Method of applying nanostructurised wear-resistant electroconductive coverings
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of applying electroconductive nanostructurised coverings with high electroconductivity and wear-resistance. Method includes supply of powder composition with reinforcing particles from four measuring apparatuses into supersonic stream of heated gas and application of powder composition on product surface. First, from first measuring apparatus reinforcing ultra-dispersive particles of ZrO2 with fraction from 0.1 to 1.0 mcm are supplied and product surface is processed until juvenile surface is formed. Then powder composition based on Cu or Al is applied on product surface by supplying powder from four measuring apparatuses. From the first measuring apparatus reinforcing ultra-dispersive ZrO2 particles are supplied, from the second - Cu or Al powder, form the third - reinforcing nanoparticles of quasi-crystalline compound of system Al-Cu-Fe, and from the fourth measuring apparatus - reinforcing particles Y2O3. Rate of heterophase flow during application of composition based on Cu or Al is changed within the range from 450 to 750 m/sec.
EFFECT: reduction of porosity, increase of wear-resistance, adhesive and cohesive strength of covering preserving its high electroconductivity.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to the field of electrically conductive nanostructured coatings with functionally graded properties, in particular coatings that provide high conductivity and wear resistance of the surface of the parts and components of the friction pairs, working in very hard conditions.
The problem of increasing the wear resistance of materials while maintaining their high conductivity always occurs during the production of competitive products. There are a number of methods to improve the wear resistance of surfaces of friction pairs of machine parts (detonation spraying, plasma spraying, etc.). As you know, are more durable metal and ceramic coatings, which allow a particularly high mechanical and protective properties of the products.
In the known methods of thermal spraying powder material on a substrate to obtain a high adhesion used high-temperature two-phase flows (e.g. plasma, the energy of the explosion, the heat energy of the combustion gases, electromagnetic beam). Properties thus determined by physico-chemical processes occurring during the interaction with the substrate molten or close to it sprayed material.
In the method of gazete the chemical deposition of metal coatings with temperature heterophase flow over 3000°C there are a number of specific effects, which limits its application. It is, above all, the formation of oxides, nitrides, carbides, structural changes, the appearance of high thermo-mechanical stresses caused by the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate and the applied coating, these phenomena significantly reduce the quality of the coating and the adhesion strength of coating material to the substrate, and the cohesion of the applied layer.
Special difficulties arise when applying non-equilibrium, chemically active materials. At the temperature of (0,4-0,6) from the melting temperature metal or alloy degradation of the original structure, the occurrence of brittle phases, the formation of complex oxides. This leads to a noticeable reduction of technological and operational properties of coatings and products in General. Therefore, in recent years intensive search of low-temperature methods for the formation of functional coatings.
One such method is the method of high-speed cold gas-dynamic spraying (HGDN).
The essence of the method consists of applying to the surface of powders of metals or their mixtures transported using supersonic gas flow. Known technologies of powder material, which is a fine particle size of from 1 to 120 microns, is accelerated in a supersonic SOP the e flow of compressed gas, to speeds exceeding the speed of sound, and goes on to cover. The temperature of coating material, as a rule, does not exceed 100°C. by changing the mass flow of coating powder and the introduction of the plasticizer to achieve regulation of the chemical composition across the thickness. Method of cold gas-dynamic spraying allows the deposition of films and coatings with thickness from 10 microns to several millimeters.
When applying plastic materials such as Al, si, the coating process occurs when the particle velocity 400-500 m/s Such speeds can be achieved when using air as the working gas. To increase the gas flow rate 1.2-1.5 times, which is very effective in obtaining coatings with high adhesion, carry out heating of the working gas, for example air, by passing it through a special resistive heater located to the nozzle block. Typically, the temperature of the working gas does not exceed 250°C, the temperature of the particles in the stream is 80-100°C.
The method is very promising when applied to homogeneous materials, i.e., when the substrate material and the material layer are close to each other on the crystallographic structure and the coefficients of thermal expansion.
In the well-known inventions is not regulirovanie the wear resistance while maintaining the high conductivity of the coating, which reduces the service life of the friction pairs. Difficulties arise when the pre-treatment of the surface of the product and bringing it to the surface to juvenile status. The optimum combination of processes of creation of the juvenile product surface and deposition of nanostructured functionally graded coatings with adjustable wear resistance and electrical conductivity in thickness.
There are several variants of the method HGDN and methods of applying metallic materials. In particular, in the presented prototype No. of patent RU 2285746 published 20.10.2006. presents a method of applying functional coatings of dissimilar materials, including:
1. The method of applying functional coatings of dissimilar materials, including the supply of powder in a supersonic flow of heated working gas (e.g. air) and applying it on a metal surface, characterized in that for the exception of interphase boundaries, and ensuring that changes in the chemical composition of the applied coating material on linear or logarithmic feed powders are produced simultaneously from two or more Autonomous working of the dispensers, and the density of the mass flow of powder from the dosing device 1 increases from 0.01 to 2 g/cm·cm2and the density of the mass flow of powder from the dispenser 2 respectively reduce in linear or logarithmic from 2 to 0.01 g/cm·cm 2thereby changing the chemical composition across the thickness of the applied coating.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for increasing the adhesion strength of the inner layers of the coating sprayed at speeds not less than 600 m/s, with maximum speeds of deposition corresponds to the minimum density of the mass flow of the powder is not more than 0.1 g/cm·cm2.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for increasing the adhesion and cohesive strength of coatings obtained powder material dispenser 1 further added "plasticizer", selected from Pb, Cu, Zn, Al, Ni, Co, Ti in an amount of from 1 to 50%.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the dosing device 2, to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the sprayed material and the substrate material, sprayed powder, chemical composition corresponding to the chemical composition of the substrate.
The prototype disadvantages are that:
1. unable to provide for the regulation of the hardness thickness, which reduces wear, so as not introduced into the coating composition hardening component (reinforcing particles);
2. not provided pre-cleaning the substrate from oxides and other non-metallic inclusions, resulting in reduced adhesion and cohesion of the coating;
3. not solve the task of providing a low porosity, substantially in eUSA to wear.
The technical result of the present invention is to provide an efficient method of applying nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating providing higher wear resistance (measured wear less than 3.5·10-9mm/km) and low porosity (about 0.5%), as well as adhesion to the substrate and cohesion of the coating while maintaining the high conductivity of the order of 10-8Ohm·m
For this method of application of nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating comprising a supply of the powder composition with a reinforcing particles of the four dispensers in the supersonic flow of the heated gas with the formation of heterophase stream and applying the powder composition on the surface of the product, in this first from the first dispenser in a supersonic stream of heated gas is injected reinforcing ultrafine particles ZrO2a grain size of 0.1 to 1.0 μm and spend processing the surface of the product to the formation of the juvenile surface, then the surface is applied powder composition based on si or Al with pre-selected ratio of the components, by filing a powder of the four dispensers, from the first dispenser serves reinforcing ultrafine particles ZrO2from the second dispenser powder si or Al, from the third dispenser - reinforcing nanoparticles is quasi-connection system Al-Cu-Fe, and from the fourth dispenser - reinforcing particles Y2O3and the speed heterophase flow during the application of the composition based on si or Al change in the range from 450 to 750 m/S.
The speed heterophase flow of heated gas with a reinforcing ultrafine particles Zr2change in the range from 320 to 450 m/S.
The mass flow rate of powder from the dosing is chosen in the range from 5% to 80%, while the total mass flow rate of reinforcing particles with respect to the powder of si or Al is not less than 20% and does not exceed 80%.
Also, from the first, third and fourth dispenser serves a powder consisting of particles with the following ratio of fractions, volume. %:
with a particle diameter of 5-50 μm in an amount of from 50 to 99%,
with a particle diameter of 50-800 μm in an amount of from 1 to 50%.
In the first stage of application is pre-injected into a supersonic stream of heated gas (e.g. air) non-metallic ultrafine particles,
ZrO2, a grain size of 0.1 to 1.0 μm from the dispenser 1, and spend processing the surface of the sprayed product to the formation of the juvenile surface speed heterophase flow in this case is 320 to 450 m/s, after which the dispenser 1 is turned off. In the second stage, at speeds heterophase flow 450 to 750 m/s, juvenile surface of the sprayed product from the dispenser 2, 3 and 4 is applied, the powder is first composition with a pre-selected ratio of the components, on the basis of si or Al (filler 2) using the quasi-crystalline nanoparticles connection system Al-Cu-Fe (dispenser 3) and metal oxide ZrO2(dispenser 1), Y2About3(dispenser 4) to obtain nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating.
When the flow velocity (the second stage) is less than 450 m/s the kinetic energy of the incident particle flux is insufficient for the formation of nanostructured coatings. At a flow rate of more than 750 m/s is observed elastic collision and "rebound" sputtered particles from the substrate surface.
To obtain nanostructured coatings with adjustable wear resistance while maintaining high conductivity 2,2-2,8·10-8Ohm·m, the mass flow rate of powder from any dispenser varies from 5 to 80%, while the total mass flow rate of reinforcement nanostructured powders of the system Al-Cu-Fe and metal oxide ZrO2, Y2About3with respect to the powder foundations shall not be less than 20% and can exceed 80%. With increasing mass flow rate of reinforcement powders above 80% there is a sharp decrease of the conductivity of the coating. Lower consumption of reinforcing powders below 20% does not increase the wear resistance of the sprayed coating.
To reduce the porosity of the resulting coating are introduced nano-sized particles on isimage powder, that allows you to ensure the most dense packaging. The introduction of nano-sized particles in the composition of the powder composition is provided by the following technique. It is that preparing a powder composition for each of the reinforcing powders consisting of a mechanical mixture of reinforcing powders with a grain size of 5-50 μm and 50-800 nm, which then are loaded into dispensers 2, 3, 4 and fed into the gas stream together with powder foundations (si or Al) in the following sequence: at the beginning of turns on the dispenser 1 (ZrO2), the processing surface of the sprayed product to the formation of the juvenile surface, after which the dispenser 1 is turned off, then included all four of the dispenser, put the powder composition with a pre-selected ratio of the components, based on si or Al (filler 2) using the quasi-crystalline nanoparticles connection system Al-Cu-Fe (dispenser 3) and metal oxide ZrO2(dispenser 1), Y2About3(dispenser 4) to obtain nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating.
The result is a wear-resistant conductive coating with adjustable wear resistance while maintaining high conductivity 2,2-2,8·10-8Ohm·m, and the phase boundary layer is absent due to controlling the flow of powder from the offline rabotaushi the dispensers, in addition, the introduction of ultrafine particles of different fractions in a predetermined ratio allows to obtain coatings more dense packing, which reduces the number of pores (porosity about 0.5%). Snootiest is determined by the wear of the product in the installation type "disk to disk" with steel counterbody 40, which is (1.5÷3.5)·10-9mm/km for coatings obtained by different modes.
The development of the proposed method using a laser Doppler velocity meter based on the spherical interferometer Fabry-Perrot found that at speeds of 600 m/s and more there has been a significant increase in the turbulence of the flow. This increases the energy of the meeting dispersed particles with a barrier, and therefore increases the adhesion and cohesive strength of the coating and increases the utilization rate of the powder, However, this effect is mitigated by using a powder of a large fraction of more than 50 microns.
When used as a powder Foundation material, corresponding to the chemical composition of the surface of the sprayed product, provided the minimum change in the coefficient of thermal expansion in the resulting gradient layers coating that provides high adhesion strength caused dispersed material.
An EXAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION of the PROPOSED METHOD about titsa using as a reinforcing component nanoparticles quasicrystalline connection system Al-Cu-Fe and metal oxide ZrO 2, Y2O3with the dispersion of 5-50 μm and 50-800 nm and copper powder brands-01-01 with the dispersion of 5-25 microns.
As the carrier (substrate) used copper.
The coating was produced by the proposed method and by a known method.
Turns on the dispenser 1, which is placed in a powder ZrO2the fraction of 5-50 μm. Processing the surface to juvenile status, dispenser 1 is turned off. Together with the dispenser 1 includes dispensers 2, 3 and 4, which are mechanical mixtures of reinforcing powders of the system Al-Cu-Fe and metal oxide ZrO2, Y2About3different fractions, containing 50% fraction 20-32 μm, 20% fraction of 5-10 microns, 30% fraction of 0.2-0.6 μm and is coated nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating.
The results obtained are summarized in table. In the graph, the wear resistance is the ratio of the amounts of wear for the prototype and the proposed method. When you implement this process was used to install the type DIMET-403.
Technical and economic effect of the application of the proposed method of application of nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating will result in increasing the reliability of nodes, due to the increase of wear resistance, continuity, and enhance the cohesion and adhesion of the coating to a surface is STU parts while maintaining high conductivity.
From the table it is seen that the claimed technical effect (increasing the wear resistance of the coating while maintaining the high conductivity and the possibility of its regulation) is achieved only when specified in the tables technological parameters (speed heterophase flow, fraction size and content of the fraction in the powder compositions).
1. The method of application of nanostructured wear-resistant electrically conductive coating comprising a supply of the powder composition with a reinforcing particles of the four dispensers in the supersonic flow of the heated gas with the formation of heterophase stream and applying the powder composition on the surface of the product, wherein the first from the first dispenser in a supersonic stream of heated gas is injected reinforcing ultrafine particles ZrO2a grain size of 0.1 to 1.0 μm and spend processing the surface of the product to the formation of the juvenile surface, then the surface is applied powder composition based on si or Al with pre-selected ratio of the components by powder feeder of the four dispensers, from the first dispenser serves reinforcing ultrafine particles ZrO2from the second dispenser powder si or Al, from the third dispenser - reinforcing nanoparticles quasicrystalline the th connection system Al-Cu-Fe, and from the fourth dispenser - reinforcing particles Y2About3and the speed heterophase flow during the application of the composition based on si or Al change in the range from 450 to 750 m/S.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of heterophase flow of heated gas with a reinforcing ultrafine particles ZrO2change in the range from 320 to 450 m/S.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass flow rate of powder from the dosing is chosen in the range from 5 to 80%, while the total mass flow rate of reinforcing particles with respect to the powder of si or Al is not less than 20% and does not exceed 80%.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first, third and fourth dispenser serves a powder consisting of particles with the following ratio of fractions,%:
with a particle diameter of 5-50 μm in an amount of from 50 to 99%, with a particle diameter of 50-800 μm in an amount of from 1 to 50%.
FIELD: chemistry; metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying powder composition from at least two dispensers into supersonic preheated gas flow and applying the powder composition onto the surface of a product. With using the first dispenser, reinforcing nonmetallic superdispersed Al2O3 particles of fraction 0.1 to 1.0 mcm are introduced into the supersonic preheated gas flow that is followed with processing the product surface to form a juvenile surface. Then with the second dispenser, an interlayer of powder from one or several metals of group: Al, Cu, Ni, Zn, Sn, Ti, Pb, Co and/or related alloys. Then functional-gradient coating layer is applied simultaneously from two dispensers to produce a coating of Al2O3 content increasing from said interlayer to the surface within 0.1 to 30 vl %.
EFFECT: making nanostructured coatings of high wear-resistance.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of manufacturing of functional surface and can be used in mechanical engineering, for instance, for forming of reflecting and other metal-containing coatings. It is implemented gas-dynamic sputtering by powder material with rains size 0.01-50 mcm from chosen materials and material in the form of spheroidized particles with size 70-300 mcm made of steel and other solid magnetic medium It is used feedback system between coating thickness and density of evaporated material flow and/or velocity of travel sputtering spot of evaporation relative to detail surface. Evaporated powder material is tagged rate providing connection to the surface and to particles of treated material - rate, providing impact moulding of evaporated material. It is implemented surface finish by programmable mechanical operation till nominal dimensions of its profile and roughness. Process is implemented with simultaneous pumping out, catching and separation of materials particles. Temperature of surface and gas powder flow of evaporated material is lower the temperature of recrystallisation soft component of evaporated powder material.
EFFECT: receiving of reflecting surface with defined parameters of curvature and roughness.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of gas-dynamic sputtering of powder materials and facility for its realisation and can be used in mechanical engineering for receiving of plating imparting various properties to processing surfaces. Method includes feeding of powder materials with different properties simultaneously through different drive assemblies of powder materials into supersonic part of nozzle and providing of optimum sputtering mode to each powder material. Main drive unit of powder materials is implemented with the ability of separate feeding of different powder materials simultaneously into subsonic and/or supersonic parts of nozzle. Additional drive assemblies are implemented in the form of throw away member located co-axial lengthwise supersonic part of nozzle one after another with ability of telescopic movement relative to each other and supersonic nozzle. The first additional assembly is mounted in outlet of supersonic nozzle with clearance relative to its external wall and with formation of annular channel for feeding of powder material, and following assemblies are mounted with clearance relative to external walls of each other so that each following additional assembly forms with preceding annular channel for feeding of powder materials.
EFFECT: broadening of functional and manufacturing capability of the method and facility.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy, processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes acceleration of gas powder suspension by ultrasonic gas jet in acceleration channel and further application of gas powder suspension. Ultrasonic gas jet is fed to acceleration channel from supersonic nozzle, where gas is fed from source of gas. Gas powder suspension is fed to acceleration channel from ejection chamber, where it is fed from feeder of powder material, in the form of whirl through annular gap, formed by external surface of supersonic nozzle and internal surface of ejection chamber in the place of its connection to body of acceleration channel. Facility includes acceleration channel, ejection chamber, and supersonic nozzle, source of compressed gas and feeder of powder material. Supersonic nozzle is partly located inside of ejection chamber coaxial to it with formation of annular gap in postcritical part of supersonic nozzle. Input of supersonic nozzle is connected to source of compressed gas. Feeder of powder material is formed by divided and sealed-joined body and cover, and inside is outfitted with U-shaped bended tube, which is implemeneted as articulated by U-shaped curve, and its output pert is outfitted by cutout in the area adjoined to internal surface of cover.
EFFECT: efficiency, portability, removal of powders sticking.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy, particularly to devices of gas dynamic sputtering of powder materials and can be implemented in machine building and other fields of industry to produce coats imparting various properties to treated surfaces. The device includes a sputtering unit made as a supersonic ejector and containing a supersonic nozzle, a unit for input of gas powder mixture and working gas into the nozzle and a control unit; also the device contains a powder feeder, an output of which is connected to the unit of input of gas powder mixture into the nozzle. The unit of input of gas powder mixture contains a central body, which is designed with alternate section along its length, and an axial channel for feeding gas powder mixture into the nozzle; this central body is assembled coaxially to the nozzle. The central body is able to move axially and it forms adjusted subsonic and supersonic circular channels of working gas supply with an interior wall of the nozzle.
EFFECT: expanding functional and process facilities of device for gas dynamic coating of powder materials.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of polymer functional materials and can be used in machine building when forming coatings for component part of machines, mechanisms and transport systems, and mainly pipes for pumping petroleum products. The method of forming composition coating from silicate polymer material involves mixing powder polymer particles and silicate particles. The mixture is then deposited on the surface of the object and heated. Polymer particles are flushed off and monocrystallisation of the coating is carried out. The powder polymer particles are chosen from a group containing polyamide, polyethyleneterphtalate, high pressure polyethylene. Silicate particles are chosen from a group containing montmorillonite, kaolin, tripolite. Heating and flushing off are done in a gas stream with density of 3·106-9·106 W/m2 for a period of 10-4-10-3 s. Depositing and monocrystallisation are done on an object, heated to temperature T=Tm+5÷40°C, where Tm is the melting temperature of the polymer, with pressure of the gas stream of 3-5 atmospheres. The coating is formed by depositing it on one or more ducts of the used device for depositing it, or is deposited by successive passage of the device with the polymer component, and then a device with the silicate component.
EFFECT: increased adhesive strength, hardness and ultimate stress limit, and design of a method which provides for high production effectiveness of the process and lower cost of the coating.
3 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: metal processing.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing of polymeric functional materials and can be used in machine building at coating of machine and aggregate units and units of transport systems, mainly pipes for transmission of oil products. The method for producing metal-polymeric coating consists in mixing polymer particles in a powdered form and metal containing precursor particles in a powdered form. Then a powdered mixture is settled on the surface of a unit and heated; polymer particles are melted. After that, thermolysis of the precursor and monolithic integration of coating are carried out. Polymer particles in a powdered form are selected out of a group containing polyamide, polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene of high pressure. Particles in a powdered form of metal containing precursor represent formate or oxalate of copper, nickel, zinc or carbonyl iron. Heating, melting of polymer particles and thermolysis of precursor are carried out simultaneously in a thermo gas flow with a density of 3·106 -9·106 Wt/m2 within 10-4-10-3 sec. The mixture is settled and monolithic integration of coating is performed on the unit heated to a temperature of T=Tm+5÷40°C, where Tm is the temperature of polymer melting at the density of the gas flow of 3-5 atm.
EFFECT: method allows for high processibility and upgrading of adhesion hardness, strength and rupture strength at tension.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of material coating effected by spraying and can be used in metallurgy for production of coated materials, in agriculture for killing wreckers and, in medicine, for the disinfection purposes or treatment of diseases of breathing organs. The sprayer contains a capacity in the form of a cup with a cover outlet line rigidly connected to it, the electric motor with the shaft arranged inside the said capacity, and a mixer fixed on the motor shaft, the mixer blades being arranged in the capacity lower part. The deflector made in the form of, at least, two disks, located on some distance from each other, is fitted on the motor shaft under cover. Each disk has, at least, two diametrically located slots, with the slots of one disk are shifted relative to the slots of the other disk.
EFFECT: more uniform distribution of powder materials and ruling out an ingress of major particles into outlet line.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed powder material contains the following components, mass-%: graphite, 4.0-6.0; chromium, 40.0-50.0; lanthanum oxalate, 0.3-0.5; boron, 1.0-2.0; silicon dioxide, 6.0-20.0; the remainder being aluminum oxide.
EFFECT: enhanced scale resistance of coat on piston ring surfaces.
FIELD: application of coats by gas dynamic methods.
SUBSTANCE: first flux is applied on surface of part at activity time of 0.2-0.25 h which contains up to 30% of ammonium chloride NH4Cl, up to 70% of zinc chloride ZnCl2 and up to 2% of potassium permanganate KMnO4. Then, surface is heated over flux with the aid of torch producing oxidizing flame to temperature of (0.14-0.2)Tml., where Tml. is cast iron melting point. Then, part is treated with abrasive powder at size of particles of 30-300 mcm. Compressed air is heated and is fed to supersonic nozzle where supersonic air flow is formed; powder material for forming the coat is fed to this air flow in the direction of surface of article to be coated.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesion strength of coat on cast iron articles.
2 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is provided for nanoelectronics, analytical chemistry, biology and medicine and can be used for manufacturing of sensors, polymers and liquid crystals. Between volumes of liquid hydrocarbon composition and electrically conducting liquid it is formed boundary, on which there are actuated microplasmous discharges by means of voltage application between electrodes, located in these volumes. Using power supply with frequency 50 Hz, providing smoothly varying of preset voltage from 0 up to 4000 V, it is implemented anodic or cathodic high-voltage polarisation of boundary and high-temperature electrochemical conversion with formation of carbon-bearing nano-materials. In the capacity of liquid hydrocarbon compound can be used, for instance, benzol or octane; in the capacity of electrically conducting liquid - solution of potassium hydroxide, solutions of halogenides of alkaline metals. On boundary it can be located diaphragm, implemented of glass or from aluminium foil with oxide coating.
EFFECT: receiving the ability to implement controllable synthesis of carbon-bearing nano-materials.
8 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of powder of nano-crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite. Nano-crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite is received by interaction of calcium hydroxide and solution, containing phosphate-ions, herewith suspension of calcium hydroxide is prepared directly before interaction with solution, containing phosphate-ions from solutions of calcium acetate and potassium hydroxide, herewith amount of calcium hydroxide is from 50 up to 100% in mixture of calcium-bearing components.
EFFECT: receiving of hydroxyapatite powder with particles size 30 - 50 nm.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite. According to the invention calcium nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite is received by interaction of compound of calcium and ammonium hydro-phosphate. In the capacity of calcium compound it is used sugar lime C12H22-2nO11Can, at n, which is situated in the range from 0.5 up to 2. Particles size of the received hydroxyapatite is 30-50 nm.
EFFECT: receiving of nano-crystalline powder of calcium hydroxyapatite, which contains unaggressive biocompatible accompaniment of the reaction and that provides its usage in medicine.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to micro system hardware, and can be used in producing sensors based on tunnel effect to convert displacement into electric signal in monitoring data processing systems that serve to forecast, diagnose and control the effects of impact waves and acoustic oscillations exerted onto various structures, vehicles, industrial buildings and structures, as well as to control temperature, develop supersensitive mikes and medicine hardware. In compliance with this invention, the sensor cantilever electrode represents a bimorph beam made up of consecutively formed layers differing in thermal expansion factors. Note that the lower layer thermal expansion factor is lower as compared with that of the upper layer. Note also that the tunnel electrode represents a bundle of nanotubes. The proposed nanosensor incorporates thin-film heater to allow desorption of low-molecular substances, precision alignment of tunnel gap and formation of nanotubes after removal of "sacrificial" service layer.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity, vibro- and impact resistance, manufacturability and reproducibility, lower costs of manufacture.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: two fullerenes 1 C20 are put into a closed carbon nanotube 2, at the opposite end of which there is spherical fullerene 3 C60, acting as a plunger, applying a pressure of 43.24 hPa on two fullerenes 1 C20.
EFFECT: obtaining dimers of fullerene C20 without impurity atoms.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemistry; photographic industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to photographic industry, particularly to technology of silver-halide photographic emulsion preparation. According to the invention the production of photographic emulsion based on silver-halide laminate microcrystals (LMC) with epitaxial nanostructures is started from preparing nuclear emulsion from solution of AgNO3 and KBr. Thereafter, substrate LMC AgBr are derived by adding solution of AgNO3 and KBr in the nuclear emulsion. Annular epitaxial nanostructures containing AgBr/AgCl are formed on the produced LMC AgBr by adding Kl and KCl solutions in reaction mixture. At the final stage, firstly, epitaxial nanostructures are converted by adding solution of KBr into reaction mixture, thereafter the second conversion is carried out by adding small particle emulsion prepared separately and containing AgBr0.98l0.02-AgBr0.90I0.10.
EFFECT: simplification of photographic emulsion preparation with optimal photographic characteristics of light sensitivity, as well as microcrystal dispersion characteristics used in industrially produced photomaterials.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and nanostructures, particularly carbon-base materials and can be used in different field of engineering and energetics. In vacuum on substrate made of dielectric material it is sediment evaporated in vacuum silver by means of plasma carbon-base material. Silver sedimentation is implemented before the sedimentation of carbon-base material. Evaporation of carbon-base material, in the capacity of which it is used graphite, is implemented by pulsed arc discharge. Plasma for sedimentation of carbon-base material is created outside the discharge gap area of voltaic arc in the form of compensated currentless for-coagulates of carbonaceous plasma with density 5-1012-1·1013 cm-3, duration 200-600 mcs, recurrence rate 1-5 Hz. During the sedimentation process of carbon-base material it is implemented stimulating effect of carbonaceous plasma by inert gas in the form of ion flow with energy 150-2000 eV, which is directed perpendicularly to carbonaceous plasma stream. Then substrate with sediment on it silver and carbon-base material is extracted from vacuum chamber and annealed on air at temperature 400°C during 10 minutes.
EFFECT: it is manufactured carbon-base material, containing metal, with new properties, for instance electrical conductance and transparency.
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to obtaining of wear-resisting ultra-hard coatings, namely, to forming of diamond-type coatings and can be used in metalworking, engineering industry, nanotechnologies, medicine and electronics. Preliminary there performed is product surface plasma stripping by accelerated ions in vacuum chamber at pressure of 10-3 - 10 Pa. Then adhesion layer is applied by plasma method. The thickness is 1-500 nm. The layer is made from metal that belongs to the group of aluminium, chrome, zirconium, titanium, germanium or silicone or their alloys. At the same time the product receives direct or pulse negative voltage of 1-1500 V. Then there applied is intermediate layer with thickness of 1-500 nm. It consists of carbon and metal mixture. Metal belongs to the group of aluminium, chrome, zirconium, titanium, germanium or silicone or their alloys. Intermediate layer is applied at ascending changing of carbon concentration in this mixture from 5 to 95 at.%. At the same time the product receives direct or pulse negative voltage of 1-1500 V. Then there applied is at least one layer of carbon diamond-type film by graphite cathode or laser spraying or by plasma destruction of carbon-bearing gases or carbon-bearing liquid vapours.
EFFECT: increase of adhesion, wear resistance and temperature stability of diamond-type coating.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field and can be used for manufacturing of high-duty cast iron with globular graphite. For receiving of magnesium-bearing nano- modifying agent is blended with water solution of polyvinyl alcohol, chloride of magnesium and iron in molar correlation (10-5):1:1, agreeably, it is evaporated specified mixture before gel formation after what it is implemented carbonation at temperature 350-500°C in atmosphere of inert gas with formation of carbon nanotube, filled by chloride of magnesium and iron.
EFFECT: invention decrease magnesium losses 1,5-2 times with introduction of nano- modifying agents into the cast iron.
6 ex, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at production of finishing compositions, film coatings, radiation-resistant materials. The diamond-carbon material contains the carbon in the form of diamond cubic modification and the X-ray amorphous phase in the mass ratio (40-80):(60-20) respectively; the content of said material is as follows (wt %): carbon 89.1-95.2; hydrogen 1.2-5.0; nitrogen 2.1-4.8; oxygen 0.1-4.7; non-combustible admixtures 1.4-4.8. This material is obtained in enclosed volume, in the gas phase inert to carbon by the detonation of carbon-containing explosive with oxygen deficiency placed into the shell of deoxidant-containing condensed phase with deoxidant/carbon-containing explosive mass ratio not less than 0.01:1. The samples of the obtained diamond-carbon material are prepared for elemental analysis by exposition at 120-140°C under vacuum 0.01-10.0 Pa during 3-5 hrs and following treatment at 1050-1200°C by the oxygen flow with the rate providing their combustion during 40-50 s.
EFFECT: invention allows to obtain the product with high carbon content, predictable properties and ultimate composition in the desired phase state.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 25 ex
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.
EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.