Continuously variable reduction rate

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mechanism of manual gearbox. Mechanism of manual gearbox with continuously variable reduction rate contains five shafts: input, main driven, main driving, intermediate shaft and output, and consists of three units: high range, low range and inverter, connected between intermediate shaft and out. Unit of high range consists of main part and four multitudes of reduction rates, which extend rating of change degree of main part. Main part contains two differential gears. Main driving shaft implements driving of shaft of each differential gear. Drive of main driven shaft is implemented from the other shaft of each differential gear, the third shaft of each differential gear is connected to variator. Unit of low range contains two differential gears. Driving shaft implements shaft driving of one of them, intermediate shaft implements driving of other shaft of other differential gear. Two multitudes of reduction rate units are located between shafts, not connected to input or output.

EFFECT: at provides as raise transmission efficiency as simplify structure.

52 cl, 21 dwg, 5 tbl

 

The present invention relates to a mechanical transmission with a continuously variable gear ratio, which is achieved through the use of appropriate combinations of a sequence of mechanisms disclosed in this description, which combines the action of the variable speed with different fixed-ratio and mechanisms of the differential so that the power that circulates through variable speed, can be reduced to the desired degree. It also describes how you can achieve this with a minimum number of components and so that the power transmitted, to the extent possible, directly from the driving shaft to a driven shaft, ensuring the transfer of torque on the driven shaft without interruption at any time.

When mechanical power rotating at a certain angular speed ω1 is converted into another power at a different angular velocity ω2, the quotient between these values is called the gear ratio. The mechanisms of change in speed or continuously variable transmission should change gear ratio continuously and steadily.

Continuously variable transmission can be classified into three large groups:

A) the Mechanisms that transmit the rotation directly from the driving shaft to a driven shaft through an intermediate element, which is under the de is a result of friction provides a drive shaft, and in turn, results driven shaft; this group includes the variable speed on the basis of the V-belt, toroidal variators, tapered roller variable speed, etc.;

B) Systems, which convert the mechanical power of the drive shaft into another form of energy, which are easier to manage, and then again convert it into mechanical power rotation on the driven shaft; this group includes the hydrostatic variable-speed drives, inverters torque, a pair of electric machines, one of which acts as a generator and the other as a motor system that converts rotary motion into another oscillatory motion and then out of it again generate rotational motion;

C) Systems, which combine the mechanisms of the previous groups with one or more differential mechanisms.

The mechanisms of the group And provide continuous sequential change of the gear ratio from the minimum value to the maximum value of the same sign, i.e. they do not allow you to change the direction of rotation on the reverse, as when passing through the zero transmission ratio of the friction member must ensure that the drive of one of the shafts with zero radius and with infinite voltage; however, in practice there are at least close to which the friction element begins to slip, and the mechanism p is cresuet work. This provides bad energy output compared to this indicator for the gears due to the presence of the friction element.

Mechanisms of group b, if they are properly designed, allow you to change the direction of rotation on the return, but also have poor mechanical output compared to gears due to the fact that every transformation of energy into another form of accumulated losses.

Mechanisms group, i.e. the combination of one or more differential mechanisms with variable speed, used with two possible objectives: to obtain a mechanism that allows you to change to reverse the direction of rotation of the variator from the variator, which initially does not allow it. Thanks to the separation of power into two parts, one of which is passed through the variator, and the other through gears, allows the use of variable-speed drive with a smaller size and a large mechanical release mechanism as a whole.

These mechanisms, in turn, can be classified into two subgroups: those that simply combines the variator with one or more differentials, and those in which added external gearing to increase the range of variation of the basic mechanism.

Among the mechanisms, limited Association of progressive transmission with differential, there are a few what to patents, which disclose a method of reducing the power transmitted by the variator, such as the US 1762199; these mechanisms are known as mechanisms of "separation of power". In other patents, such as, for example, US 1833475, FR 091705, US 2745297, ES 2142223 are mechanisms that allow you to change the direction of rotation on the reverse, these mechanisms are known as mechanisms of "recycling the power."

Some of these patents differ from other type of variable speed drive type differential and gear used for their connection.

It is impossible to provide both effects simultaneously. The mechanisms that change the direction of rotation on the reverse (with recirculation capacity), increase the power that circulates through the variator; mechanisms that reduce the power that circulates through the variator ("separation of power"), does not allow you to change the direction of rotation is reversed.

Mechanisms, such as disclosed in the previous patents, ensure the achievement of the overall gear ratio of the mechanism in the function of the gear ratio of the variator in accordance with the equation:

τ=a+b·r

rmin≤r≤rmax

where:

τ is the total gear ratio of the mechanism, i.e. the angular velocity of the driven shaft divided by the angular velocity of the driving shaft.

r - gear ratio VA is iator speed; this ratio varies between a minimum value of rminand the maximum value of rmaxboth with one sign when the variator has no characteristics, providing the possibility of changing the direction of rotation is reversed.

a and b are constants which depend on fixed gear ratios, the characteristics of the differential and how to connect different components.

Under these conditions, the power transmitted by the variator, constantly is a function of the gear ratio of the mechanism, if the constants a and b are selected so that at the point at which the power is maximum, its value was as low as possible, so that:

For mechanisms with variator group:

And for mechanisms with variator group:

where:

γmaxthe fraction of power transmitted from the mechanism that passes through the variator, that is, the power transmitted by the variator, divided by the total power transmitted by the mechanism when the gear ratio makes this maximum value.

β is the rate of change of the gear ratio of the mechanism, that is, the maximum ratio that can be obtained divided by its minimum value.

rang - range of the variator, that is, rmax/rmin.

were Also proposed mechanisms, which combine two or more differentials with variator and a greater or lesser number of modules of the gear ratio of the intermediate shaft between these elements; examples of mechanism of this type are disclosed in US patents 2384776, US 4936165, ES 2190739, where figures 17, 18 and 19 presents a flowchart of these mechanisms, respectively, in each of these patents. All of them allow you to gain an overall gear ratio of the mechanism in accordance with a transmission ratio of the variator, such as:

where τ is the total gear ratio mechanism, r is the gear ratio of the variator and a, b, C, and d take values in accordance with the characteristics of the gear ratio of the intermediate shaft and differential.

Despite the advantages in comparison with the mechanisms, which use the same differential, these mechanisms have the disadvantage associated with losses arising on the intermediate shafts.

Known solution, which eliminated the intermediate shaft and which is disclosed in patent US 6595884 (block diagram, mechanism, declared in it, shown in Fig). Despite the removal of the intermediate shaft this mechanism also has the disadvantage associated with the fact that only a fraction of the power is transmitted directly from the driving shaft to a driven shaft, crossing one differential, the rest must cross two d is fferential, that means the accumulation of losses.

The mechanisms by which added an external switch gear, allow you to extend the full extent of the change gear mechanism, and similarly they should lower the rate of change of the gear ratio of the basic mechanism to a minimum, which means that with proper selection of components, the fraction of power that circulates through the variator, it is possible to reduce, to the extent desired, by adding a sufficient number of gears in the external gear.

Were disclosed two forms of the scale using the external gear, the first disclosed in patent US 5167591, which may be briefly described as follows. Assume that you start with the minimum gear ratio, if it is initially progressive changes to the maximum, at this point the transmission is disconnected by the clutch, during this separation the gear ratio is changed to the minimum value and turns on the next program, after which the cycle repeats.

The disadvantage of this system is that during the switching of the transmission system while still disconnected (from the transmission); this time cannot be neglected, since the variator must move from its maximum gear ratio to a minimum or, noboro is, before you can re-connect to (on transfer); on the other hand, this solution allows to develop a system with any desired number of gears, and to allow any sequence of switching between speed transmission.

Another solution is disclosed in US patent 5643121; the idea is to alternate the connection of one of the two shafts of the differential gear with the driven shaft (third shaft is an input mechanism), while the rotation changes the gear ratio. The gear ratio is determined so that during the transition, both the gear ratio can be maintained in engagement by means of the simultaneous use of different clutches (simultaneous switching), which means that the transition time may be small and, in addition, the transmission of power to a driven shaft will not be lost during the switch. The system will also function if the drive shaft to change the slave and Vice versa. Can be connected to more than two-speed transmission (as described in the patent), they still remain interdependent, and the system can be optimized only for the first two.

Thus, in a system with two speed transmission such as, for example, presented in the patent, through the variator can be obtained the degree of change of 6.25=2.5 to2at the same Maxi is the real faction power instead of a rate of change of 2.5 (71,4%). But when the number of stages of transmission to infinity can only get 50% decrease in the fraction of power transmitted through the variator.

In the patent US 5643121 also disclosed form of switching the direction of rotation on the back, which added a second differential; this second differential idles in all modes except modes, where you can change the direction of rotation, while the second subtracts the differential speed of the two levers of the first differential that allows you to change the gear ratio from positive values to negative values with the passage through zero. In time mode, which allows the direction of rotation is in reverse, the system corresponds to the diagram, such as shown in Fig. Input power passes to the exit, crossing two differential and recirculation through the variator.

All these systems require for their performance management system, which since required at any point in time, the gear ratio affects the element of the variator. This effect is accomplished using mechanisms that are driven by electric motors or pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, etc.

Technical problem related to the mechanisms of change in speed, consisting of progressive transmission and differentials, consists reducing, to a minimum power, which circulates through the element of speed change, while gaining a wide range of speed changes in the entire mechanism, possibly changing the direction of rotation is reversed.

Similarly, the objective of the invention is to minimize the number of gears, modes or stages of transfer.

Also preferably, the switching from one level of transfer to another was carried out without separation mechanism, i.e. without stopping the transmission torque at the driven shaft.

Also preferred is the ability to transmit power from the driving shaft to a driven shaft, to the extent possible, directly as possible without crossing transmission intermediate shaft, and if possible, passing through one differential.

The present invention solves the problem presented by the combination of innovation relative to the current level of technology, described below.

The mechanism scheme is presented in figure 1, consists of two differentials (Da and Db) and the variator (V) speed. As the driving shaft (the shaft i)and driven shaft (shaft) simultaneously connected with one of the shafts of each of the differential Da and Db, while the CVT is included between the shaft of the differential Da, not connected with the input or driven shaft (shaft 6), and the shaft Db differential, not connected with the input or slave VA is ω (shaft 7).

This mechanism allows to obtain the following total gear ratio of the mechanism in accordance with a transmission ratio of the variator:

where τ is the total gear ratio mechanism, r is the gear ratio of the variator and a, b, C, and d take the following values:

and-Db
bDa
-Db·(1-Da)
Da·(1-Db)

where Da is the gear ratio between the shaft 6 and drive shaft, which would be the differential Da, if the slave shaft was blocked, and Db - gear ratio, which would be the Db differential between the master shaft and the shaft 7, if the slave shaft was locked.

In this mechanism by an appropriate choice of Da and Db is achieved that the maximum power through the variator, does not exceed:

In the case of variable-speed drives group a and maximum power:

In the case of variable-speed drives, which allow you to change the direction of rotation is reversed.

In addition, there are no in-between is the exact shafts, and the output is not reduced due to the presence of two differentials instead of one, because the input power is divided, with one part passes through one of the differentials, and the rest through the other, the energy loss in this case is not more than if you were only using one differential.

These two differential operate symmetrically, there are modes in which most of the power goes through the Da and the rest of it through the Db, and Vice versa, there is also a mode in which it is accurately divided by 50%.

The following item is included in accordance with the present invention, is a multistep mechanism, the scheme is presented in figure 2. This mechanism increases the range of variation of the main part of the system.

This mechanism consists of a main part, presents the black box marked with the symbol V, which is a reversing mechanism for changing the speed with the drive shaft i and the driven shaft about; this is the main body may be made in accordance with the above described system or using any other known system. The mechanism has four gear ratios, modules, R2n, R2n+i, S2nand S2n+igear ratios, while the driving shaft of the mechanism i' in turn connected to drive shaft i of the main part and a supporting shaft is m o while the driven shaft of the mechanism to' alternately connected with the driven shaft of the main part and the drive shaft i'. This mechanism works as follows: First drive shaft i' connect through the first module of the gear ratio Rowith the shaft i and the driven shaft about the' connect via S0with the shaft of the variator V changes its gear ratio from τminuntil τmaxat this point R1and S1connected and R0and S0disconnected, the variator V again changes its gear ratio from τmaxuntil τminat the point when R2and S2connected, and so on. The gear ratio can be selected as follows:

R2n=R0·βn

S2n=S0·βn

R2n+l=R0·βnτmax

S2n+i=S0·βnmin

where:

Switching can be performed while maintaining the four gear ratios connected at the same time.

In this mechanism obtained following the full extent of the changes:

β1m

where m is the number of stages of transmission. This mechanism ensures the transmission of torque during switching and allows to reduce to the whole mechanism, the rate of change of the gear ratio of the main part, as is necessary.

In this mechanism, preferably, the button main part was formed from a mechanism in accordance with the scheme of figure 1, because it provides the least amount possible speed manual transmission and the maximum output for this variable, but it is also possible to embody the main part in accordance with any other known system and to take advantage of scale changes.

In manual transmissions with continuously variable ratio, there are two work areas: the area of the lower range and higher range. As these systems allow to obtain a gear ratio equal to zero, the torque output can be increased to very high values (theoretically up to infinity, if the mechanical output was 100%); therefore, there area ratios close to zero, in which you want to limit the torque which the mechanism applies to the follower shaft. This zone consists of the lower range, and other gear - zone high range. The lower range is more accurately defined as

eq≤τ≤τeq

where τeq- gear ratio, which limits the area of the lower range and a higher range. Tmax eng- the maximum torque that can transmit the engine, which is connected to the input mechanism. Tmax mec- maximum torque, R is presendy at the output of the mechanism.

In the zone of the lower range of the power that passes through the mechanism, is less than the nominal power of the engine, it linearly decreases from 100% in accordance with the gear ratio, which limits the low range and high range, settles to zero at zero gear.

Analysis of mathematical expressions that define the power passing through the variator in the zone of the lower range and the high range, demonstrates that a multi-stage system operating in the zone of the high range, the optimum distribution-speed transmission for the transmission sequence of numbers that follow a geometric progression, while in the lower range of the optimal allocation is a sequence that should be in arithmetic progression.

All known multi-stage system, which continuously transmit a torque on the driven shaft, as described above, generate a sequence of stages of transmission, which follow a geometric progression.

Below are described two mechanisms, the decisive task of the present invention, which generate a sequence of stages of transmission, which may result in an arithmetic progression, and for this reason they are preferably intended for use in the area of the bottom is about range.

The mechanism scheme is presented in figure 3, consists of two differential Dc and Dd and the variator V is the speed, which allows rotation in the opposite direction (or at least stop any of these two shafts during the rotation of the other shaft. The driving shaft i is connected to one of the shafts of the differential Dc, and a driven shaft connected with one of the shafts of the differential Dd. The speed variator is connected between the shaft 6 and the shaft 7, while between the shafts 8 and 7 it is possible to connect and disconnect (by an appropriate mechanical connections or couplings) any of a number of modules R1i, gear ratios. Similarly, between the shafts 6 and 9 you can connect and disconnect any of a variety of modules R2jgear ratios. Alternatively, they can also be connected in accordance with the scheme, such as shown in Fig.7 and 8, the only difference between them is that the variator is connected between shaft 8 and 6 in the case of Fig.7 and between the shafts 7 and 9 in the case Fig.

The system works as follows. Originally modules R11and R21gear ratios and a variator is connected, and it changes the gear ratio from ∞ (shaft 6 is stopped and the shaft 7 rotates at a speed, applied differential Dc, and ratio of R to 0 (the shaft 7 is stopped and the shaft 6 rotates at a speed, eloundou Dc), at this point both shafts 6 and 9 is stopped, the module R22the gear ratio is connected, and the module R21disconnected, the variator then again changes its gear ratio from 0 to ∞, at this point, both the shaft 8 and 7 is stopped, the module R12connected, and R21disconnected, and so on.

In these mechanisms (alternative 3) is obtained gear ratio is:

For the mechanism in Fig.7 (a mechanism for Fig symmetric mechanism 7 with a change in the opposite direction of rotation of the driving shaft to the driven shaft), the gear ratio is:

where Dc is the gear ratio, which is the differential Dc is applied between the shafts 6 and 8, when the shaft i is blocked, and Dd - gear ratio, which is the differential Dd will be put between the shafts i and 7, if the shaft is blocked.

In both cases, when r is equal to zero:

And when r is equal to ∞:

So if you want to develop the system, the gear ratio which varies between:

Stage transmissionMinimum gear ratioMaximum gear ratio
1τ1minτ1max
2τ1maxτMAh
.........
yτy-1maxτ1max

if:

Just choose:

R21=R2·τ1min, R11=R1·τ1max, R22=R2·τMAh

R12=R1·τ3max, R23=R2·τ4max,R13=R1·τ5max

And so on. In particular, in the case of Dc=Dd, R1=R2=1, the previous expressions take the form:

R211min, R111max, R22MAh, R123max, R23MAh, R13MAh.

Therefore, this mechanism allows to obtain a multi-layered system that can generate a sequence of stages of transmission, with the following arithmetic, geometric, or any other progression. The fact that it is possible to obtain an arithmetic progression, makes it a particularly preferred mode of the lower range, and for this reason it is considered as predpochtite the local version of the application, although it can also be used in a high range or in both bands simultaneously.

The above described mechanism solves the problem of obtaining an arithmetic progression with a minimum number of components, but has the drawback consisting in the fact that the power is wholly crosses the first differential Dc and then the differential Dd. For applications in which you want to provide a greater output when increasing the value below will be described a mechanism that can also provide an arithmetic progression.

The mechanism scheme is presented in figure 4, consists of a sequence of differentials, variator, which allows rotation in the opposite direction (or at least stop any of the two shafts, while the other rotates, and the sequence of modules Rjgear ratios; and one of the shafts of each of the differential is connected with the drive shaft and the other shaft of each differential gear connected to the driven shaft; the shaft odd differentials, not connected to the input or output, can be connected through a clutch or any other type of mechanical connection with one of the shafts of the CVT (shaft 6) through one of the modules R2n+igear ratios; shafts even differentials, not connected with the input or output, mouthbut connected through a clutch or any other type of mechanical connection with the other shaft of the variator (shaft 7) through one of the modules R 2ngear ratios.

The mechanism works as follows. First, the differentials D1and D2connected to the shafts 6 and 7 respectively through the modules R1and R2gear ratios, the CVT changes the gear ratio from 0 (when the shaft 7 remains stationary, and the shaft 6 rotates at a speed of attached D1and D2) to ∞ (when the shaft 6 remains stationary and the speed is determined by D1and D2in this point of D3connected and D1disconnected, then the shaft 7 rotates the variator which changes its gear ratio from ∞until you reach 0 when D4connected and D2disconnected.

Thus, in order to simultaneously support three differential United within a short interval of time during switching, it is necessary to choose the gear ratio Ri(for i greater than 2) so as to satisfy the following equation:

Values of R1and R2can be chosen freely, to make it easier for others to receive the respective angular velocities of the different shafts of the mechanism. When the result of the previous expression is negative, this means that the gear ratio is to change the direction of rotation is reversed.

In this mechanism, the obtained gear ratio to depict the defaults:

Where Ri- gear ratio between the shaft 6 and the shaft of odd-numbered differential, which is not connected to the entrance or exit, Rj- gear ratio between the shaft 7 and the shaft of even-numbered differential, which is not connected to the input or output, Di- gear ratio, which is odd differential would put between the master shaft and the slave shaft, if the shaft connected to a variable speed drive was stopped, and Dj- gear ratio, which is an even differential would put between the master shaft and the slave shaft, if the shaft connected to a variable speed drive was stopped.

If you want to obtain a sequence of gear ratios:

1minτ1max], [τ1maxτ2min], [τ2maxτ3max] ...,

just choose:

D11minD21maxD32maxD43max...

If any value is 0, instead of the differential allows direct connection of the shaft 6 or 7 (depending on whether the differential odd or even) with access through an appropriate gear ratio; figure 9 shows this particular case for differential D1at the first stage transmission shaft 6 is connected directly to the output through the module R1gear and shaft 7 with the differential D2through mo is ul R 2the gear ratio.

This mechanism, like the previous one, allows you to get the speeds corresponding to the arithmetic, geometric, or any other progressions, so it is recommended for both modes low range and high range.

All multi-stage mechanisms each stage transmission requires at least one installation of the module of the gear ratio and therefore at least one pair of toothed wheels; when these mechanisms must pass through the zero gear ratio and change the direction of rotation on the reverse, it is possible to reduce the number of necessary mechanisms for generating speed transmission in one direction (e.g., reverse)until it coincides with the submodule of the other direction (forward), due to reduced output in the first (backward) direction. The mechanism scheme is presented in figure 5, allows you to enable playback in the reverse direction of all or part of steps of the transmission forward. The rectangle V is a multi-stage mechanism (in the extreme case it can have only one step transfer)that allows you to change the gear ratio from zero to a certain maximum value, the shaft of which can be connected to s', either through direct connection or through the module before the exact number, which changes the direction of rotation on the contrary, when the mechanism of V reaches the gear ratio of zero, and both the shaft o, and s' is stopped, the gear ratio is -1 connected and direct connection is disconnected, so the variator V changes its function on the reverse.

Combining the advantages of each of the previously described mechanisms can be drawn up such a mechanism of changing speed, which allows to reduce the power circulating through the variator, so far as this is desirable, with a minimum number of stages of transmission.

The diagram in Fig.6 presents a mechanism consisting of three modules: high range, low range and the inverter. Module high range obtained using the mechanism (the main part), such as shown in figure 1, the range was expanded through a mechanism such as shown in figure 2. Module lower range obtained through a mechanism such as shown in figure 3. Here we use one variable, which operates in the lower range, and high range. Finally, the inverter allows you to get the reverse gear, which will be composed of the same gears that work when rotating forward, not duplicating the speeds of the other two modules.

Characteristics of the components are determined so that the maximum gear ratio module lower range was greater than or equal to the minimum transmission number module high range; thus, there is the area of the gear ratio, in which it is possible to simultaneously activate the connection or coupling, which connect both modules, and therefore, it is possible to go from low range to high range and Vice versa, without stopping the transfer of torque on the driven shaft. If the parameters are also selected so that at the point this zone, the gear ratio of the variator module lower range coincided with a transmission ratio of the variator module high range, can be built mechanism with a single variable for both modules.

The scheme of figure 6 corresponds to the preferred option of applying for this function; in this embodiment, a compromise between yield and number of components, not excluding all other possible combinations, in particular:

module lower range built with such a mechanism, as shown in figure 4;

the inverter there is no mechanism covers the entire range of consecutive stages of the transfer;

module lower range is missing and instead use the clutch or the inverter torque transfer shaft from a rest state to the transition gear ratio and to work from this point module high range;

- the main part of the module high range is made on the basis of any mechanism is;

module high range there is no mechanism, such as shown in figure 3 or figure 4, covers the entire range of variation;

extension there is no mechanism consists only of the main part of the module high range;

- mechanism lower range contains only one stage of the transfer.

As explained above, the present invention allows for a reasonable number of stages in the transmission to reduce the power that passes through the variator, to a small enough value that allows the variator based on a pair of electric machines, one of which, arbitrarily, operates as a motor and the other as a generator. This corresponds to the preferred option run-and even without excluding the possibility of any other type of variable speed has the following advantages:

(a) Any other type of variator requires the installation of hydraulic, pneumatic or electric actuators to control them, which require the use of mechanical fasteners and valves, which, in turn, is controlled by electronic and power signals. If the variator is made on the basis of electrical machinery, electronic and power signals directly affect these machines and all other items are excluded.

b) In the variants run on vehicles is x with heat engines the same electric machine can be used as starting the engine and the generator to charge the battery, that actually does not add an additional two components, but provides the possibility of better utilization of components that should be installed.

The present invention is illustrated by drawings, and presents four classes of drawings: diagram representing the model mechanisms, schemes, representing specific mechanisms, block diagram and a graph of angular velocity. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 18, 19 and 20 are diagrams represent typical arrangements. Figure 10, 12, 13, 14 and 15 correspond to the diagrams representing specific mechanisms. On Fig shows the block diagram. And figure 11 shows a graph of the angular velocity.

In the diagrams represent typical arrangements, the following symbols are used: line, regardless of whether it is a straight line, a curve or a broken line, indicates a shaft, which can rotate. The rectangle, from which emerge two straight lines, refers to any module of the gear ratio (regardless of whether he embodied on the basis of the unit of cylindrical gears, block, bevel gears, planetary gears, etc. between the shafts represented by these lines. Rectangles can represent both fixed and variable gear ratio; when they are fixed gear, they correspond to the designations, starting is MSA with symbols R or S, when they are changing the gear ratio, they are marked by the symbol V, which indicates that the mechanism may have a variety of gear ratios between the same pair of shafts, and only one is represented and denoted by the letter followed by a lower index. Dashed lines indicate control over the connection and disconnection of the gear ratio to the shaft on which they end, regardless of how the connection and disconnection implemented (mechanical connection, coupling and so on). To get a more compact representation, figs.4, 5 and 9 the following module was shown by the dotted arrow: dotted lines plus the gear ratio. Circles indicated the differential mechanisms, i.e. mechanisms that imposes a constraint between the three shafts type:

ω1=k·ω2+(1-k)≥ω3

where ω1, ω2and ω3- the angular velocity of these three shafts are numbered arbitrarily, and k is a constant characteristic of the mechanism and how were numbered shafts. They represent the typical mechanism of differential regardless of how it is made (cylindrical planetary gear, a spherical planetary gears, hydraulic chain).

In the schemes, represent the specific mechanisms used characters, typically used in the mechanics of the La denote shafts, gears and planetary gears, for simplicity, the shafts of the satellite gears were drawn so that they intersect the satellite gears, although it is obvious that all the satellite gear can rotate freely around the respective bearing shaft of the satellite gears.

In the descriptions of the drawings indicates that the component connects the shaft, when one of the composite shaft is attached to this shaft, and States that he can connect the shaft, if one of the composite shafts can be attached to this shaft in a controlled manner.

Figure 1: Schematic model of the mechanism, consisting of two differentials Da and Db and the variator V with a variable gear ratio V. the driving shaft i is connected to one of the shafts of each of the differential Da and Db. Driven shaft o is connected with the other shaft of each of the differential Da and Db. The variator V with a variable gear ratio connected between the other shaft Da (shaft 6) and the other shaft Db (shaft 7).

Figure 2: Schematic model of the mechanism, consisting of a variable V with a variable gear ratio and four sets of modules R2n, R2n+1, S2nand S2n+igear ratios. The variator V connects the shafts i and about, and any of the modules ratios of several modules R2ngear ratios may be connected or may be connected in a controlled manner between the shafts i and i', and the module of the gear ratio from a variety of modules R 2n+igear ratios can be connected or may be connected in a controlled manner between the shafts o and i', any of the modules of gear ratios from a set of modules S2ngear ratios can be connected or may be connected in a controlled manner between the shafts o and o', any of the modules of the gear ratio of the gear ratios S2n+ican be connected or may be connected in a controlled manner between the shafts i and o'.

Figure 3: Schematic model of the mechanism, consisting of a variable V with a variable gear ratio, two sets of modules R1iand R2jfixed gear ratios and two differential Dc and Dd. The variator is fitted between the shafts 6 and 7, any of the gear ratios of several modules R1igear ratios may be connected or may be connected in a controlled manner between the shafts 8 and 7, any of the gear ratios of several modules R2jgear ratios may be connected or may be connected in a controlled manner between the shafts 6 and 9. Differential Dc is connected to the shaft i, 6 and 8, and the differential Dd, connected to the shafts 7, 9, and O.

Figure 4: Schematic model of the mechanism, consisting of a variable V with a variable gear ratio, the sequence of the differentials D1D2,..., D2n-iD2nand sequence of modules R1R 2, ... R2n-i, R2ngear ratios. The speed variator is connected between the shaft 6 and the shaft 7, the shaft i is connected to one shaft of each differential shaft on connected to the other of the shafts of each of differentials, each of the modules of gear ratios with odd subscripts can connect the shaft 6 with the third shaft of the differential with the same lower index and each of the even-numbered modules ratios can connect the shaft 7 with the third shaft of the differential with the same lower index.

Figure 5: Schematic model of the mechanism, consisting of a variable V with a variable gear ratio and two fixed modules ratios. The variator is fitted between the shafts i and o modules with fixed-ratio can be connected between the shafts o and o'. The upper arrow represents the gear ratio of 1 to 1, i.e. it can be obtained using a direct connection between the shaft o, and o', while the lower arrow represents the gear ratio that changes in the opposite direction of rotation, as represented by dotted arrows, indicating that they may or may not be connected in a controlled manner.

6: Schematic model of the mechanism, which includes: a variable V with a variable gear ratio, four differential Da, Db, Dc, Dd, and six modules R2n, R2n+iS 2n, S2n+1, R1iand R2jgear ratios. The shaft of each of the differential Da and Db rotates by being connected to the main drive shaft, the other shaft of each of the differential Da and Db rotates by being connected to the primary slave shaft and the third shaft of each of these two differentials respectively connected with the shaft 6 and shaft 7. The variator V is established between shafts 6 and 7. Many modules R2n, R2n+1, S2n, S2n+igear ratios allow, respectively, to connect any of the modules of the gear ratio between shafts: the entrance and the main entrance; the entrance and the main output main output and intermediate shaft; the main entrance and the intermediate shaft. Differential Dc coupled between the rollers 6 and 8. The differential Dd is connected between the shafts 7, 9 and the intermediate shaft. Many modules R1iand R2jgear ratios allow you to connect any of them between the shafts 8 and 7, or 6 and 9, respectively. Dotted arrows indicate that the intermediate shafts and driven shafts may be directly connected to each other or change their direction of rotation reversed.

Fig.7: the same version of the runtime mechanism 3, in which the variator speed V is connected between the shafts 6 and 7, the other symbols have the same meaning, which is explained in the description of figure 3.

Fig: same as option to perform the surveillance mechanism 3, in which the variator speed V is connected between the shafts 7 and 9, the other symbols have the same meaning, which is explained in the description of figure 3.

Fig.9: the same version of the runtime mechanism in figure 4, in which the differential D1there is no module R1the gear ratio allows you to connect the shaft with the shaft 6 about, other symbols have the same meaning, which is explained in the description of figure 4.

Figure 10: the Diagram represents a specific mechanism, which corresponds to a variant of execution of the schema model of the mechanism of figure 1. It consists of two differentials and variable speed. The first differential is formed of the planetary gear 1, many of the satellite gears 2 and ring 3. The second differential gear comprises a planetary gear 8, a variety of satellite gear 5 and the ring 4. The shaft i at the same time attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gears, around which revolve the satellite gears 2, and also attached to the ring 4. The shaft of simultaneously attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gears, around which revolve the satellite gear 5, and is also attached to the ring 3. The variator V speed causes the rotation of the shafts 6 and 7, which are attached to the planetary gear 1 and 8 with a ratio of 1 to 1.

11: the Graph is in rectangular coordinates change of angular velocities of the shafts i, Oh, 6 and 7 (ωi , ω0, ω6and ω7) mechanism figure 10, when the speed of the shaft i support equal to 3000 rpm and when different gears have a certain number of teeth, as described in detail when explaining the option of carrying out the invention. The angular velocity in revolutions per minute is represented on the x-axis and the gear ratio between the shaft i and shaft about marked on the y-axis; the direction of rotation of the shaft i was taken arbitrarily as positive angular velocity with a negative sign indicate a rotation opposite to the direction of rotation of the shaft i.

Fig: Diagram representing a specific mechanism, which corresponds to a variant of execution of the schema model of the mechanism of figure 2. It consists of a variable speed V, which is connected between the shafts i and o, and eight pairs of gear wheels: 1, 1'; 2, 2'; 3, 3'; 4, 4'; 5, 5'; 6, 6'; 7, 7'; 8, 8'. Gears 1, 2, 3 and 4 rotate idle around the shaft i', and you can attach them to activate them to one or some of the corresponding compounds S1, S2, S3 and S4. Gears 5, 6, 7 and 8 rotate idle around the shaft o', and you can attach them to activate them to one or some of the corresponding compounds S5, S6, S7 and S8. Gear 8', 3', 6' and 1' are connected with the shaft i. And the gear 5', 2', 7' and 4' are connected with the shaft O.

Fig: Diagram representing a specific mechanism, which corresponds to a variant of run-scheme t the model of the mechanism of figure 3. It contains two differential and the variator V is the velocity. The first differential is formed of a planetary gear 1, many of the satellite gears 2 and ring 3, the second differential formed of the planetary gear 4, many of the satellite gear 5 and the ring 10. The shaft i is attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gears, around which revolve the satellite gears 2. The shaft o is attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gears, around which revolve the satellite gear 5. The shafts 6, 8, 9, and 7 respectively attached to the ring 3, the planetary gear 1, the planetary gear 4 and the ring 10. Variable speed V is connected between the shafts 6 and 7. Gears b and d is attached to the shaft 6, the gear and connected to the shaft 7, the gear b”' and d” are attached to the shaft 9, the gear and”' and”' attached to the shaft 7. A pair of gear-wheels a', a”; b', b'; C', C” and d', d” rotate idle around the intermediate shaft, but can be independent or attached to each other by connections represented by S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. Rotation of the shaft 9 can also be blocked by the brake, presents S0which is mounted stationary on the chassis of the mechanism.

Fig: Diagram representing a specific mechanism, which corresponds to a variant of execution of the schema model of the mechanism in figure 9. It contains four differential based on the PLA is Yarnykh gears 1, 4, 9 and 12, many of the satellite gears 2, 5, 10 and 13 and the rings 3, 8, 11 and 14. It also contains two electric machines M1 and M2, each of which can operate as a motor or generator, the machine M1 is attached to the shaft 7 and M2 to the shaft 6. The shaft i connected to the planetary gears 1, 4, 9 and 12. The shaft o is attached to the supporting shafts of the planetary gears around which revolve the planetary gear 2, 5, 10, and 13. The gears 17, 18 and 20 rotate idle around the shaft 6, but they can be attached under the action of the compounds represented as S3, S5, and S1. Gears 22 and 25 are rotated idle around the shaft 7, but they join him under the action of the compounds represented as S2 and S4. Gear 17 meshed with the gear 15, which, in turn, meshed with the gear 16, which is attached to the ring 8. Gear 18 meshed with the gear 19, which is attached to the ring 14. Gear 20 meshed with the gear 21, which is attached to the shaft O. the Gear 22 meshed with the gear 23, which is attached to the ring 3. Gear 25 meshed with the gear 24, which, in turn, meshed with the gear 26, which is attached to the ring 11.

Fig: Diagram representing a specific mechanism, which corresponds to a variant of execution of the schema model of the mechanism in figure 5. It contains the variator V speed, connected between the shafts i and about, with a direct connection S1 is allows you to directly connect the shafts o and o', while the connection S2 allows you to connect them with rotation in the opposite direction.

Fig: Block diagram representing a specific mechanism, which corresponds to a variant implementation of the scheme standard mechanism 6. Block "lower range" is a mechanism, such as shown in Fig. Block the "high range" is a mechanism, such as shown in Fig, where changing the gear ratio can be realized through such a mechanism, as shown in figure 1. Units Ml and M2 represent different electric machine, which can operate as a motor or generator and which simultaneously allow the speed variator of figure 1 and Fig. Block "inverter" is such a mechanism, as shown in Fig, between the shafts o and o'.

Fig: Schematic model of the mechanism corresponding to the mechanism proposed in patent US 2384776. In this patent it is proposed to use differential with a spherical planetary gear; between the drive shaft and differential Db switching the direction of rotation on the back, and between the variator and the differential Db also switching the direction of rotation on the reverse, which presents gears of the auxiliary drive and driven shaft on at the same time is driven into rotation shaft of the m differential Da and shaft of the differential Db.

Fig: Schematic model of the mechanism corresponding to the mechanism proposed in patent US 4936165. This mechanism contains two differential Da and Db, variable speed V and the three modules R1, R2 and R3 fixed gear ratios. The driving shaft i and the driven shaft on connected respectively to the shafts of the differential Da.

Fig: Schematic model of the mechanism corresponding to the mechanism proposed in patent ES 2190739. This mechanism contains two differential Da and Db, variable speed V and two modules R1 and R2 fixed gear ratios. The driving shaft i and the driven shaft on connected respectively to the shafts of the differential Da and Db differential.

Fig: Schematic model of the mechanism corresponding to the mechanism proposed in patent US 6595884. This mechanism contains two differential Da and Db, the variator V is the velocity. The driving shaft i connected simultaneously to the shaft of the differential Da and to one differential Db. Driven shaft attached to the other shaft of the differential Db. The speed variator is connected between the other two shafts of the differential Da (shaft 7 and 6). The shaft 6 is also connected with the third shaft of the differential Db.

Fig: Schematic model of the mechanism corresponding to the mechanism proposed in patent US 5643121 when he works in the mode of rotation in the opposite direction. Two differential D1 and D2 operate in this mode, a drive shaft attached to paludification D1, and a driven shaft connected to the shaft of the differential D2, the other two shafts differentials D1 and D2 are connected to each other and between them, in turn, sequentially installed module R with a fixed gear ratio and the variator V is the velocity.

As an example, without limitation, the following disclosed embodiment of each of the previously described mechanisms.

Figure 10 presents a mechanism that corresponds to the diagram of the mechanism of figure 1. The differential Da and Db is made on the basis of the planetary gear formed on the basis of the planetary gear 1, the satellite gears 2 and ring 3 for the case of Da and the planetary gear 8, the satellite gear 5 and the ring 4 for the case of differential Db. Drive shaft attached to the ring 4 and also causes the shaft around which revolve the satellite gears 2. A driven shaft connected to the ring 3 and also causes the shaft around which revolve the satellite gear 5. The variator V is connected through a gear ratio of 6 and 7 with the planetary gears 1 and 8. Planetary gear 1 and 8 are made with 13 teeth, satellite gears 2 and 5 is made with 49 teeth, and rings 3 and 4 are made with teeth 111. In this configuration, the obtained gear ratio:

where r is the gear ratio, the variator applies between the shafts 6 and 7. Figure 11 shows the angular velocity, which is should be attached to the shafts 6 and 7 for changing the gear ratio from 1/1,17 to 1.17, which also shows the angular velocity obtained on the driven shaft, if the angular velocity of the drive shaft is maintained constant and equal to 3000 rpm. In this configuration, the power that circulates through the variator, never exceed 5.5% of the power that passes through the mechanism from the drive shaft to a driven shaft.

On Fig shown as an example of a mechanism that corresponds to the diagram of the mechanism of figure 2, for the particular case of four modes, gears or speed manual transmission. Modules R0and R2gear ratios, which connect the driving shaft of the first variable-speed drive V drive shaft i' mechanism, which is made on the basis of pairs of gear wheels 1,1' and 3, 3'. Modules r1and R3gear ratios, which connect the driven shaft of the variator V drive shaft i' mechanism, which is made on the basis of pairs of gear wheels 2, 2' and 4, 4'. The gear ratio of S0and S2that connect the driven shaft of the variator V of the driven shaft with about' mechanism, which is made on the basis of pairs of gear wheels 5, 5' and 7, 7'. The gear ratio of S1and S3that connect the drive shaft of the first variator V of the driven shaft with about' mechanism, which is made on the basis of pairs of gear wheels 6, 6' and 8, 8'. Gears 1, 2, 3 and 4 rotate idle around the drive shaft i' mechanism until it is powered by one of the selectors S1, S2, S3 and S4, which provides connec is of each of them respectively to the drive shaft i', allowing, thus, to connect or disconnect the module of the gear ratio. Gears 5, 6, 7 and 8 rotate idle on the driven shaft of the mechanism s'until it is powered by one of the selectors S5, S6, S7 and S8, which provides a connection to each of them respectively to the slave shaft o', allowing, thus, to connect or disconnect the module of the gear ratio. The teeth of each gear is selected in this example as follows: gear 1 - 55 teeth; gear 2 - 60 teeth; gear 3 - 66 teeth; gear 4 - 72 teeth; gear 5 - 95 teeth; gear 6 - 90 teeth; gear 7 - 84 tooth; gear 8 - 78 teeth; gear 1' 95 teeth; gear 2' - 90 teeth; gear 3' - 84 teeth; gear 4' - 78 teeth; gear 5' - 55 teeth; gear 6' - 60 teeth; gear 7' - 66 teeth; gear 8' - 72 tooth. The form of connection and disconnection of the selectors S1-S8 to obtain each of these four speed transmission and gear ratios obtained in each of them, are detailed in the following table.

Stage transmissionUnited selectorsThe gear ratio of the variator VGear mechanism
InitialEndMinimumMax
1S1, S50,8481,1520,2840,386
Transition 1-2S1, S5, S2, S61,1520,386
2S2, S61,1520,8480,3860,524
Transition 2-3S2, S6, S3, S70,8480,524
3S3, S70,8481,1750,5240,725
The transition 3-4S3, S7, S4, S81,1750,725
4S4, S81,1750,8481,005

In this table the initial gear ratio of the variator, which corresponds to the minimum transmission number of the mechanism, and the target gear ratio corresponds to the maximum. As can be noted, the variator V is open, passing alternately from its maximum gear ratio to its minimum, and Vice versa, with no interruptions to his work; when switching these four ratios can be simultaneously connected, since they produce the same gear ratio between the shafts. The result is a mechanism for transmitting torque which can be continuously changed without interruption from the gear ratio 0,284 to 1,005 with the use of the variable for which you want the rate of change only from 0,848 to 1,175; if this variable is based on the mechanism presented in figure 10, as described above, the power must pass through the variator, is 5.5% of the total power transmitted by the engine.

On Fig shows the mechanism that conforms to the schema of the mechanism in figure 3, for the particular case of four-speed transmission. Differential Dc embodied on the basis of the planetary transmission comprising a planetary gear 1, the satellite gears 2 and ring 3. The differential Dd embodied on the basis of a planet is Noah transmission, consisting of planetary gear 4, the satellite gear 5 and the ring 10. Variable speed V is connected to different modules of the gear ratio on one side with the shaft 6, which is connected to the ring 3, and on the other side with the shaft 7, which is connected to the ring 10. The driving shaft i is attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gear differential Dc (planetary gear 2). Driven shaft about attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gear differential Dd (planetary gear 5). The gear ratio R is equal to 0, for this reason it was made with the possibility of blocking the rotation of the shaft 9, which is attached to the planetary gear 4; such blocking is achieved by activation of the selector SO. Between the shaft 6 (attached to the ring 3 and the shaft 9 (attached to the planetary gear 4) has two possible module R and R gear ratio based on the gear b, b', b", b'and d, d', d", d'", respectively; the selectors S2 and S4 allow connection or disconnection of the wheels b' with b ' and d' with d', respectively; if the wheel b' is connected to b", they both rotate together, and a gear formed b, b', b", b"' puts the gear ratio determined it appropriate number of teeth between the shaft 6 and the shaft 9; if wheel b' and b" are separated, they both work in vain, as cited by sootvetstvenno b and b", not putting any gear ratio between the shafts 6 and 9, similarly to the case of connection or lack of connection-wheel d' with d'. Between the shaft 8 (attached to the planetary gear 1) and the shaft 7 attached to the ring 10) has two possible module R and R gear ratio based on the gear a, a', a", a"' and C, C', C", C"', respectively, the selectors Si and S3 provide the ability to connect or disconnect wheels and' and ' and' with', respectively; if the wheel and' connected to a, they both rotate together, and gear, formed a, a', a", a"', puts the gear ratio determined it appropriate number of teeth between the shaft 8 and the shaft 7; if the wheels a' and a" are separated, they both work in vain, being driven respectively from a and a", not putting any gear ratio between the shafts 8 and 7, similarly to the case of connection or lack of connection of the wheel' with". For each of the gears in the example selected the following number of teeth of the planetary gear 1 and the planetary gear 4 to 16 teeth; satellite gear 2 and the satellite gears 5 to 8 teeth; ring 3 and ring 10-32 tooth gears b and b”, 14 teeth; gear b' and b” - 36 teeth; gears d and d - 18 teeth; gear d' and d” - 32 teeth; gears and and and” - 11 teeth; gear a' and a” - 39 teeth; ø the stubble with and with - 16 teeth; gear C' and C” - 34 tooth. The variable speed is made on the basis of the mechanism of any type, which allows you to progressively change the speed of rotation of the two shafts, with which it is connected, with ratios from 0 (the shaft 7 is stopped, while the shaft 6 rotates freely) to infinity (the shaft 6 is stopped, while the shaft 7 rotates freely); this can be obtained using a pair of electric machines (one acts as a generator and the other as a motor, a pair of hydraulic machines (one works as a pump and another as a motor, mechanism, derived from a combination of variable-speed drives and differentials, etc. Form the connection and disconnection of the selectors S1-S8 for receiving each of the four speed transmission and the gear ratio obtained in each of them, are detailed in the following table.

Stage transmissionUnited selectorsThe angular velocity of the shaft 6The angular velocity of the shaft 7Gear mechanism
InitialEndInitialTo ecna InitialEnd
1S0, S145000035800,080
Transition 1-2S0, S1, S203580,080
2S1, S20450035800,0800,151
Transition 2-3S1, S2, S3450000,151
3S2, S3450000996,540,1510,221
The transition 3-4S2, S3, S4 996,540,221
4S3,S404500996,5400,2210,316

In this table, the angular velocity of the shafts 6 and 7 are expressed in revolutions per minute, and correspond to the case when the driving shaft rotates at a constant angular speed of 3000 rpm. As can be noted during the transitions of the two modules of the gear ratio can be simultaneously connected between the shafts 6 and 9, or between the shafts 8 and 7, because the transition occurs at a time when these shafts do not rotate.

On Fig shows the mechanism that conforms to the schema of the mechanism presented in figure 4, or more accurately, his version presented on Fig.9, for the specific example 10 4-speed transmission. The differential D2 is made on the basis of the planetary transmission comprising a planetary gear 1, the satellite gears 2 and ring 3. The differential D3 is made on the basis of the planetary transmission comprising a planetary gear 4, the satellite gear 5 and the ring 8. Differential D4 is made on the basis of the planetary transmission comprising a planetary gear 9, the satellite gears 10 and to Liza 11. Differential D5 is made on the basis of the planetary transmission comprising a planetary gear 12, the satellite gear 13 and the ring 14. The differential D1 has characteristic 0 and is therefore made with the possibility of direct connection of the driven shaft about the shaft 6 through the connection that is activated by selector S1 (case, more detail is presented on Fig.9). The variable speed between shafts 6 and 7 in this case is made on the basis of two electric machines M1 and M2; they must be reversible machines so that when one of them acts as a generator, the other to function as a motor, and to the energy that is consumed by the engine, is always equal to the energy generated by the generator, and they must have a management system that allows you to place the gear ratio between them. Drive shaft simultaneously attached to the planetary gears 1, 4, 9 and 12 of the differential D2, D3, D4 and D5. Driven shaft attached to the supporting shafts of the satellite gears satellite gears 2, 5, 10, and 13. The shaft 6 may be connected to the ring 8 through the gears 17, 15, and 16) or ring 14 (through gears 18 and 19) through connections, which are activated by the selectors S3 and S5, respectively, it can also be connected to the driven shaft through the gear ratio obtained by the gears 20 and 21, which are activated by the selector S1. The shaft 7 may be soy is inen with ring 3 (through gears 22 and 23) or ring 11 through gears 25, 24 and 26) through connections, which are activated by the selectors S2 and S4, respectively. For each gear select the following number of teeth of the planetary gear 1 - 9 teeth; satellite gear 2 - 54 tooth; ring 3 - 117 teeth of the planetary gear 4 to 12 teeth; satellite gear 5 - 30 teeth; a ring 8 - 72 tooth; a planetary gear 9 - 18 teeth; satellite gear 10 - 24 tooth; ring 11 - 66 teeth of the planetary gear 12 to 16 teeth; satellite gear 13 12 teeth; ring 14 - 40 teeth; gear 17 - 28 teeth; gear 15 - 40 teeth; gear 16 to 24 teeth; gear 18 77 teeth; gear 19 is 55 teeth; gear 20 - 66 teeth; gear 21 - 66 teeth; gear 22 66 teeth; gear 23 - 66 teeth; gear 25-26 teeth; gear 24 is 42 teeth; gear 26 to 22 teeth. The form of connection and disconnection selectors Si-S4 to obtain each of these four-speed transmission and gear ratios obtained in each of them, are detailed in the following table.

Stage transmissionUnited selectorsThe angular velocity of the shaft 6The angular velocity of the shaft 7Gear mechanism
InitialEndInitialEndInitialEnd
1S1, S10-221-238001/14
Transition 1-2S1, S1, S2-22101/14
2S2, S3-221002381/142/14
Transition 2-3S2, S3, S402382/14
3S3, S40-22123802/143/14/td>
The transition 3-4S3, S4, S5-22103/141
4S4, S5-22100-2383/144/14

In this table, the angular velocity of the shafts 6 and 7 are expressed in revolutions per minute, and correspond to the case in which the drive shaft rotates with a constant angular velocity 3094 rpm. As can be noted during the transitions of the three gear ratios can be simultaneously connected, because the gear ratio and characteristics of the differentials were chosen so that the gear ratio obtained before and after the transition were the same. Thus, as described above, provides freedom of choice of the first two gear ratios can be selected so that the maximum angular velocity of the shafts 6 and 7 corresponded to the operation of machines, which were used to build the variable speed.

On Fig shows an example, which corresponds to the mechanism in figure 5. Block V is the mechanism that allows you to continuously change the gear ratio between valom' and the shaft of from 0 to a certain maximum value. Shaft o can be directly connected to the driven shaft' through drive connector S1, or it may be connected indirectly through the intermediate shaft and the sets of gears provided on Fig, and it changes to the opposite direction of rotation, this second connection is provided through a drive connection S2. At the point at which the gear ratio of the variator V is 0, the shaft remains stationary on, and for this reason, S1 and S2 can be simultaneously connected; disconnect one of the two chosen depending on whether this moment of change of the gear ratio generated by the mechanism and rotating the shaft about', to occur in the same direction of rotation about the shaft or in the opposite direction.

On Fig presents a block diagram of a mechanism, which corresponds to the scheme shown in Fig.6. Block the "high range" is made on the basis of the mechanism presented on Fig, in which the shafts i and o Fig correspond to the shafts i' and' pig and in which V is made on the basis of the mechanism presented in figure 1. Block "short range" is made on the basis of the mechanism presented on Fig. The variable speed is made on the basis of two electric machines M1 and M2 (both reversible and can work alternately, one as a motor and the other as a generator or Vice versa), and their shafts connect the tive different pairs of gears with gear ratio 1:1 with the shafts 6 and 7 as in the mechanism of figure 1, and in the mechanism Fig. Block "inverter" is made on the basis of the mechanism presented on Fig.

The mechanism works as follows. When the driven shaft is stopped, the connectors S1 or S2 of the inverter is connected in accordance with the need to move forward or back (maybe both connect at the same time, if it is desirable not to lose the transfer torque on the driven shaft).

1. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio made with the possibility of extension of the range that contains
A) the main part, which contains the main drive shaft (i) and the main driven shaft (a), the first differential (Da) and the second differential (Db), variable (V), connected to the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Da) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Db), the variator (V) made with the possibility of regulating the ratio of power that runs through each of these differentials from the main drive shaft (i) to the primary slave shaft (o), and the second the shaft of each of the specified first differential (Da) and the second differential (Db) connected to the main drive shaft (i) and the third shaft connected to the main driven shaft (on);
B) drive shaft (i') of the mechanism, made with alternate connection with the main drive shaft (i) and with the main led is m shaft (o), and driven shaft (o') of the mechanism is configured to alternately connect with the main driven shaft (o) and with the main drive shaft (i), and, when the driving shaft (i') of the mechanism connected with the main drive shaft (i)driven shaft (o') of the mechanism connected with the main driven shaft (o), and when the driving shaft (i') of the mechanism connected with the main driven shaft (a), the driven shaft (o') of the mechanism connected with the main drive shaft (i);
C) four modules (R2n, R2n+i, S2n, S2n+i) gear ratios, each of which contains a number of gear ratios, and the mechanism is made with the possibility of
the connection between the drive shaft (i') of the mechanism and the main drive shaft (i) through the first (R2nfrom these modules is the gear ratio of the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from the specified module;
the connection between the drive shaft (i') of the mechanism and the main driven shaft (o) through the second (R2n+ifrom these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from the specified module;
the connection between the driven shaft (o') of the mechanism and the main drive shaft (i) through third (S2n+ifrom these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from the specified module;
the connection between the driven shaft (o') mechanism and fundamental in domum shaft (a) through fourth (S 2nfrom these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from the specified module.

2. The mechanism according to claim 1, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio from zero to the maximum value.

3. The mechanism according to claim 1, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio of the minimum negative value to a maximum positive value, zero-crossing and the direction of rotation is reversed.

4. The mechanism according to claim 1, in which the driven shaft (o) unit configured to selectively connect with the shaft using a direct connection, or a set of gears that change the direction of rotation is reversed.

5. Mechanism of claim 1, wherein the variator (V) consists of two electric machines, which are made in the form of a generator or motor and are controlled by appropriate electronic circuits.

6. The mechanism according to claim 5, which is made with possibility of installation on machines with heat engines, for example, on motor vehicles, which use electric cars, which contain a variable, such as the starting motor and e is tricocci generator for charging the battery of the machine.

7. The mechanism according to claim 5, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

8. The mechanism according to claim 2, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

9. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio that contains a drive shaft (i) and driven shaft (about); the first differential (Dc) and the second differential (Dd), and the variator (V)made with the possibility of obtaining transfer of numbers from 0 to ∞ between the master shaft and the slave shaft of the variator (V), which provides the possibility of obtaining the gear ratio from the gear ratio at which the driven shaft remains locked while the driving shaft rotates freely, to the gear ratio at which the drive shaft is locked in the as the driven shaft rotates freely, and the variator (V) is connected with the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Dc) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Dd); and two sets of modules (R1i, R2j) gear ratios, each of which contains many gear number is l and the coupling or connection system, made with the possibility of selective connection of the gear ratio within each set of modules (R1i, R2j), so that it remained United, and drive shaft (i), attached to the second shaft of the first differential (Dc)and driven shaft (o)attached to the second shaft of the second differential (Dd), and one of the sets of modules (R1i), made with the possibility of connection of any of its gear ratio between the third shaft (8) of the first differential (Dc) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Dd), and another set of modules (R2j), made with the possibility of connection of any of its gear ratio between the third shaft (9) of the second differential (Dd) and the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Dc).

10. The mechanism according to claim 9, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio from zero to the maximum value.

11. The mechanism according to claim 9, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio of the minimum negative value to a maximum positive value, zero-crossing and the direction of rotation is reversed.

12. The mechanism according to claim 9, in which the driven shaft of the mechanism performed in what zmoznostjo electoral connection with the shaft by means of a direct connection, or a set of gears, which change the direction of rotation is reversed.

13. The mechanism according to claim 9, in which the variator (V) consists of two electric machines, which are made in the form of a generator or motor and are controlled by appropriate electronic circuits.

14. The mechanism 13, which is made with possibility of installation on machines with heat engines, for example, on motor vehicles, which use electric cars, which contain a variable, such as the starting motor and an electric generator for charging the battery of the machine.

15. The mechanism 13, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

16. The mechanism according to claim 9, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

17. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio that contains a drive shaft (i) and driven shaft (about); the first differential (Dc) and the second differential (Dd); and the variator (V)made with the possibility of obtaining transfer of numbers from 0 to ∞ between the drive shaft and the Vedas is called the shaft of the variator (V), that allows a gear ratio from the gear ratio at which the driven shaft remains locked while the driving shaft rotates freely, to the gear ratio at which the drive shaft is locked, while the driven shaft rotates freely, and the variator (V) is connected with the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Dc) and the third shaft (8) of the first differential (Dc); and the variator (V)connected to the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Dc) and the third shaft (8) of the first differential (Dc); characterized in that it contains two sets of modules (R1i, R2j) gear ratios, each of which contains a variety of gear ratios and coupling or connection system made by selective connection of the gear ratio within each set of modules (r1i, R2jso it remained United, and drive shaft (i), attached to the second shaft of the first differential (Dc)and driven shaft (o)attached to the second shaft of the second differential (Dd), and one of the sets of modules (R1ihave the ability to connect any of its gear ratio between the third shaft (8) of the first differential (Dc) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Dd), and another set of modules (R2j) configured to connect the Oia any of its gear ratio between the third shaft (9) of the second differential (Dd) and the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Dc).

18. The mechanism 17, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio from zero to the maximum value.

19. The mechanism 17, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio of the minimum negative value to a maximum positive value, zero-crossing and the direction of rotation is reversed.

20. The mechanism 17, in which the driven shaft (o) unit configured to selectively connect with the shaft using a direct connection, or a set of gears that change the direction of rotation is reversed.

21. The mechanism 17, in which the variator (V) consists of two electric machines, which are made in the form of a generator or motor and are controlled by appropriate electronic circuits.

22. The mechanism according to item 21, which is made with possibility of installation on machines with heat engines, for example, on motor vehicles, which use electric cars, which contain a variable, such as the starting motor and an electric generator for charging the battery of the machine.

23. The mechanism according to item 21, in which the gear ratio of one of the set is s modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

24. The mechanism 17, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

25. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio that contains a drive shaft (i) and driven shaft (about); the first differential (Dc) and the second differential (Dd)and variable (V)made with the possibility of obtaining transfer of numbers from 0 to ∞ between the master shaft and the slave shaft of the variator (V), which provides the possibility of obtaining the gear ratio from the gear ratio at which the driven shaft remains locked while the driving shaft rotates freely, to the gear ratio at which the drive shaft is locked in while the driven shaft rotates freely, and the variator (V) is connected with the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Dd) and the third shaft (9) of the second differential (Dd), characterized in that it contains
two sets of modules (R1i, R2j) gear ratios, each of which contains a variety of gear ratios and coupling or connection system made with an option of selective connection of the gear ratio within each set of modules (R 1i, R2jso it remained United, and drive shaft (i), attached to the second shaft of the first differential (Dc)and driven shaft (o)attached to the second shaft of the second differential (Dd);
one of the sets of modules (R1ihave the ability to connect any of its gear ratio between the third shaft (8) of the first differential (Dc) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Dd), and another set of modules (R2jhave the ability to connect any of its gear ratio between the third shaft (9) of the second differential (Dd) and the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Dc).

26. The mechanism A.25, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio from zero to the maximum value.

27. The mechanism A.25, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio of the minimum negative value to a maximum positive value, zero-crossing and the direction of rotation is reversed.

28. The mechanism A.25, in which the driven shaft (o) unit configured to selectively connect with the shaft using a direct connection, or a set of gears, is the quiet change the direction of rotation is reversed.

29. The mechanism A.25, in which the variator (V) consists of two electric machines, which are made in the form of a generator or motor and are controlled by appropriate electronic circuits.

30. The mechanism by clause 29, which is made with possibility of installation on machines with heat engines, for example, on motor vehicles, which use electric cars, which contain a variable, such as the starting motor and an electric generator for charging the battery of the machine.

31. The mechanism by clause 29, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

32. The mechanism A.25, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

33. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio that contains a drive shaft (i) and driven shaft (o); many differentials (D1D2D2n-1D2n), which contains the set of even differentials (D2D2n) and many odd differentials (D1D2n-1); and the variator (), made with gear ratios from 0 to ∞ between the master shaft and the slave shaft of the variator (V), which provides the possibility of obtaining the gear ratio from the gear ratio at which the driven shaft remains locked while the driving shaft rotates freely, to the gear ratio at which the drive shaft is locked, while the driven shaft rotates freely, and the variator (V) is connected to the shaft (6) and shaft (7); and a drive shaft (i), attached to the first shaft all differentials (D1D2D2n-1D2n)and driven shaft (o)attached to the second shaft all differentials (D1D2D2n-1D2n); and multiple sets of modules (R1, R2, R2n-1, R2n) ratios, which contains the set of even sets of modules (R2, R2nand a lot of odd sets of modules (R1, R2n-i), and each of them contains a lot of gear ratios with a means of connection or clutch made with the possibility of selective connection of the gear ratio within each set (R1, R2, R2n-1, R2nso it remained United, and sets of modules (R1, R2, R2n-1, R2n) made with the possibility of connection of the gear ratio of each of uchetnyh sets of modules (R 1, R2n-1) between the third shaft of each of the odd-numbered differential (D1D2n-1) and the shaft (6)connected to the variator (V), and sets of modules (R1, R2, R2n-1, R2n) made with the possibility of connection of the gear ratio of each of the even-numbered sets of modules (R2, R2n), could be connected between the third shaft of each of the even-numbered differential (D2D2n) and the shaft (7)connected to the variator (V).

34. The mechanism p, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio from zero to the maximum value.

35. The mechanism p, in which the characteristics of its differentials and gear ratios provide the possibility of continuous change gear ratio of the minimum negative value to a maximum positive value, zero-crossing and the direction of rotation is reversed.

36. The mechanism p, in which the driven shaft (o) unit configured to selectively connect with the shaft using a direct connection, or a set of gears that change the direction of rotation is reversed.

37. The mechanism p, in which the variator (V) consists of two electric machines, which are made in the form of a generator or engine in the I and managed by the relevant electronic circuits.

38. The mechanism in clause 37, which is made with possibility of installation on machines with heat engines, for example, on motor vehicles, which use electric cars, which contain a variable, such as the starting motor and an electric generator for charging the battery of the machine.

39. The mechanism by clause 37, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

40. The mechanism p, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

41. The mechanism p, in which one of the shafts (6) or (7) of the variator (V) made with the possibility of a direct connection with the driven shaft (a) via the gear ratio (Ri), which can be connected or disconnected using the clutch or the connection of any other type.

42. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio, containing the mechanism of the lower range, which contains a mechanism according to any one of p-12, 17-20, 25-28, 33-36 for gear ratios, limiting the output of the th torque so not to exceed the maximum permitted, as well as the mechanism of high range gear ratio at which the output torque is always less than the maximum allowed torque, without any limitation, which contains a mechanism that extends the range that contains
A) the main part, which contains the main drive shaft (i) and the main driven shaft (about); the first differential (Da) and the second differential (Db), and the variator (V)connected to the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Da) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Db), which allows you to adjust by a variator (V) the ratio of the power that passes through each of these differentials, from the main drive shaft (i) to the primary slave shaft (o), and the second shaft of each of the specified first differential (Da) and the second differential (Db) connected to the main drive shaft (i), and a third shaft connected to the main driven shaft (on);
B) drive shaft (i') of the mechanism is made with alternate connection with the main drive shaft (i) and with the main driven shaft (o)and driven shaft (o') of the mechanism is made with alternate connection with the main driven shaft (o) and with the main drive shaft (i), and, when the driving shaft (i) mechanism connected to the main drive shaft (i), the Vedas, the range of the shaft (o') of the mechanism connected with the main driven shaft (o), and when the drive shaft (i') of the mechanism connected with the main driven shaft (a), the driven shaft (o') of the mechanism connected with the main drive shaft (i),
C) four modules (R2n, R2n+1, S2n, S2n+1) gear ratios, each of which contains a number of gear ratios, and
the connection between the drive shaft (i') of the mechanism and the main drive shaft (i) is performed by the first (R2nfrom these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from a specified module,
the connection between the drive shaft (i') of the mechanism and the main driven shaft (on) is performed by the second (R2n+1from these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from a specified module,
the connection between the driven shaft (o') of the mechanism and the main drive shaft (i) is performed by the third (S2n+1from these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from a specified module,
the connection between the driven shaft (o') of the mechanism and the main driven shaft (on) is performed by the fourth (S2nfrom these modules is the gear ratio in accordance with the gear ratio selected from the specified module.

43. Mechanism § 42, in which the minimum ratio of the high range of the mechanism is equal to the maximum gear ratio Chi is Lu the lower range of the mechanism.

44. Mechanism § 42, in which the area of the minimum transmission ratio of the high range of the engine and the area of maximum gear ratio of the lower range of the mechanism overlap with common to both ranges of gear ratios.

45. The mechanism according to any one of p-44, in which the transition between the low range and high range is carried out by an appropriate coupling or connection, when the gear ratio the same.

46. The mechanism according to any one of p-44, which contains a single variable speed (V) for the high range of the mechanism, and the lower range of the mechanism.

47. The mechanism according to any one of p-44, in which the variator (V) consists of two electric machines, which are made in the form of a generator or motor and are controlled by appropriate electronic circuits.

48. The mechanism p, which is made with possibility of installation on machines with heat engines, for example, on motor vehicles, which use electric cars, which contain a variable, such as the starting motor and an electric generator for charging the battery of the machine.

49. The mechanism according to any one of p-44, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being attached to the chassis of the mechanism.

50. Mechanism § 45, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

51. Mechanism § 46, in which the gear ratio of one of the sets of modules is equal to zero, this permits the braking or blocking of one of the shafts with which it is connected, being connected to the chassis of the mechanism.

52. The movement of a mechanical transmission with a continuous change of the gear ratio, containing the main part with the main drive shaft (i) and the main driven shaft (o), and the first differential (Da) and the second differential (Db), and the variator (V)connected to the first shaft (6) of the first differential (Da) and the first shaft (7) of the second differential (Db), the variator (V) provides the ability to control the ratio of power that runs through each of these differentials from the main drive shaft (i) to primary slave shaft (o), and the second shaft of each of the specified first differential (Da) and the second differential (Db) connected to the main drive shaft (i) and the third shaft connected to the main driven shaft (o); wherein said first differential (Da) made in the form of PL is nearney gear (1), many of the satellite gears (2) and ring (3)and the second differential (Db) is designed as a planetary gear (8), many of the satellite gears (5) and ring (4), drive shaft (i) simultaneously attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gears, around which revolve the satellite gears (2), and also attached to the ring (4), while the driven shaft (on) simultaneously attached to the supporting shaft of the satellite gears, around which revolve the satellite gears (5)and attached to the ring (3), and by a variator (V) is the drive shaft (6) and (7)that are attached to the planetary gear (1) and (8).



 

Same patents:

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hybrid power units of vehicles and may be used in city transport, for instance bus. Hybrid power unit of vehicle comprises primary power supply source (1), energy accumulator in the form of, for instance flywheel (18) or accumulator, and also drive comprising planetary disc variator (4), mechanism (12) for forced variation of gear ratio of planetary disc variator (4), which is arranged, for instance in the form of screw-nut gear, system (14) for control of mechanism for variation of gear ratio of planetary disc variator (4), periodically switched unit, for instance demultiplicator (29) comprising one or several gear switched drives, which transmits rotation from planetary disc variator (4) to drive of traction wheels (35) of vehicle. Range of gear ratios variation of periodically switched unit is arranged as lower than range of planetary disc variator variation.

EFFECT: saving of fuel and improved ecological compatibility of vehicle.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: engineering industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to transport engineering industry, and namely to through drive axles. Through hypoid final drive consists of reduction gear case (1), driving flange (2) installed on drive shaft (3) whereon there pressed is cylindrical drive pinion (4). In case (1), on tapered bearings (5) and (6) there located is drive hypoid pinion (7) provided with a shank. In case (1) there located is a centre differential containing carriers (10) and (11). Carrier (10) is installed on tapered bearing (12) located in the case (1) and that is an integral part of driven pinion (13) engaged with cylindrical drive pinion (4). Carrier (11) is installed on radial thrust bearing (14) located in case (1). Axle shaft pinion (17) of centre differential is connected by means of splines to through shaft (19) of main reverse gear drive the horizontal axis of which is located below axis of cross-axle differential (20). Axle shaft pinion (18) is installed on splines of pinion-shaft (24) coaxially relative to shaft (19) of main reverse gear drive on bearings (25) and (26) located in case (1) and carrier (10) of centre differential respectively. Pinion-shaft (24) is engaged with driven pinion (27) fixed on the splined end of shank of drive hypoid pinion (7).

EFFECT: improving durability of cardan shaft and hypoid gear.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: stepless gear ratio variation transmission incorporates an input shat (I), output shat (O) and gear ratio variator coupled with the aforesaid output shaft and furnished with its own output shaft. The 1st gear of the planetary reduction gear with input shafts coupled with the variator (V) output shaft and the transmission input shaft via the first coupling (H) and gear of the second planetary reduction gear with input shafts coupled with the variator output shafts and transmission input shaft come in mesh with the third planetary reduction that comes into mesh with the transmission output shaft via the first braking element (L). The second braking element (B) is arranged to lock the output shaft of the second planetary reduction gear in static state.

EFFECT: reduced rpm of parts and number of gearings.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to motor industry. The rpm controller represents a device incorporating a planetary differential gear with driving spider (2) and two various-diameter gear wheels (5, 12). Central gear wheel (5) runs opposite to the running spider (2) to transmit engine power to output shaft (6) via the reduction gear that changes the direction of rotation. Central gear wheel (12) runs in the same direction with spider (2) to transmit rotary motion to output shaft (6) via friction clutch (13). Adjusting actuator with a controlled signal, a function of the engine shaft rpm, varies the rotary motion transmission ratio and allows accelerating or decelerating output shaft (6) along with changing the transmission ratio from its maximum to zero.

EFFECT: automatic adjustment of the engine rpm with variation of transmission ratio in transient behavior.

1 dwg

Gearbox // 2313709

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gearbox contains constant-mesh gear cluster as main speed unit and planetary mechanism for additional reduction with multiplication of main low speed. All driven gears of cluster and planetary mechanism are fitted on gearbox output shaft, and driving member of planetary mechanism-sun or ring gear - is nondetachably rigidly connected with driven gear of main low speed.

EFFECT: simplified kinematic of transmission, reduced mechanical losses.

5 cl, 4 dwg

Combination drive // 2312794

FIELD: aircraft manufacture; control of high-lift devices of wing (flaps, slats).

SUBSTANCE: electric motor (1) is mounted in one kinematic channel and is mechanically connected with sun gear wheel of planetary differential mechanism (6) provided at gearbox input; it is connected with electromechanical brake clutch (3) electrically connected in series with electric motor. Hydraulic motor (2) is mounted in other kinematic channel and is mechanically and hydraulically connected with hydromechanical brake (4) by means of control head; it is also linked with epicycle of planetary differential mechanism (6) via matching in-line gear train.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability; reduced mass of drive.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, automobile construction, in particular, rotational speed changing technique.

SUBSTANCE: variator has speed regulating mechanism made in the form of toothed differential mechanism, drive for speed regulation mechanism, planetary working frame 4 and planetary balancing frame 5, frame guide 11 and frame rotation casing 12. Frames 4, 5 are meshed with central toothed gear 3 and are placed, in conjunction with said gear, within frame guide 11. Two planetary working toothed gears 6, 10 are fixed within frame 4. Planetary working toothed gear 6 is fixed through cardan drive 8 and shaft 9 to variator housing 7 to rotate relative to frame 4. Planetary toothed gear 10 is connected through second cardan drive 8, intermediate toothed gears 21, 22 and toothed gear 23 to variator driven shaft 24 to run around first planetary working toothed gear 6. On increase of rotational speed or adjustment, frames 4, 5 are offset by centrifugal force relative to rotational center of drive shaft 1. On offsetting of frames, radii of rotation of planetary working gears 6, 10 relative to rotational center of drive shaft 1 are increased and transmission ratio is changed.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and provision for transmission of great powers by toothed transmission.

12 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system of transmission with constantly changing gear ratio has input and output shafts, 16 and 24, respectively, transfer unit V with constantly changing gear ratio connected to input shaft 16, mixed epicyclical transfer mechanism E1 and second epicyclical transfer mechanism E2. Mechanism E1 has input sun gear S1 connected to output shaft of variable speed drive 18, carrier C1 connected to input shaft 16 and planetary gear P1 installed on carrier C1. Planetary gear P1 drives first intermediate output shaft 32 selectively connected to output shaft 24 of system through first clutch H at high speed of system. Planetary gear P1 provides also input power for second epicyclical transfer mechanism E2. Mechanism E2 has output C2 which is selectively connected to output shaft 24 of system through brake member L at low speeds of system.

EFFECT: minimization of engagement of gears, thus minimizing transmission losses, no backlash in mechanism E1, increased range of selection of sizes of gears, thus reducing speed of gears.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in tractors, automobiles, road building machines, etc. Additional simple three-member planetary mechanism is installed in gearbox between off-axial two-shaft reduction gear and main three-member planetary mechanism. Gear rims 27, 28, 29 of tubular shaft 26 of epicyclic wheel 25 and output shaft of carrier 24 of main three-member planetary mechanism and output shaft 6 of set 1 are arranged close to each other. Shifter sleeve 35D is located on gear rim 29 of set output shaft 6. Shifter fork 36 is connected by slider 37 with gear rim 38 with internal and external gearing. Gear rim 38 connects gear rims 32, 30 of set housing and housing of epicyclic wheel 25.

EFFECT: increased range of gear ratios and number to forward speeds to sixteen and reverse speed to eight, contributes to transformation of high torques.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: planet friction variator comprises shaft (1), solar wheel (2), corona wheel (6), carrier (4) with satellites (3), and secondary shaft (5). Corona wheel (6) that is used as a control member is connected with variator housing (11) and primary shaft (1) through friction mechanisms. Secondary shaft (5) is made in block with carrier (4) for permitting control of velocity and direction of rotation of the corona wheel by means of friction mechanisms and control electric motor (9) connected with the corona wheel.

EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced sizes, and enhanced reliability.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: gear transmission comprises planetary reduction gear and worm pair which engages the planetary reduction gear. Worm (1) of the worm pair is mounted for permitting rotation and axial movement along the driving shaft of the gear transmission and is kinematically connected with satellite (7) of the planetary reduction gear. Driving shaft (2) carries small central wheel (9) of the planetary reduction gear and kinematically connected with satellite (10) of the planetary reduction gear. Satellite (10) is kinematically connected with worm wheel (3). The axle of wheel (3) freely rotates around carrier (4). The axle of large central wheel (8) of the planetary reduction gear is the driven shaft of the gear transmission.

EFFECT: improved design.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to drives of all-wheel-drive cross-country vehicles designed for riding along roads and off-road. Proposed two-step planetary transfer case contains upper planetary reduction gear providing two speeds of transfer case, intermediate shaft with gear 5 and lower planetary reduction gear being essentially differential drive for rear and front driving axles. Driving member of upper planetary reduction gear is crown gear 9 stationary connected with drive shaft 8, driven member is carrier 13 and controlled member is central gear 11. Gears of upper planetary reduction gear, driving gear 4, intermediate gear 5 and driven gear 6 and gears of lower differential mechanism are arranged in one row one over the other.

EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions adapted for mounting transfer case on vehicles.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wheel has rim of regular shape and center of rotation. To drive the wheel, planetary reduction gear is fitted in wheel rim whose drive gear is planet pinion installed on driving "floating shaft whose axis, taking weight of vehicle applied to wheel, executes complex movement relative to axis of wheel rotation making it possible to: 1) spread projections of axis of rotation (being simultaneously point/line of support) of wheel and point of application of vehicle weight P to wheel on horizontal surface by some distance L; 2) change position of projection of point P on vertical; plane by some height h and provide constantly acting "canting" torque PL on wheel creating effect of eccentric wheel at wheel circumference remaining unchanged and eliminating cyclic loads.

EFFECT: improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, its steerability, efficiency of wheeled propulsor, simplified design.

1 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering; offroad tractor.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to driving axle with suspension and agricultural tractor with such axle which has central housing with build-in final drives and left-hand and right-hand axle housings suspended by means of upper and lower adjusting arms, with axle-shafts projecting from axle on which wheel-and-tire units are installed. Constant-velocity universal joint is installed between fitted-in final drives and axle-shafts. Said universal joint has pair of journal members and coupling holder radially enclosing driving and driven races of joint, thus minimizing axial length of universal joint providing arrangement of wheels on axle-shafts at width of 1524 mm.

EFFECT: possibility of using driving shaft on tractor-cultivator without changing design of load-bearing frame of standard tractor-cultivator with preservation of performance characteristics of said tractor-cultivator.

39 cl, 15 dwg

Drive (versions) // 2278309

FIELD: mechanical engineering; devices for control of rotational speed of working member shaft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed drive has unadjustable electric motor, adjustable electric motors, input shaft 1 and output shaft 2, gear trains, differential gear trains formed by two wave gear trains with common wave generator 3 and worm transmissions and differential gear. Worm shafts 11 and 12 are set in rotation from adjustable electric motors. External gear wheels 6 and 7 of wave gear trains are coupled with worms 11 and 12. Internal gear wheels 9 and 10 of wave gear trains are kinematically linked with differential gear wheels 19 and 20 which are connected with output shaft 21 of drive. Two wave gear trains are chain-type in construction and are related as follows: Zch1+Zch2=2Zext; Zch1+Z=Zch2-Z, where Zch1 and Zch2 is number of rollers in chains of first and second wave gear trains; Zext is number of teeth of external gear wheel of wave gear drives thrown into engagement with rollers of chains; 2Z is difference of rollers in chains.

EFFECT: possibility of changing the direction of rotation and rotational speed of shaft of working member in wide range; increased speed of response; enhanced reliability.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: mechanical amplifier comprises power differential (1), comparing differential (30), adjusting differential (2), control differential (36), and two self-braking mechanisms (3) and (4). The input of the power differential (1) is connected with the drive and input of control differential (2). Central wheels (17) and (18) of the power differential are secured to driven links (15) and (16) of the self-braking mechanisms and connected with central wheels (32) and (33) of the comparing differential so that the central wheels of the comparing differential rotate in opposite directions. Driving links (13) and (14) of the self-braking mechanisms are connected with central wheels (19) and (20) of the adjusting differential and central wheels (42) and (43) of the control differential so that the central wheels of the control differential rotate in opposite directions.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and expanded functional capabilities.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: in proposed coaxial shaft-and-planetary transmission gear 10 on primary shaft 2 is secured and is in meshing with gear 7 provided with rim of increased width and freely fitted on intermediate shaft 6. Gear 11 of secondary shaft 3 has also rim of increased width near gear rim of gear 10 of primary shaft 2. shifter sleeve member 24 fitted on said gear rims is coupled with other sleeve member 25 by shifter fork 26, sleeve member 25 being installed on gear rims of gears 7 and 8 of intermediate shaft 6. Gear rim 19 of output shaft of carrier 15 is two-position one. Gear rim 20 of output shaft of set 5 is three-position one, and shifter sleeve 28 on said rim is provided with three internal gear rims. Gear rim 31 with internal and external meshing is teeth rigidly secured on slider 30 of shifter sleeve 28, external meshing teeth being coupled with three-position gear rim 23 of housing of set 1.

EFFECT: increased range of gear ratios of shaft reduction gear at reduced overall dimensions and metal usage, improved gear shift mechanism of planetary mechanism.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: according to invention, gear 14 is secured on primary shaft 3, and gear 13 is secured on first tubular shaft 9 freely fitted on primary shaft 3. Gear rims 21 and 22 are fitted on shafts 3 and 9. Input shaft 2 with hub of three-position shifter sleeve 23 and additional driving shaft 4 are installed coaxially to shaft 3. Two gears 17 and 18 in meshing with gears 19 and 20 of secondary shaft 5 are secured on shaft 4. Gear 19 is fitted on shaft 5. Gear 20 is secured on second tubular shaft 10 freely installed on shaft 5. Gear rims 24 and 25 are secured on shafts 5 and 10. Shaft 6 with hub of two-position shifter sleeve 26 and sun gear 27 of planetary mechanism is installed coaxially to shaft 5. Gear 27 engages through planet pinions 31 with epicyclic wheel 32. Planet pinions 31 are freely fitted on axles of carrier 33. Two gear rims 34 and 35 are arranged on periphery of housing of carrier 33. Shaft 7 of carrier 33 with two position gear rim is arranged coaxially to shaft 5 and shaft 6. Third tubular shaft 11 of housing of epicyclic wheel with gear rim 38 is freely fitted on shaft 7. Output shaft 8 with hub of three-position shifter sleeve 40 is arranged coaxially to shaft 7. Sleeve 40 is movably coupled by guide 41 with two-rim shifter sleeve 42 arranged between gear rim 37 of housing 36 of epicyclic wheel 32 and gear rim 43 of gearbox case provided with two inner gear rims and one outer gear rim.

EFFECT: perfected design owing to reduction of metal usage and complexity.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: continuously variable transmission comprises housing, input and output shafts, reverse mechanism and multi-disk planet variator provided with planet reduction gear, which define a variator. The solar pinion of the reduction gear is fit on the output shaft with interference and its epicycle is secured to the housing of the transmission. The variator has epicycle mounted in the housing of the transmission and made of a stack of disks and solar pinion made of a disk stack mounted on the output shaft of the variator connected with the output shaft of the reverse mechanism. The carrier of the variator is connected with the carrier of the planet reduction gear and consists of two disks interconnected by means of tension bolts. The disks of the carrier have shaped slots the number of which is equal to the number of axles mounted in the shaped slots for permitting change of position and interaction with the disks of the solar pinion and epicycle. The gear ration controller is build in the carrier of the variator. The planet reduction gear, planet multi-disk variator, and reverse mechanism are axially aligned.

EFFECT: prolonged service life and expanded functional capabilities.

18 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: planet friction variator comprises shaft (1), solar wheel (2), corona wheel (6), carrier (4) with satellites (3), and secondary shaft (5). Corona wheel (6) that is used as a control member is connected with variator housing (11) and primary shaft (1) through friction mechanisms. Secondary shaft (5) is made in block with carrier (4) for permitting control of velocity and direction of rotation of the corona wheel by means of friction mechanisms and control electric motor (9) connected with the corona wheel.

EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced sizes, and enhanced reliability.

1 dwg

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