Tunnel nanosensor of mechanical oscillations and method of its production
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to micro system hardware, and can be used in producing sensors based on tunnel effect to convert displacement into electric signal in monitoring data processing systems that serve to forecast, diagnose and control the effects of impact waves and acoustic oscillations exerted onto various structures, vehicles, industrial buildings and structures, as well as to control temperature, develop supersensitive mikes and medicine hardware. In compliance with this invention, the sensor cantilever electrode represents a bimorph beam made up of consecutively formed layers differing in thermal expansion factors. Note that the lower layer thermal expansion factor is lower as compared with that of the upper layer. Note also that the tunnel electrode represents a bundle of nanotubes. The proposed nanosensor incorporates thin-film heater to allow desorption of low-molecular substances, precision alignment of tunnel gap and formation of nanotubes after removal of "sacrificial" service layer.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity, vibro- and impact resistance, manufacturability and reproducibility, lower costs of manufacture.
2 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the field of measurement and Microsystem technology and can be used for measurement of physical and mechanical properties of the medium, for non-destructive testing and diagnostics of objects and in the manufacture of nanosensors based on the tunneling effect and ensuring the transformation of "displacement - electric signal.
Known tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations containing the cantilever electrode made in the form of odnokonturnoy beams, and the tunneling electrode. The principle of tunneling nanosensor based on the measurement arise when applying the potential difference of the tunneling current, heavily dependent on the size of the gap between the electrodes (W.C. Young, Roark''s Formulas for Stress and Strain (6th ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York (1989)546).
The disadvantages of the known technical solutions are low-vibration and shock resistance and sensitivity is strongly dependent on the structural stiffness of the cantilever electrode, the errors nanosensor associated with adsorption of low molecular weight substances, which does not allow reliable measurement of mechanical vibrations.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect of the technical solution is to tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations containing the substrate, is formed on the substrate by methods plan the nuclear biological chemical (NBC semiconductor technology tunneling electrode layers of metallization, the cantilever electrode with the metallization layers and the electrodes of the electrostatic control (Single-Wafer tunneling sensor and low-cost IC manufacturing method. Randall L. Kubena, Gary M. Atkinson. US Patent 5596194. 1997).
A disadvantage of the known technical solution is low vibration and impact resistance and sensitivity, difficulty precision alignment tunnel gap due to the high probability of the tunnel circuit and the cantilever electrodes (the change of the tunneling gap is provided only by the structural rigidity of the cantilever electrode and the electrostatic system control providing a forced displacement of the cantilever electrode only in the direction of the tunneling electrode) and the adsorption of solutes on the structure elements.
A known method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor, including the manufacturing methods of volumetric microbraid substrate with the tunnel electrode and the substrate of the cantilever electrode systems with subsequent metallization precision Assembly substrate to form a tunnel gap (Tunneling Accelerometers. Submitted by Samantha .Cruz, Kevin P. Lee and Deepak Ponnavolu. Presented to Professor Horacio D. Espinosa. Northwestern University. December 4, 2004).
The disadvantages of this method of manufacture is low manufacturability and reproducibility of the manufacturing process, since precision is providing tunnel gap Assembly methods are not sufficient due to difficulties reproduced ensure satisfactory (up to 5 angstroms) ploskoparallyel plates.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect of the technical solution is a method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor-based surface micromachining of Single-Wafer tunneling sensor and low-cost IC manufacturing method. Randall L. Kubena, Gary M. Atkinson. US Patent 5596194. 1997). According to the known technical solution of the method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor involves the successive formation of the plate ostrinia nanostructures system metallization tunnel electrode, the "sacrificial" layer and technological metallized cantilever structure of the cantilever electrode, the functional layer and the electrostatic system adjustments. The formation of the tunnel gap between the cantilever and tunneling electrodes occurs at the final stage of the technological process by removing the "sacrificial" layer from under the cantilever electrode. A known method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor of mechanical vibrations on the task being solved and community characteristics most similar to the claimed invention and is selected as a prototype.
The disadvantages of the known technical solution is the low reproducibility and manufacturability due to the complexity of forming the tunnel gap formed between the cantilever and tunneling electrodes by removing the victims of the military" layer, since forming at the tip of the tunneling electrode "sacrificial" layer difficult.
The problem solved by the invention is to create a tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations and method of its manufacture, which enables to increase vibration, impact and sensitivity of nanosensor, the reproducibility of the manufacturing process and manufacturability of the design, to ensure precision alignment of the tunneling gap.
The technical result of the invention is to provide a tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations, which design provides increased vibration, impact resistance and sensitivity, and a method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations that can improve the reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the manufacturability of the product.
Distinctive features of the proposed tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations are: cantilever electrode made in the form of bimorph beams on the basis of the sequentially formed layers differing from each other in the coefficients of thermal expansion, and coefficient of thermal expansion lower than the upper layer, thin-film heater is made on the cantilever electrode, and a tunnel electrode, is made on the basis of the array of nanotubes.
Distinct is ranked on the characteristics of the proposed method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations are as follows: forming a tunneling electrode is carried out after the removal of the "sacrificial" technological application layer array of nanotubes plastindustriforbundet thermal method at the temperature of the substrate 573-723 To the pre-formed catalyst layer on the metallization layer of the tunneling electrode.
The essence of the proposed technical solution is illustrated by drawings.
Figure 1 shows the top view of the tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations.
Figure 2 presents the cross-section of tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations in a plane parallel to the length of the cantilever electrode.
Figure 3 schematically (in cross section) presents the sequence of operations of the technology, illustrating the proposed method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations.
Figure 1-3 shows: 1 - substrate with a dielectric layer, 2 - metallization of the cantilever electrode, 3 - layer bimorph cantilever beams electrode with a large coefficient of thermal expansion, 4 - layer bimorph cantilever beams electrode with a smaller coefficient of thermal expansion, 5 - thin-film heater, 6 - layer contact of the cantilever electrode, 7 - tunneling electrode area of the catalyst, 8 - electrode system electrostatic control, 9 - pin Playground of the cantilever electrode, 10 - pad system electrostatic control the population, 11 - pads of the thin-film heater, 12 - pin Playground tunnel electrode, 13 - cantilever electrode 14 is an array of nanotubes, 15 - "sacrificial" technological layer, 16 - area metallization tunneling electrode.
The device operates as follows. The output signal of the tunnel nanosensor mechanical vibrations is the tunneling current that occur when applying a potential difference between the metallization cantilevered (2) and the array of carbon nanotubes tunneling electrodes (7)located on a substrate with a dielectric layer (1). Tunneling of charge carriers - electrons - is possible if the reduction of the gap formed by the free ends of the nanotubes (14) and the cantilever electrode to values from units to tens of angstroms. To control the size of the gap is a system of electrostatic control (8, 10) and thin-film heater (5)located on the bimorph cantilever beam electrode (13). When applying a potential difference between the metallization of the cantilever electrode (2) and the electrode of the electrostatic system management (8) there is a force, under the action of which the cantilever electrode (13) is deformed in the direction of the tunneling electrode (7) and the tunneling gap is reduced. For precision alignment of the tunneling gap in design call for the Yong thin-film heater (5), and the cantilever electrode (13) is made in the form of a bimorph beams, and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the lower layer (3) bimorph cantilever beam electrode (13) is greater than the coefficient of thermal expansion of the upper layer (4) bimorph beams. By passing an electric current through the thin-film heater (5) due to the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion bimorph cantilever beam electrode (13) is the deformation of the cantilever electrode (13) in the direction opposite to the substrate. On reaching the set value of the tunneling current shall accurately align tunnel gap due to the balance of forces arising from electrostatic and temperature effects. Film heater (5) is also used to ensure desorption of adsorbed from the environment of low molecular weight substances (primarily water) from the surface of the cantilever (13) and tunnel (7) of the electrodes and to provide vibration and impact resistance of the structure during transportation and/or storage in uncontrolled conditions.
When the effects of acceleration on the structure in the direction perpendicular to the substrate plane, or the force applied to the cantilever beam perpendicular to the substrate plane, the balance of power changes, the cantilever beam is deformed by changing the tunneling ZAZ the RA and current, passing through the gap.
Increased sensitivity, vibration and impact resistance is achieved through the use of tunneling through an array of nanotubes, and precise adjustment of the gap through a managed balance of electrostatic forces and temperature effects on the bimorph beam of the cantilever electrode, and by providing desorption of adsorbed low molecular weight volatile substances when heated bimorph beams. Increased vibration and shock resistance and ensuring precise alignment of the tunneling gap is achieved through the use of the cantilever electrode made in the form of bimorph beams on the basis of the sequentially formed layers differing from each other in the coefficients of thermal expansion (coefficient of thermal expansion lower than that of the upper layer) formed with thin-film heater, allows control of the tunneling gap during operation, storage and transportation (i.e. when the impact load exceeding the maximum allowable, for prevented mechanical damage or destruction of tunneling electrode of the cantilever electrode can be manageable diverted from its original position, and the tunneling gap is increased). The increased sensitivity of the design is achieved C is through the use of nanotubes for tunneling electrode, and the reduction of adsorbed solutes on the structure elements is ensured by the use of thin-film heater is made on the cantilever electrode, since the desorption processes are activated when the temperature rises.
Thus, the proposed device is a MEMS tunneling nanosensor, allowing to measure mechanical deformation that occurs under the action of mechanical vibrations directed perpendicular to the substrate plane.
The proposed method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations consists of the following sequence of technological operations: dielectric with a dielectric or semiconductor layer (1) substrate by the methods of thin-film planar technology form the tip of the tunneling electrode (figa), area of metallization tunneling electrode (16) and the electrode of the electrostatic system management (8) (figb), the area of the catalyst tunneling electrode (7) (pigv). Then, the surface of the structure obtained cover "sacrificial" technological layer (15) and methods of photolithography and etching to form a blind hole for the contact layer of the cantilever electrode (6) (Figg). After that, on the surface of the "sacrificial" technological layer methods the inverse and direct lithography get the contact layer of the cantilever electrode (6) and the metallization of the cantilever electrode (2) (figd). After forming the lower layer bimorph cantilever beams electrode with a large thermal expansion coefficient (3) (fige) and the upper layer of the bimorph beams, cantilever electrode with a smaller thermal expansion coefficient (4) (Figg), methods of thin-film technology produces thin-film heater (5) and selectively with respect to other materials of construction remove "germmany" technological layer (15) (Fig s). Because at elevated temperatures the substrate bimorph cantilever beam electrode is deformed in the direction opposite to the substrate plane, the application of the array of nanotubes (14) exercise aimed plastindustriforbundet thermal deposition at a temperature of the substrate 573-723 For selectively on the catalyst layer of the tunneling electrode (7) (Figi). After cooling, the obtained structure bimorph cantilever beam electrode returns to its original position (FIGC).
Thus, the proposed method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations allows to form a tunneling electrode array-based vertical to the substrate surface of the nanotubes after removal of the "sacrificial" technological layer. Improving the reproducibility and manufacturability is achieved by using the proposed method is, avoiding non-reproducible formation and subsequent removal nanomolding "sacrificial" layers.
The proposed technical solutions were used during the implementation of the tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations, providing a measurement of acceleration (microaccelerometer), and method of its manufacture.
As a substrate for tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations used monocrystalline silicon substrate, a metallization served layers of chrome-gold catalyst layers vacuumleaving Nickel layer in contact successively deposited layers of titanium, platinum and gold. As the bottom layer of the bimorph beams used polyimide layers, the top layer is formed layers of silicon nitride.
Tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations produced in the following way. In a silicon monocrystalline substrate by the methods of thin-film technology using the formed mask on the basis of high-temperature silicon nitride anisotropic etching formed the point tunneling electrode. Then the entire surface was covered with a layer of silicon nitride with a thickness of 0.2-0.4 µm to ensure reliable dielectric isolation. After that, methods of magnetron sputtering, thermovacuum sputtering and photolithography formed region m is tallization and the pad electrode of the electrostatic control and catalyst on the basis of the structure of chrome-gold and chromium-Nickel, respectively. Then from the solution of polyamidation by centrifuging, followed by two-stage thermoimidization received a "sacrificial" technological layers formed by the methods of anisotropic etching holes in it. Then methods thermal vacuum deposition, magnetron sputtering, reactive magnetron sputtering, plasma chemical vapor deposition, solution methods and lithography formed layers of metallization and contact of the cantilever electrode, the bottom layer bimorph beams based on polyimide and the upper layer of the bimorph beams on the basis of silicon nitride and the thin-film heater on the basis of oxide of tin with pads. After this "sacrificial" polyimide layer was removed by etching in an isotropic oxygen-containing plasma. After the formation of the gap between the cantilever and tunneling electrodes substrate was placed into the reactor for the deposition of nanotubes were heated substrate to a temperature 573-723 To and carried out the deposition of nanotubes plastindustriforbundet thermal deposition. When this cantilever electrode is deformed under the action of temperature, the deflection angle of the beam in the process of applying was not less than arcsin ((a-b)/a), where a is the length of the cantilever electrode, b is the characteristic size of the region of the catalyst for the deposition of nanotubes.
The proposed CSP is about making nanosensor mechanical vibrations ensures the reproducibility of the process and allows you to get the matrix components of the tunneling microaccelerometers, formed in a single technological cycle on the same substrate with the same characteristics.
Tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations has sensitivity to
108B/g and can be used in information systems monitoring for prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of effects of shock waves and acoustic waves in structures, vehicles, industrial buildings and structures, to create ultra-sensitive microphones and diagnostic medical equipment.
1. Tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations containing the substrate, is formed on the substrate by the methods of planar semiconductor technology tunneling electrode layers of metallization, the cantilever electrode with the metallization layers and the electrodes of the electrostatic control, characterized in that the cantilever electrode is made in the form of a bimorph beams on the basis of the sequentially formed layers differing from each other in the coefficients of thermal expansion, and coefficient of thermal expansion lower than the upper layer, and contains a thin-film heater, and a tunneling electrode is made on the basis of the array of nanotubes.
2. A method of manufacturing a tunneling nanosensor mechanical vibrations, including the formation of the under the OSCE tunnel electrode, the metallization layers, insulating layers, the "sacrificial" technological layer, the cantilever electrode with functional layers, the system of electrodes of the electrostatic control and destruction of "sacrificial" technological layer, wherein forming the tunneling electrode is carried out after the removal of the "sacrificial" technological application layer of the array of nanotubes plastindustriforbundet thermal method at the temperature of the substrate 573-723 To the pre-formed catalyst layer on the metallization layer of the tunneling electrode.
SUBSTANCE: two fullerenes 1 C20 are put into a closed carbon nanotube 2, at the opposite end of which there is spherical fullerene 3 C60, acting as a plunger, applying a pressure of 43.24 hPa on two fullerenes 1 C20.
EFFECT: obtaining dimers of fullerene C20 without impurity atoms.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemistry; photographic industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to photographic industry, particularly to technology of silver-halide photographic emulsion preparation. According to the invention the production of photographic emulsion based on silver-halide laminate microcrystals (LMC) with epitaxial nanostructures is started from preparing nuclear emulsion from solution of AgNO3 and KBr. Thereafter, substrate LMC AgBr are derived by adding solution of AgNO3 and KBr in the nuclear emulsion. Annular epitaxial nanostructures containing AgBr/AgCl are formed on the produced LMC AgBr by adding Kl and KCl solutions in reaction mixture. At the final stage, firstly, epitaxial nanostructures are converted by adding solution of KBr into reaction mixture, thereafter the second conversion is carried out by adding small particle emulsion prepared separately and containing AgBr0.98l0.02-AgBr0.90I0.10.
EFFECT: simplification of photographic emulsion preparation with optimal photographic characteristics of light sensitivity, as well as microcrystal dispersion characteristics used in industrially produced photomaterials.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and nanostructures, particularly carbon-base materials and can be used in different field of engineering and energetics. In vacuum on substrate made of dielectric material it is sediment evaporated in vacuum silver by means of plasma carbon-base material. Silver sedimentation is implemented before the sedimentation of carbon-base material. Evaporation of carbon-base material, in the capacity of which it is used graphite, is implemented by pulsed arc discharge. Plasma for sedimentation of carbon-base material is created outside the discharge gap area of voltaic arc in the form of compensated currentless for-coagulates of carbonaceous plasma with density 5-1012-1·1013 cm-3, duration 200-600 mcs, recurrence rate 1-5 Hz. During the sedimentation process of carbon-base material it is implemented stimulating effect of carbonaceous plasma by inert gas in the form of ion flow with energy 150-2000 eV, which is directed perpendicularly to carbonaceous plasma stream. Then substrate with sediment on it silver and carbon-base material is extracted from vacuum chamber and annealed on air at temperature 400°C during 10 minutes.
EFFECT: it is manufactured carbon-base material, containing metal, with new properties, for instance electrical conductance and transparency.
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to obtaining of wear-resisting ultra-hard coatings, namely, to forming of diamond-type coatings and can be used in metalworking, engineering industry, nanotechnologies, medicine and electronics. Preliminary there performed is product surface plasma stripping by accelerated ions in vacuum chamber at pressure of 10-3 - 10 Pa. Then adhesion layer is applied by plasma method. The thickness is 1-500 nm. The layer is made from metal that belongs to the group of aluminium, chrome, zirconium, titanium, germanium or silicone or their alloys. At the same time the product receives direct or pulse negative voltage of 1-1500 V. Then there applied is intermediate layer with thickness of 1-500 nm. It consists of carbon and metal mixture. Metal belongs to the group of aluminium, chrome, zirconium, titanium, germanium or silicone or their alloys. Intermediate layer is applied at ascending changing of carbon concentration in this mixture from 5 to 95 at.%. At the same time the product receives direct or pulse negative voltage of 1-1500 V. Then there applied is at least one layer of carbon diamond-type film by graphite cathode or laser spraying or by plasma destruction of carbon-bearing gases or carbon-bearing liquid vapours.
EFFECT: increase of adhesion, wear resistance and temperature stability of diamond-type coating.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field and can be used for manufacturing of high-duty cast iron with globular graphite. For receiving of magnesium-bearing nano- modifying agent is blended with water solution of polyvinyl alcohol, chloride of magnesium and iron in molar correlation (10-5):1:1, agreeably, it is evaporated specified mixture before gel formation after what it is implemented carbonation at temperature 350-500°C in atmosphere of inert gas with formation of carbon nanotube, filled by chloride of magnesium and iron.
EFFECT: invention decrease magnesium losses 1,5-2 times with introduction of nano- modifying agents into the cast iron.
6 ex, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at production of finishing compositions, film coatings, radiation-resistant materials. The diamond-carbon material contains the carbon in the form of diamond cubic modification and the X-ray amorphous phase in the mass ratio (40-80):(60-20) respectively; the content of said material is as follows (wt %): carbon 89.1-95.2; hydrogen 1.2-5.0; nitrogen 2.1-4.8; oxygen 0.1-4.7; non-combustible admixtures 1.4-4.8. This material is obtained in enclosed volume, in the gas phase inert to carbon by the detonation of carbon-containing explosive with oxygen deficiency placed into the shell of deoxidant-containing condensed phase with deoxidant/carbon-containing explosive mass ratio not less than 0.01:1. The samples of the obtained diamond-carbon material are prepared for elemental analysis by exposition at 120-140°C under vacuum 0.01-10.0 Pa during 3-5 hrs and following treatment at 1050-1200°C by the oxygen flow with the rate providing their combustion during 40-50 s.
EFFECT: invention allows to obtain the product with high carbon content, predictable properties and ultimate composition in the desired phase state.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 25 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the catalytic systems based on gold; usage of nanometric gold precipitation by the condensation from vapour phase to the activated carrier; system of breathing organs defence using aforesaid catalytic systems. The method of heterogenous catalytic system making is described including: 1) condensation from vapour phase of the catalytically active gold clusters with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm to the nanoporous carrier; 2) the following stages: (a) impregnation of water-soluble salt to the catalyst nanoporous carrier; (b) thermic treatment of the said impregnated carrier at temperature more than approximately 200°C; (c) condensation from vapour phase of the catalytically active gold clusters with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm to the said thermically treated nanoporous carrier; 3) following stages: a) aggregation of the relatively small particles multifold and of the relatively large particles multifold to the multifold of nanoporous composite particles; b) precipitation of catalytically active gold clusters with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm gold clusters to the said composite particles by the condensation from vapour phase. The described heterogenous catalytic system contain: 1) nanoporous carrier; at least one water-soluble salt impregnated to the said carrier; clusters of catalytically active gold with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm precipitated on the said carrier with the penetration depth index in the range from ca 1×10-9 to ca 0.1; 2) multifold of the composite catalytically active particles characterised in that said catalytically active particles are obtained from the components containing relatively small particles and relatively large particles with said composite particles containing catalytically active gold precipitated on the relatively small particles by the condensation from vapour phase. The system of breathing organs defence including any of aforesaid heterogenous catalytic systems is described.
EFFECT: invention provides essential improvement of the method of gold-containing catalytic systems preparation and enhancing of their characteristics.
22 cl, 71 ex, 4 tbl, 58 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to micro- and nanoelectronics and may be used in production of integral silicon chemical and biosensors for automated control of environment, in ecology, in chemical production, in biology and medicine. Invention is aimed at reduction of nanosensor size, reduction of defectiveness, increased sensitivity, repeatability and efficiency, achievement of compatibility with standard industrial technology VLSI. In method for manufacture of nanosensor, which consists in the fact that dielectric layer is created on silicon substrate, and on surface of dielectric layer silicon layer is formed, from which nanowire with ohm contacts is formed via mask by etching, etching for formation of nanowire with ohm contacts of specified size is carried out in vapours of xenon difluoride with the rate of 36÷100 nm/min, at temperature of 5÷20°C, for 0.3÷1.3 min., silicon layer, from which nanowire is formed with ohm contacts by etching, is created with thickness of 11÷45 nm, and etching mask used is mask of polymer polymethyl methacrylate with thickness of 50÷150 nm.
EFFECT: reduction of nanosensor size, reduction of defectiveness, increased sensitivity, repeatability and efficiency, achievement of compatibility with standard industrial technology VLSI.
FIELD: physics, semiconductors.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for creation of metal nanowires on surface of semiconductor substrates and may be used in creation of solid-state electronic instruments. Substance of invention: in method for creation of conducting nanowires on surface of semiconductor substrates, copper is deposited on surface of silicon Si(lll) with formation of buffer layer of copper silicide Cu2Si at the temperature of 500°C under conditions of ultrahigh vacuum. Buffer layer of copper silicide is formed with monatomic thickness, afterwards at temperature of 20°C at least 10 layers of copper are deposited on atomic steps of buffer layer surface, which form nanowires of epitaxial copper that are oriented along atomic steps of substrate.
EFFECT: provides for creation of nanowires that possess high conductivity, with the possibility of these nanowires formation location control.
SUBSTANCE: method includes heating of silica oxide photon crystals with modifying agent - crystal phosphor cesium iodide in vacuum at temperature not less than 800°C during not less than 15 hr. Cesium iodide can be activated with different admixtures (Na, Tl, In, CO3 etc), providing more bright (in comparison with pure CsJ) radioluminescence on the different waves of the visible-light spectrum. Usage of the scintillator - cesium iodide as filler provides good wettability (caused by capillary forces) of silica oxide microspheres with the melted cesium iodide without outer pressure. It allows to obtain optically inverted composite having approximately the same optical contrast (ratio of the refractive indexes relating to microspheres medium and to the medium filling the pores between microspheres) as initial silica oxide has.
EFFECT: obtaining of the end product with high yield.
4 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: composition hardened with the help of radiation includes abrasive grain and binders. Binder contains from 10 wt % to 90 wt % of cation-polymerised composition, not more than 40 wt % of radical-polymerised composition and from 5 wt % to 80 wt % of powder filler in conversion to binder weight, and powder filler contains dispersed submicron particles. Abrasive products containing different composite binding materials are described, and also methods for manufacture of abrasive products.
EFFECT: improved working characteristics of abrasive products, prolonged service life.
158 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: physics; alarms.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and control systems, in particular, for determining and controlling location of objects. The nano-marker contains a processor module, display, marking element, identification device and a receiving device, made in form of a narrow-band receiver, which receives a response signal from a mark, an ultrasound detector, which identifies a signal from a passive mark using frequency and intensity, characterising ultrasonic oscillations of the specific mark made, and which are the code of the marked object. The identification device is provided with a unit for comparing standard frequency for the ith object, recorded in the data base of the processor module, and frequency of the received response signal from the passive mark, as well as intensity of a signal, received from each ith mark with its threshold value. The nano-marker is also provided with one or several containers with an adhesive mixture of filler and substance with magnetostrictive properties, containing a stepless dosing device for the adhesive mixture. After solidification, the adhesive mixture forms a passive mark in form of a crystal, and that way, the mark is a nano-mark.
EFFECT: design of a portable, compact marker for easy marking and identifying objects.
21 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to measurement techniques. Invented are an optical sensor and a method of using it with a laser beam for stimulating visible light and a detector based on Raman spectroscopy, for detecting chemical groups in an analyte, deposited on the sensor. The sensor comprises a substrate, plasmon-resonance mirror, formed on the sensitive surface of the substrate, a layer of plasmon-resonance particles, put on top of the mirror, and a layer of optically transparent dielectric of thickness 2-40 nm, which separates the mirror and the layer of particles. The layer of particles is formed by a periodic matrix of plasmon-resonance particles, with (i) a coating, capable of bonding analyte molecules, (ii) essentially uniform dimensions and shapes of particles in a chosen range of dimensions 50-200 nm and (iii) regular periodic distance between particles, less than the wavelength of the stimulation laser beam. The device can detect an analyte with amplification factor of up to 1012-1014, i.e. detection of separate molecules of the analyte.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity of analysis.
16 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to nano and biomedical engineering. The method involves probing bulk material containing nanoparticles with optical radiation using a low-coherent optical tomograph, measurement of the size of the focal spot of the probing beam D and longitudinal coherence length ΔLC, determination of coherence volume ΔVc=πD2ΔLc/4, obtaining a digital two-dimensional image, each pixel of which is proportional to the intensity of reverse-reflected radiation from the coherence volume, by scanning the probing beam in two transverse coordinates at fixed longitudinal optical length in the reference arm of the interferometre of the tomograph, or one of the transverse coordinates of the probing beam, and the longitudinal coordinate in the reference arm. A sample image is obtained by fixed dilution of a solution with nanoparticles. An area is marked out on the two-dimensional image S and concentration of nanoparticles in unit volume V, is determined from the number of reflecting pixels with intensity greater than the noise level from the marked out area.
EFFECT: possibility of determining spatial distribution of nanoparticles in a volume, as well as the behaviour dynamics of nanoparticles when investigating diffusion or clustering and settling processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field, particularly to chromite radiation-resistant steel used for manufacturing of fuel assembly casing (FAC) of fast neutron reactors, and also bushing casing of reactor control system of neutron source (RCS), fuel cladding (fuel elements) and other structural components of active area of nuclear pile. Steel contains carbon, silicon, manganese, chrome, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, calcium, boron, uniformly distributed in grains nano-sized yttrium oxide, iron and concomitant admixtures, at following components ratio, wt %: carbon 0.09 - 0.15, silicon 0.25 - 0.50, manganese 0.20 - 1.0, chromium 11.0 - 13.5, nickel 0.05 - 0.3, molybdenum 1.4 - 2.0, vanadium 0.10 - 0.30, niobium 0.15 - 0.50, boron 0.004 - 0.015, calcium 0.001 - 0.05, yttrium oxide 0.1 - 0.3, iron and concomitant admixtures are the rest. It is increased serviceability and safety of pile by means of increasing operation strength of products up to damaging dose 130-180 sone and operation temperatures 650-710°C.
EFFECT: increasing of serviceability and safety of pile by means of increasing operation strength of products.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy of heat-resistant steel field, used in nuclear power engineering, particularly for manufacturing of fuel core details of nuclear reactors on fast neutrons and equipment of thermonuclear reactors. Steel contains carbon, silicon, manganese, chrome, tungsten, vanadium, cerium and/or ittrium, titanium, boron, zirconium, tantalum, nitrogen, equally spaced in grains nano-sized particles of yttrium oxide, iron and unavoidable admixtures, at following ratio of components, wt %: carbon 0.10-0.21, silicon 0.1-0.8, manganese 0.5-2.0, chrome 10.0-13.5, tungsten 0.8-2.5, vanadium 0.05-0.4, cerium and/or yttrium overall 0.001-0.10, zirconium 0.05-0.2, tantalum 0.05-0.2, titanium 0.03-0.3, nitrogen 0.02-0.15, boron 0.001-0.008, yttrium oxide 0.05-0.3, iron and unavoidable admixtures are the rest. Relation of overall content of vanadium, titanium, zirconium and tantalum to total content of carbon and nitrogen is from 2 up to 9. There are increased operational characteristics at high temperatures and neutron irradiation, and also it is provided low level of induced radioactivity and its fast decay.
EFFECT: increasing of operational characteristics at high temperatures and neutron irradiation, and also provision of low level of induced radioactivity and its fast decay.
SUBSTANCE: described is passive catalytic recombiner of hydrogen, which contains body with inlet and outlet sections and catalysts which are placed in lower part of body, each catalyst is obtained by hydrothermal synthesis by precipitation of aluminium hydroxide in suspension of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles.
EFFECT: stability and high rate of hydrogen oxidation in conditions of natural convection.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns stomatology and can be applicable for restoration of teeth at pathological erasability. It is spent staining of defect enamels on 1-1.5 mm on perimetre, staining of dentine. The layer of primer-adhesive is applied on all surface of the defect. Polymerisation by light is spent. The crown of a tooth is restored by formation of a dentine from dentinal shades of a nanofilled composite material. The transparent part of cutting edge is formed by entering of the nanofilled composite material of transparent shades. The enamel surface from the vestibular and oral parties of a crown of the tooth is restored in the thickness by an enamel shade of the nanofilled composite material according to the basic shade of cutting edge of 1-2 mm with augmentation from the basis to the coronal part of cutting edge.
EFFECT: way allows reducing traumatism, to enlarge fastness of restoration to loads.
SUBSTANCE: reflection coefficient of a beam of polarised neutrons is measured. The test nanolayer is put inside a non-magnetic nanolayer with low value of neutron interaction potential, which in turn is put between two non-magnetic nanolayers with high neutron interaction potential. The entire structure of nanolayers is put on a substrate. From the relationship between four reflection coefficients of neutrons and the transmitted wave vector, corresponding to transition of neutrons from two initial states with projection of neutron spin along the direction of the magnetic field and opposite to two final states with the same spin projection, the spatial distribution of the magnetic moment is determined.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity of measuring spatial distribution of the magnetic moment vector in a nanolayer.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field, particularly to composition of high-strength non-magnetic corrosion-resistant composition steel, used in mechanical engineering, aircraft building, special shipbuilding, instrument making and at creation of high-performance drilling engineering. Steel contains carbon, silicon, manganese, chrome, nickel, nitrogen, niobium, molybdenum, vanadium, zirconium nitride, iron and unavoidable admixtures at following ratio of components, wt %: carbon 0.04 - 0.12, silicon 0.10 - 0.60, manganese 5.0 - 12.0, chrome 19.0 - 21.0, nickel 4.0 - 9.0, molybdenum 0.5 - 1.5, vanadium 0.10 - 0.55, niobium 0.03 - 0.30, nitrogen 0.4 - 0.7, zirconium nitride 0.03 - 1.00, iron and unavoidable admixtures are the rest. Zirconium nitride is in the form of particles with nano-dispersibility.
EFFECT: there are increased strength properties of steel at simultaneous increasing of plasticity and viscosity index.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg