the flow of exterior cooling environment predominantly air, upper and low beams and also chambers with tube plates for inputting and outputting of the cooling gas. In the tube plates the ends of finned heat exchanging tubes are choked up. These tubes develop a multi-row, single passing bundle. AT that each chamber of input and output of gas is located correspondingly on the input and the output of the heat exchanging tubes and together with them a vessel working under pressure. At that the chamber of input or output of gas is formed by corresponding tube plate and the parallel exterior plate which has transparent openings provided with removable corks. These openings are coaxial with the openings in the tube plate and the openings in the tube plates are located in rows at the height of the section with an axial pitch making up (0,95-1,35)-d and with axial pitch in the rows adjacent according the height making (0,91-1,21)-d where d - an exterior diameter of the finning of the heat exchanging tube. At that the openings in each row are displaced on 0,4-0,6 of the pitch from the axles of the openings in the row relatively to the adjacent rows according to the height. The number of the heat exchanging tubes in the direction of the vector of the flow of the exterior cooling environment predominantly air makes from 4 to 14 and in the row the number of the heat exchanging tubes edgewise of the section exceeds in 4-9 times the number of the heat exchanging tubes located in series along the way of the mentioned flow of exterior cooling environment predominantly air.

EFFECT: allows to increase efficiency of heat exchanging at minimum metal consuming in the construction due to optimization of the parameters of heat exchanging elements.

19 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to heat-and-power engineering particularly to the rows of heat exchanging tubes and may be used in gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the tube row of the gas air cooling apparatus consists of finned tubes successively located in a row with spacing in axes making 1,7-3,4 diameter of the body of the tube without taking into consideration the diameter of fins. At that the finning of each tube is fulfilled transversely relatively to the central longitudinal axle of the tube and located under an angle to the mentioned axle. The central longitudinal axes of the tubes are oriented predominantly in parallel and located in a conditioned flatness normal to the vector of the flow of the exterior cooling environment, predominantly air. At that the tubes are located to form the flow in the projection of the mentioned conditioned flatness of aerodynamics shading with various aerodynamics transparency consisting of plots of complete aerodynamics opaque corresponding to projections on the mentioned flatness of the bodies of the tubes without taking the finning into account and the plots of incomplete aerodynamics transparency each limited from one side with a conditioned direct line passing along the tops of the fins and from the other side - with the contour of the body of the tube to the base of the fins. At that the tubes in the row are accepted at the condition according to which correlation on the unit of the square of the mentioned flatness of total square of the mentioned plots with various aerodynamics opaque compose correspondingly (0,25-0,52):(0,29-0,58).

EFFECT: allows to increase thermal aerodynamics characteristics of the tube row of the gas air cooling apparatus and improve conditions for streamlining tubes in the row with the exterior cooling environment and provides increasing thermal effectiveness of the apparatus at minimal metal consuming by the construction.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in heat-and-power engineering particular in convection heating surfaces namely in the bundle of finned heat exchanging tubes and may be used in a gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the bundle of finned heat exchanging tubes for a gas air cooling apparatus has tubes located in rows placed one over another with displacement of the tubes in each row relatively to the tubes in the rows adjacent throughout the height of the bundle. The rows of the tubes are separated one from another by distancing elements in the shape of plates with prominent and concave plots placed interchangeably forming supporting sites for the rows of tubes adjacent throughout the height of the bundle. At that the tubes are predominately fulfilled as single-pass ones with finning. They form in the limits of each row in projection on conditional flatness normal to the vector of the flow of an exterior heat exchanging environment inputting to the tubes predominantly cooling air flow. The flow passes through the central longitudinal axle of the tubes of each row of the plots of complete aerodynamics opaque corresponding to projections on the indicated flatness of the tubes without taking into account the finning, the plots of complete aerodynamics transparency corresponding to the projections on the indicated gaps between the edges of the fins directed to each other and adjacent to the row of the pipes and the plots of incomplete aerodynamics transparency. Each plot is limited from one side with conditional direct line passing over the tops of the fins and the other side - with the contour of the body of the tube along the base of the fins. At this the specific correlation of the mentioned conditional flatness of the unit of the area to the mentioned conditional flatness of the summary of the square projections of the indicated areas with various aerodynamics transparency in each row composes correspondingly (0,85-1,15): (1,82-2,17): (1,80-2,190).

EFFECT: allows to increase thermal effectiveness due to optimization of parameters of the heat exchanging elements.

4 dwg, 19 cl

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in heat-and-power engineering particular in convection heating surfaces namely in the bundle of finned heat exchanging tubes and may be used in a gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the bundle of finned heat exchanging tubes for a gas air cooling apparatus has tubes located in rows placed one over another with displacement of the tubes in each row relatively to the tubes in the rows adjacent throughout the height of the bundle. The rows of the tubes are separated one from another by distancing elements in the shape of plates with prominent and concave plots placed interchangeably forming supporting sites for the rows of tubes adjacent throughout the height of the bundle. At that the tubes are predominately fulfilled as single-pass ones with finning. They form in the limits of each row in projection on conditional flatness normal to the vector of the flow of an exterior heat exchanging environment inputting to the tubes predominantly cooling air flow. The flow passes through the central longitudinal axle of the tubes of each row of the plots of complete aerodynamics opaque corresponding to projections on the indicated flatness of the tubes without taking into account the finning, the plots of complete aerodynamics transparency corresponding to the projections on the indicated gaps between the edges of the fins directed to each other and adjacent to the row of the pipes and the plots of incomplete aerodynamics transparency. Each plot is limited from one side with conditional direct line passing over the tops of the fins and the other side - with the contour of the body of the tube along the base of the fins. At this the specific correlation of the mentioned conditional flatness of the unit of the area to the mentioned conditional flatness of the summary of the square projections of the indicated areas with various aerodynamics transparency in each row composes correspondingly (0,85-1,15): (1,82-2,17): (1,80-2,190).

EFFECT: allows to increase thermal effectiveness due to optimization of parameters of the heat exchanging elements.

4 dwg, 19 cl

FIELD: the invention refers to heat-and-power engineering particularly to the rows of heat exchanging tubes and may be used in gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the tube row of the gas air cooling apparatus consists of finned tubes successively located in a row with spacing in axes making 1,7-3,4 diameter of the body of the tube without taking into consideration the diameter of fins. At that the finning of each tube is fulfilled transversely relatively to the central longitudinal axle of the tube and located under an angle to the mentioned axle. The central longitudinal axes of the tubes are oriented predominantly in parallel and located in a conditioned flatness normal to the vector of the flow of the exterior cooling environment, predominantly air. At that the tubes are located to form the flow in the projection of the mentioned conditioned flatness of aerodynamics shading with various aerodynamics transparency consisting of plots of complete aerodynamics opaque corresponding to projections on the mentioned flatness of the bodies of the tubes without taking the finning into account and the plots of incomplete aerodynamics transparency each limited from one side with a conditioned direct line passing along the tops of the fins and from the other side - with the contour of the body of the tube to the base of the fins. At that the tubes in the row are accepted at the condition according to which correlation on the unit of the square of the mentioned flatness of total square of the mentioned plots with various aerodynamics opaque compose correspondingly (0,25-0,52):(0,29-0,58).

EFFECT: allows to increase thermal aerodynamics characteristics of the tube row of the gas air cooling apparatus and improve conditions for streamlining tubes in the row with the exterior cooling environment and provides increasing thermal effectiveness of the apparatus at minimal metal consuming by the construction.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in heat exchanging apparatus namely in heat exchanging sections and may be used in air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus has a frame consisting of lateral walls provided with wall displacers of the flow of exterior cooling environment predominantly air, upper and low beams and also chambers with tube plates for inputting and outputting of the cooling gas. In the tube plates the ends of finned heat exchanging tubes are choked up. These tubes develop a multi-row, single passing bundle. AT that each chamber of input and output of gas is located correspondingly on the input and the output of the heat exchanging tubes and together with them a vessel working under pressure. At that the chamber of input or output of gas is formed by corresponding tube plate and the parallel exterior plate which has transparent openings provided with removable corks. These openings are coaxial with the openings in the tube plate and the openings in the tube plates are located in rows at the height of the section with an axial pitch making up (0,95-1,35)-d and with axial pitch in the rows adjacent according the height making (0,91-1,21)-d where d - an exterior diameter of the finning of the heat exchanging tube. At that the openings in each row are displaced on 0,4-0,6 of the pitch from the axles of the openings in the row relatively to the adjacent rows according to the height. The number of the heat exchanging tubes in the direction of the vector of the flow of the exterior cooling environment predominantly air makes from 4 to 14 and in the row the number of the heat exchanging tubes edgewise of the section exceeds in 4-9 times the number of the heat exchanging tubes located in series along the way of the mentioned flow of exterior cooling environment predominantly air.

EFFECT: allows to increase efficiency of heat exchanging at minimum metal consuming in the construction due to optimization of the parameters of heat exchanging elements.

19 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in the field of heat exchange-and-power engineering namely in heat exchanging apparatus of the type of a gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the heat exchanging apparatus of the type of a gas air cooling apparatus has an arrangement for drawing off and feeding into the zone of the bundle of heat exchanging tubes of exterior heat exchanging environment fulfilled in the shape of a vessel open from the side of the gables. The vessel is formed in the zone of location of the heat exchanging tubes with the help of lateral and gables walls of the heat exchanging section of the apparatus and a multi-row bundle of heat exchanging tubes. At the input it is fulfilled with multi-mouth section formed by the mouths of the casings of ventilators for feeding the cooling environment . Each of them has a baffle with a round transversal section in the zone of locating the ventilator and a multi angular predominantly rectangular transversal section in the zone adjoining to the heat exchanging section c with at least two opposite edges adjoining to the corresponding contact plots of the lateral walls of the heat exchanging section. AT that the lateral walls from the interior side of the vessel are provided with longitudinal cowl-displacers in the shape of the elements forming in the vessel extensive projections at least on the most part of the length of the interior wall of the vessel and the gables of the vessel are formed with the help of the tube plates of the gas input-output chambers of the heat exchanging section at least at the part of their height making up 0,5-0,85 of the height of the lateral walls. The tube plates are installed as piers of different height in the final ends of the plots of the lateral walls of the vessel. AT that the correlation of the total square of the multi mouth section at the input of the vessel formed with the help of mouths of the casings of the ventilators in the vessel to the square of the section of the vessel at its output makes according to overall dimensions of the vessel ∑Flow:FUPPER=0,42-0,9 and in the flatness of aerodynamic shading formed by the upper row of the bundle of the heat exchanging tubes the mentioned correlation makes 0,51±11,5% where ∑low- total square of the multi mouth input section of the vessel, m2; F upper - the dimension square of the working section of the vessel in its upper part without taking into consideration the aerodynamics shading developed by the heat exchanging tubes of the bundle,m2.

EFFECT: allows to increase efficiency of a gas air cooling apparatus due to constructive decisions of the walls of a vessel securing better aerodynamics of passing of the cooling environment including wall zones of the vessel and also in high adaptability of the system of the vessel to seasonal changes in exterior environment and mass of the cooling gas passing through the heat exchanging tubes of the bundle of the vessel at the expense of optimization of correlation of parameters of passing sections of the vessel and of the whole apparatus.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering namely in the technology of manufacturing and construction of heat exchanging sections of a gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus includes manufacturing predominantly on a loft of the lateral walls of the frame of the

section with wall displacers-cowls of air environment, assembling on a slip with support poles of the elements of the frame of the section - lateral walls, lower transversal beams and gas input-output chambers forming gables of the frame and also of frame rigidity elements with the following packing of the multi-row bundle with single-passing finned heat exchanging tubes with forming with them and the gas input-output chambers of a vessel working under pressure, installation of upper transversal beams and carrying out hydraulic tests of the assembled section. At that the terminal poles of the slip are executed with locating their leaning sites at different levels with height difference making ( 1,1-4,6)d, where d - an interior diameter of a tube of the bundle and at assembling the frame the gas input-output chambers are installed on the final poles of the slip.

The heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus is fabricated in accord with above indicated mode. The mode of manufacturing of the heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus includes manufacturing on the loft of the lateral walls of the frame of the section with wall dispersers-cowls of air environment, and also elements of rigidity of the frame, assembling on the loft with support poles of the elements of the frame - lateral walls , lower transversal beams and forming gables of the walls of the frame of the chambers of input-output of the gas and also of the elements of rigidity of the frame with following packing of the multi-row bundle out of single-passing finned heat exchanging tubes forming with their help and the gas input-output chambers of a vessel working under pressure, installation of upper transversal beams and carrying out of hydraulic tests of the assembled section. At that the low and the upper transversal beams of the frame of the section are installed along the length of the lateral walls with spacing overall of height marks, equal (0,12-),51)d, where d - an interior diameter of the tube of the bundle and cuts of different height predominantly for dimensions of the transversal section of the chambers are made for installation of gas input-output chambers on the final plots of the lateral walls in the upper belt and the overall part of the height of the walls. The heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus is characterized with the fact that it is manufactured in accord with this mode.

EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of fabricating of the heat exchanging sections at simultaneous lowering of metal consuming of construction, simplification of the process of fabricating and lowering labor-intensiveness.

13 cl, 10 dwg .

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely is used for manufacturing of heat exchanging equipment particular for gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a tube chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or a section of the gas air cooling apparatus fabrication of half-finished articles out of metallic sheet for lateral, upper, lower and butt-ends walls and for no less than two power bulkheads of the tube chamber with openings for passing of a gas flow. At that the length of the half-finished articles for lateral walls are fulfilled correspondingly the width of the apparatus or of the section of the apparatus. All half-finished articles are fabricated for the lateral walls with fulfilling chamfers for welding. At that at least the chamfers on the half-finished articles for the lateral walls forming the tube and the exterior plates of the chamber and also the chambers on upper and lower walls are fulfilled of broken configuration in the transversal section with forming support regions and edges of a welding mouth with a technological angle of opening-out 41-53°. After fabrication of half-finished articles an in series assembling and connection on welding of lateral walls with power bulkheads are executed and trough them a united rigid construction to which the upper and the lower walls are connected is formed. After that in one of the lateral wall forming a tube plate openings for the ends of the heat exchanging tubes openings are made and in the other lateral wall forming an exterior plate threading openings coaxial with the openings in the tube plate are fulfilled for providing possibilities of introduction of technological instruments for fixing the ends of the tubes in the tube plate and the subsequent installation of caps predominantly along the thread in the openings of the exterior plate and in the upper and/or in the upper walls openings for sleeves predominantly with flanges for connection with a collector of feeding or for offsetting of gas are fulfilled. At that the power bulkheads are installed in a high range making up ±1/4 of the high of the chamber counting from medium horizontal flatness along the height of the chamber, and the gables of the chamber are mounted after installation and fixing of the ends of the heat exchanging tubes of the chamber.

The tube chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or the section of the gas air cooling apparatus, the gas input chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or the section of the gas air cooling apparatus and the gas output chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or of the section of the gas air cooling apparatus are manufactured in accord with the above indicated mode.

EFFECT: allows to decrease the labor-intensiveness of the mode, increase manufacturability of the measuring chambers and improve their strength characteristics and thermal efficiency.

15 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering namely it may be used at manufacturing of heat exchanging apparatus particularly for manufacturing of heat exchanging sections of gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing and assembling of a frame of a heat exchanging section, a chamber of input and a chamber of output of cooling gas with upper, lower walls, lateral walls forming correspondingly tube and exterior plates with openings, gables and at least one power bulkhead, assembling the walls of the heat exchanging section with wall dispersers-cowls of the flow of the exterior cooling environment predominantly of air, packing the heat exchanging section with a bundle of heat exchanging finned, single passing tubes with their installation in the heat exchanging section in rows along the height with dividing the rows with elements on different distances and fixing the ends of the tubes in the openings of the tube plates. At that the number n on a meter of the width of the transversal section of the bundle of the heat exchanging tubes is taken out of condition where FT - arelative total square of the heat exchanging surface of the bundle of finned tubes falling on 1 m2 of the square of the transversal section of the flow of the heat exchanging environment predominately of air taken in the diapason 72,4<FT < 275,8, a stretched magnitude; D1- a diameter of a heat exchanging tube with finning, m; D2 -a diameter of the same heat exchanging tube without finning, m; Δ -the thickness of the fin of the finning or an average thickness of a fin, m; Β - a pitch of the fin of the tube, m.

EFFECT: allows to decrease labor-intensiveness of manufacturing and assembling of a heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus at simultaneous increasing of heat exchanging effectiveness and manufacturability due to optimization of the quantity of heat exchanging tubes in a bundle and as a result of mass of elements of the chamber of input and of the chamber of output of gas namely tube and exterior plates, optimal number of openings in which their mass is decreased at simultaneous security of demanded solidity and longevity of separate elements of a heat exchanging section and as a result of the whole gas air cooling apparatus.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely may be used at manufacturing of heat exchanging apparatus particularly at manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing and mounting of heat exchanging sections with chambers of input and output of gas and with a bundle of heat exchanging finned tubes, collectors of input and output of gas and supporting construction of the apparatus with supports for the engines of the ventilators. At that the support for the engine of each ventilator is made suspended consisting of a central supporting element and tension bars connecting it with corresponding bundles of the supporting construction of the gas air cooling apparatus. At that the central supporting element is fulfilled in the shape of a many-sided socket with a supporting site with a central transparent opening for the engine of the ventilator and connected with it and between themselves the supporting and connecting plates forming lateral edges of the socket interchanging along its perimeter supporting and connecting plates. The supporting plates are fulfilled with configuration corresponding to the configuration of supporting sites of tension bars of end plots predominantly rectangular inverted to them, the supporting plates are located with possibility to contact along its surface with the surface of the supporting site of the end plot of corresponding tension bar. The connecting plates are fulfilled in the shape of pairs of identical trapezes inverted with their smaller foundations to the supporting site for the engine of the ventilator. At that the trapeze of each pair is located diametrically opposite to each other and the central supporting element is fulfilled preferably on the slip.

EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of the gas air cooling apparatus, to simplify the assembling of its elements at simultaneous decreasing of men-hours and material consumption and increase reliability and longevity of the manufactured construction due to simplification of manufacturing of supports for the engines of the ventilators and the supporting construction of the apparatus as a whole and using for manufacturing of the elements of the apparatus of the technological rigging developed in the invention that allows to increase accuracy of assembling and to reduce labor-intensiveness.

15 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely may be used at manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing of heat exchanging finned tubes, manufacturing of a frame, at least one heat exchanging section with lateral walls and interconnecting beams, manufacturing of chambers of input and output of gas, packing the bundle of heat exchanging tubes, manufacturing of collectors of input and output of gas, a supporting construction for the apparatus with supports for the engines of the ventilators and assembling of the elements of the apparatus. At that each lateral wall of the heat exchanging section is fulfilled in the shape of a channel with shelves inverted to the heat exchanging tubes and located on the interior surface of the channel's wall longitudinally oriented by dispersers-cowls of the flow of cooling environment forming the channel's ribs of rigidity which are installed in accord with the height of the channel's wall with a pitch in the axles corresponding to the double pitch between the rows of the tubes in the bundle. At that at least part of the volume of each marginal tube in the row and/or its finning is placed at least in a row under the overhang of the channel's shelf corresponding to the lateral wall of the heat exchanging section of the apparatus. At that the support for the engine of each ventilator consisting out of a central supporting element and tension bars is fulfilled suspended connecting it with corresponding bundles of the supporting construction of the gas air cooling apparatus.

EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of assembling the apparatus and its elements at simultaneous decreasing of labor and consumption of materials and increasing thermal technical efficiency of the heat exchanging sections and reliability of the apparatus in the whole due to manufacturing walls of heat exchanging sections allowing to use to optimum the heat exchanging volume of the section and to optimize the feeding of the exterior cooling environment to the tubes at the expense of reducing energy waists for feeding the exterior cooling environment with excluding the necessity in reverse cross-flows in the wall zones of the chambers and combining of functions of the chambers' elements providing the indicated thermal technical effect and simultaneously increasing rigidity of the frame of the heat exchanging sections.

13 dwg, 23 cl

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. The proposed device allows heat exchange between fluid medium and gas and comprises the casing, at least, one flat screen carcass made up of several heat-conducting-material capillaries arranged in parallel and equidistant relative to each other, and several heat-conducting-material wires connected to aforesaid capillaries to transfer heat via metal contacting, and pass at equal distance and crosswire relative to capillaries. The distance between wires approximates to that of their diametre. Gas flows along the wires to transfer heat to fluid medium that flows in capillaries, through capillary walls and via wires. The heat exchanger design allows the gas flowing along each screen carcass, lengthwise relative to the wires, and prevents flowing of a notable amount of gas through screen carcasses. The hothouse comprises soil surface with plants arranged thereon or in bearing pots, cultivation chute and, at least one heat exchanger. Note here that one gas inlet or outlet holes is located above leaf surface, while the other one is located below the said level, or both holes are located within the limits of the said surface. At least one heat exchanger purifies air. Several heat exchangers make the central heating system. Thermal pump system incorporates the heat exchanger.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and simplified servicing.

28 cl, 11 dwg

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