Method and device for determination of density and size of object and their use for inspection of nuclear fuel tablets in production process

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the area of non-destructive testing methods. Device for automatic density determination of object (100) includes device (2) for determination of significant size x of specified object (100); device (30) for determination of photon beam intensity (I) weakened due to passing through specified object (100); device (200) for data collection, processing and analysis, transportation means (70, 72, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88) for object (100); the first regulator of (74, 76, 78) object position (100); the second regulator of (90, 92, 94, 96, 98) object position (100). Method of the above device application includes calibration stages of device (2) and device (30) and stages of actual significant size measurement for object (100), which are performed for each object (100) in specified batch of objects.

EFFECT: increase of measurement accuracy.

33 cl, 15 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

This invention relates to the field of non-destructive methods of analysis.

More specifically, the invention relates to a method and device for automatically determining the density of objects by measuring the attenuation of noise through them straight photon beam to determine the dimensional characteristics of these objects.

One of the applications of the invention is to control and monitor the correct operation of the equipment for production and processing facilities, such as nuclear fuel tablets, such as UOX and/or MOSS, and, in particular, applicable for monitoring factor reproducibility in the manufacture of these objects relative to the density of these objects.

In addition, the invention can be used to determine the axial and radial density gradients, such as very accurate scanner for computer tomography.

The level of technology

Non-destructive methods for determining the density based on the active nuclear radiation have already been created, in particular for the density determination of geological samples. In here as a reference document Been, K., "Non-destructive Soil Bulk density Measurement by X-ray Attenuation", Geotechnical Testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol.4, No.4, Dec. 1981, pp 169-176, the author proposes to measure the density of clicks the samples by determining the attenuation straightforward photon beam from x-ray tubes, without attempting to accurately determine the size of the investigated samples. In the as reference documents, Tan, S.-A and Fwa T.-F "Non-destructive density Measurements of Cylindrical Specimens by Gamma-Ray Attenuation", Journal of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, Vol.19, No.2, March 1991, pp.155-160 and Tan S.-A and Fwa, t-F "Non-destructive Density Measurements of Cylindrical Specimens within a Mold by samma-Rays", Journal of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, vol.21, No.4, July 1993, pp.296-301, the authors propose to measure density geological samples by determining the attenuation straightforward photon beam by means of gamma radiation. They discovered and demonstrated the influence of geometrical parameters of the samples on the accuracy of the density measurement, but they did not offer solutions for the precise determination of the mentioned geometrical parameters.

It should be noted that although the above documents relate to the density of the samples, their actual goal is the determination of mass per unit volume of the above-mentioned objects, and the term "density" is used instead of the variable "mass per unit volume" to simplify the description.

Disclosure of inventions

The aim of the present invention is the determination of the density of objects belonging to a given party objects by determining the deviation of the density values of each of the objects relative to the known density values of at least one of the abovementioned objects, ispolzuemogo as a reference or standard.

This definition density of these objects is produced using a non-destructive nuclear method, consisting of irradiation with gamma photons and use gamma-ray spectrometer to determine the intensity of the flux of gamma photons.

The determination of the density of these objects requires the preliminary determination, at least one of the significant size of these objects.

In contrast to the methods described in the above referenced prior art, the present invention takes into account the influence of geometrical parameters by very precise measurements of at least one significant size of these objects, the density of which to be determined, and using this measured significant size to determine the density of the tested objects. Mentioned significant size can be the size of the width or diameter of the object and corresponds to the actual size, through which passes a flow of gamma photons.

The method of determining the significant size of the object is part of the method of determining the density of the above-mentioned object. To measure the size of the object, using the device of infrared radiation.

Briefly recall that the physical principle of determining the density of an object by measuring the attenuation of photon flux is exposure of the of the target questionnaire beam, consisting of monochromatic photons of energy 'E'. The intensity of the photon beam is reduced to a greater or lesser extent depending on the density of the object, which passes through the beam, depending on the thickness of material through which the beam passes, and depending on the elemental chemical composition of the object, through which passes a beam of photons. This intensity is determined by the following equation:

I=I0exp(-µmρX)

where:

- I is the attenuated intensity of the photon beam, expressed in photons-1,

- I0represents not obstructed the intensity of the photon beam with the energy 'E', expressed in photons-1,

- µmrepresents the attenuation coefficient mass for the photon beam with the energy 'E' in the object, expressed in cm2·g-1,

- ρ represents the density value of the test object, expressed in g·cm-3,

- X is the thickness of material through which passes the photon beam, or a significant size of the object, expressed in, see

From here directly obtained an expression for the density of the object:

Thus, if the known value of the intensity of the beam passing through the test object, and the intensity of the beam in the case of Otsu the aftermath of the object (the values of I and I 0accordingly, the value of the attenuation coefficient mass µmand magnitude of significant size X of the object actually traveled by the beam, it is possible to determine the value of the density ρ of the test object.

In the present invention serves to determine the thickness X of the object material, which passes through the photon beam, and is attenuated intensity I of the photon beam with an energy level 'E', passed through the object, and to use these values to calculate the relative deviation of the density ρ of a given object in comparison with a density of at least one reference object. One distinctive feature of the present invention is that these determine the thickness of the material (significant size of the object) and the intensity of the photon beam are performed with an accuracy of approximately one micrometer.

The amount of relative deviation of the density ρ of the test object receive, using the following expression:

where ρeis a known density value of the object used as the standard density, and xerepresents the value of the significant size of the object with the standard density, which passed through the beam.

The attenuation coefficient mass µmthat depends on hee the practical composition of the object, determined using one or more certified and, of course, well-known standard objects that have the same chemical composition as the object to be tested. The attenuation factor is determined in a single operation, the description of which will be described hereinafter when considering calibration device for determining the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by passing the beam through a standard object.

When the object to be tested has a circular cross-section, as a significant amount appears diameter of this object. When the object to be tested, its configuration is a parallelepiped, as a significant size, through which passes a beam of photons appears width of this object.

In the rest of the description will use the following conventions when you want to distinguish between the test object "i" among the party objects 100 and/or to distinguish the adopted standard of the object "e" among the party of 100 objects:

- index "emas" represents values with respect to an object with a density value adopted for the standard, such as its significant size "xemas",

- index "edim" represents values with respect to the object with the value of size is taken as the standard, such as its significant size "xedim".

According the first aspect of the present invention a device for the automatic determination of the density of the object, belonging to the party of objects includes:

- device for determining the significant size of the above-mentioned object,

a device for determining the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by passing through the above-mentioned object,

- device for the collection, processing and analysis of data,

the means of transport of the object to the device to determine the significant size of this object, as well as to the device for determining the weakened intensity of the photon beam,

first means for controlling position of the object relative to the device for determination of significant size,

second means for controlling position of the object relative to the device for determining the weakened intensity of the photon beam,

these first and second adjusting means is able to move the object with an accuracy on the order of one micrometer relative to the supporting Board on which are mounted the components of this device,

moreover, the position of the object relative to the device for determining the weakened intensity of the photon beam is adjusted depending on the significant size of this object.

Preferably, the device for determining the significant size of the investigated object is a measuring device that uses infrared radiation.

Predpochtitel is but a device for determining the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by passing through the object under examination, is a gamma-ray spectrometer, which consists of:

node, comprising a radiation source and collimator,

node, consisting of a detector and collimator,

system for collecting and counting the gamma photons.

The invention uses a means of transportation and a means of adjusting the position of each of the test object relative to the device to determine the significant size of the object and/or relative to the device for determining the weakened intensity of the photon beam, with the said means of adjusting the position capable of providing accurate location of the object in the order of one micrometer.

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention proposes a method of using the device for the automatic determination of the density of the object (100), belonging to the party of interest, and this method includes the following stages of calibration:

- stage 1 for calibrating the position of the two blocks infrared radiation in a device for determining the significant size of objects

- stage 2 calibration position supports the emitter of gamma spectrometer used to determine the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by the ragozzine through objects

- stage 3 for calibration of the measuring node of the source-detector gamma spectrometer used to determine the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by passing through objects

moreover, this method includes a stage for direct detection of the significant size of the objects that are produced on each object in the above-mentioned party objects.

In accordance with the present invention these stages direct definitions include:

- step 4 to determine the significant size of the test object,

- stage 5 for transporting the object to the support of the emitter,

- step 6 to adjust the position of the object by adjusting the position of support of the emitter relative to the source and an associated detector,

- step 7 to determine the weak intensity of the photon beam transmitted through the object

stage 8 for data collection, processing and analysis of the obtained spectrum,

- step 9 to determine the amount of relative deviation Δρ/ρ the density of an object relative to the density of one or more objects with a density value adopted for the standard

- the transportation stage 10 to return the object to its position on the turntable.

The methods and devices in accordance with the present invention have the advantage of speed, is echnosti, the availability of automatic mode or allow automation, and are simple in operation.

One advantage of the present invention is that the damping straightforward photon beam associated with micrometer Metrology, thereby eliminating the uncertainty associated with inaccurate knowledge of the thickness of objects, through which passes the beam, and this fact directly affects the degree of accuracy with which density is determined.

In particular, the position of each object relative to the device used to determine the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by the intersection of this object, is regulated depending on the signicant size of this object, which was previously determined by the instrument used to determine significant size.

Brief description of drawings

The invention can be better understood after reading the detailed description of the preferred variants of its realization, is presented below in the form of free from the constraints of the example illustrated in the attached figures, where:

on the figure 1 presents a schematic drawing (top view) integrated device for determining significant size and to determine the density of objects.

- Figure 2 a is ecstasy a schematic drawing (General view) integrated device for determining significant size and to determine the density of objects.

- Figures 3, 4 and 5 presents schematic drawings (views from above) of your device to determine the significant size of objects using infrared radiation, and three phases in the method for determining this significant size.

- Figure 6 is a schematic drawing (General view in section) of the collimator in the source radiation photons;

- Figure 7 is a schematic drawing (the General view in section) of the collimator in the detector gamma photons;

- Figure 8 is a schematic representation of a system for collecting and counting data;

Figures 9A and 9B represent all the operations of the method for determining the density of objects; figure 9A is a preliminary calibration operation, and figure 9 is In operation for direct detection;

- Figure 10 represents the first operation of the method, which is the calibration procedure, the position of the device for determination of a significant size;

- Figure 11 is a second operation method, which is the calibration procedure, the position of the device to determine the weak intensity of the photon beam;

- Figure 12 is a third operation of the method, which is a calibration operation measuring unit of the device for determining the weakened intensity of the photon beam;

- Figure 13 is a fourth surgery the way which is the operation to determine the significant size of the object;

- Figure 14 is a ninth operation method, which is an operation for determining the amount of relative deviation of the density of a test subject compared to the relative deviation for one or more standard objects;

On the figure 15 presents a graph showing the relative deviation of the density of the tested objects in this game in comparison with the density of one of the standard or reference objects, in comparison of this value of relative deviation of the density, obtained by means of the present invention, with a relative deviation of theoretical density provided by the manufacturer data objects.

The implementation of the invention

In figures 1 and 2 show, respectively, a top view and a General view of the preferred variants of the integrated device to determine the density of each object 100 in this game due to the attenuation of photons by determining the relative variance of this density relative to density of at least one of these objects is used as a standard or reference density, and to determine this density is used preliminary determination of significant size x cited Otago object 100 and the intensity I of the photon beam, which is emitted and passes through the above-mentioned object 100.

Installation includes the following components:

device 2 to determine the significant size of the object 100;

device 30 for determining the intensity of the photon beam, attenuated by passing through the object 100;

- the device 200 for the collection, processing and analysis of data;

- means of transport 70, 72, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88 and means to adjust the position 74, 76, 78, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98 object 100 relative to the device 2 to determine the size of the object relative to the device 30 for determining the intensity of the beam, respectively.

The device 200 for the collection, processing and analysis of data in General is shown schematically in figure 1. In particular, it includes a personal computer 170, running specialized software with a number of instructions and the computational algorithms used in an automatic procedure to determine the density of objects 100, in accordance with the present invention.

In figures 3, 4 and 5 show the device of infrared radiation 2 used to determine significant amount x of the object 100, which includes:

the first node 4, 6 infrared radiation, consisting of the first infrared emitter 4 and the first infrared receiver 6,

the second node 8, 10 infrared radiation, comprising the second is infrakrasnogo emitter 8 and the second infrared receiver 10.

These two nodes 4, 6 and 8, 10 infrared radiation are arranged so that respective axes 12, 14 generated by the infrared rays are parallel and are separated from each other by the distance d. This distance d is fixed by the manufacturer, is selected so that it has the same order of magnitude as important size x of the objects 100 to be tested. This distance can be adjusted. In the shown example, infrared rays are focused in one direction, however, may be provided by another configuration.

The device 2 for determining significant amount x of the object 100 using infrared radiation also contains the third node, consisting of a photoelectron emitter 16 and a photoelectric receiver 18 and located on the input side of the first node 4, 6 infrared radiation in relation to the second node 8, 10 infrared radiation and photoelectric beam generated from the third node has an axis 19. In the example shown, the axis 19 of the photoelectron beam is parallel to the axes 12, 14 infrared rays, and all axes are in one plane. May provide another configuration of the axes.

The device 2 for determining significant amount x of the object 100 using infrared radiation associated with the transporting means and/or means for regulating the position of the object 100 relative to sayasane three transceiver nodes 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 18, which will be discussed below.

During operation of the device 2, defines a significant amount x of the object 100, is placed in such position with the fixed position of the three transceiver nodes 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 18, and the object 100 is shifted so that he consistently gets first photoelectron beam, then the first infrared beam, and then the second infrared beam.

The device 2 is calibrated in such a way as to create the distance d between the axes 12 and 14 of the two infrared rays, which essentially has the same value, and that a significant amount of xedimone or more objects with a standard size edim. The calibration process will be described below. It follows that during the determination of the significant size of the object 100 (custom object) this object is moved relative to the three transceiver nodes 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 18 and passes at least through one position in which he still crosses the half of the first beam of infrared radiation (figure 5, item 22), but is still not fully crosses the second beam of infra-red radiation, and the remaining part of the second beam (figure 5, item 24), which does not fall on the object 100, reaches the second receiver 10.

A significant amount x 100 deduce, knowing infrared response RI corresponding to that of the remaining part of the beam. This size is ucaut using according to the following type:

x=A4·(RI4)+A3·(RI3)+A2·(RI2)+A1·(RI1)+A0,

where a4And3And2, A1, A0are coefficients obtained using at least four objects with standard size edim and using the same ratio, which enter known significant amount of xedimand the measured infrared response RIedimeach of these objects is a standard size edim, once for each object with the default size.

As shown in figure 4, the function of the third node 16, 18 is automatically run pre-adjust the intensity of the two infrared beams 22, 24, when the object 100 crosses the photoelectron beam generated from the third node 16, 18, during a relative displacement in the direction 20. The purpose of this operation is to eliminate the influence of external disturbances such as pollution of the optical lens. This operation should be performed at least 30 seconds before surgery direct measurement object 100.

The precision is determined by a significant amount x of the object 100, depends on the accuracy of the relative displacement of the object 100 in relation to the three transceiver nodes 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 18, consequently, the characteristics and calibration of means of transport and/or adjustment of position is bhakta, these aspects will be described more fully later.

In accordance with the present invention, the intensity I of the photon beam is accurately measured by gamma-spectrometric device 30 is intended for determining the intensity of the photon beam, which is emitted and passes through the test object 100, as shown in figures 1, 2 and 8. This device includes:

node formed from a source of photon radiation and a collimator 32, and in itself this node is known;

node formed of the detector and collimator 40, and in itself this node is known;

system 48 for collecting and processing data, and by itself, the system is known.

To simplify the description hereinafter, the radiation source photons will be called simply the "source".

The various components of the measuring device 30 is subject to some limitations associated with the required characteristics for the system as a whole, as well as to the environment in which to operate this system. These restrictions, which in particular relate to the intensity of the source, source type, and operating system specifications for the collection and processing of data are as follows:

- source intensity should be such that the statistical dispersion of the results of measuring the value was significantly less than the variance of the samples due to differences in density of the test object relative to the density of the reference/standard object;

the energy source should provide a very good contrast after small changes in the density of the test object;

- period of the radioactive half-life source should not be too short, because this source is associated with limitations when used in a production environment;

- and, finally, the intensity and the energy source must be compatible with the processing capability of the electronic system for collecting and processing data (time lag, packaging, saturation and so on).

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention the source is made of isotope133VA activity value of at least 10 millicurie (mcure). To avoid the effects of latency and/or saturation, it is preferable to use a source with an activity value not exceeding 150 mcure. The measurement duration is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the activity of the source.

The figure 6 shows an example of the design of the collimator 32 from node source-to-collimator, which is compatible with these various limitations. It includes a protective frame 34, ensuring the safety of personnel working near the source, and in the frame bordered the cavity 36, hosts the source. A beam of gamma photons is directed collimation slit 38.

In accordance with the example of the collimator 32 source made of lead and has external dimensions: height 60 mm, length 60 mm, width 60 mm as a source is an isotope133VA activity value 10 mcure placed in the cavity 36, which has a diameter of 6.1 mm and a height of 9.5 mm, Collimation the slot 38 has a length of 30 mm, a width of 6 mm and height 4 mm

The figure 7 shows an example construction of the collimator 40 from the node of the detector-collimator". The design includes a shielding frame 42, so that the gamma rays coming from the source and distributed outside collimation slit 38, were not detected by the detector 49, and collimation the slit 44 and the cavity 46, the principal detector 49, ogranichivalos shielding cage 42.

In this example, the design of the collimator 40 detector 49 is made of lead and has external dimensions: 140 mm, length 120 mm, internal dimensions: diameter 80 mm, length 200 mm Collimation the slot 38 has a height of 4 mm, a width of 6 mm and a length of 30 mm

Lead, as the material of the shielding frame 42 can be replaced by tungsten, which reduces the gamma-rays to a greater extent than lead, and, therefore, has the advantage that it allows to reduce the thickness of the shielding cage 42, however, n is a wealth of tungsten is its higher cost, than the cost of lead.

To simplify the further description of the node of the source-collimator" will be called simply "source"denoting its position 32 and the node of the detector-collimator" will be called simply "detector"denoting his position 40.

The distance between source and detector is chosen accordingly.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the system 48 for collecting and processing data, depicted in figure 8, includes the following components:

detector 49 in the form of a germanium diode [HP] (especially pure Ge) with pre-amplifier;

processor 50 convert digital signals;

module high voltage 54;

- network module and an interface 56 for data collection;

- personal computer 170 to collect data (depicted in figure 1).

Optionally, the system for collecting and processing data includes a cryostat 60, consisting of a tank for liquid nitrogen, which supports the cold pin germanium diode [HP] at a constant temperature, which provides the advantage of minimizing the Doppler effect, and gives a very good resolution signal, to exclude heat detector 49, distorting the measurement.

It is preferable to have a pre-amp built into the specified germanium diode [HP], which gives the advantage, expressed in minimi the purpose capacitive effect due to the absence of an electric cable, reducing the background electronic noise. In addition, this amplifier filters and generates a signal.

Then this signal is converted into digital form using a processor 50 for signal conversion, and then the digital signal is injected into the device memory.

The combination of the received data is gamma spectrum, in other words, a histogram with the distribution of the number of pulses on different channels depending on their energy.

Data is transferred (arrow 62) between the processor 50 conversion signal and the computer 170 of the device 200 for the collection, processing and analysis of data through the network modules and interface 56 for collecting data transceiver 63 and network adapter 59. In the illustrated example, the device 200 for the collection, processing and analysis of data, as the system 48 for collecting and processing data, uses the same computer 170, however, there may be provided a configuration with two separate computers.

This system 48 for the collection and processing of data is especially suitable when high speed pulse.

In addition, another limitation on the use of gamma-spectrometric device 30 for determining the intensity of the photon beam, irradiating the object 100, refers to the parameter "time accounts" system 48 for collecting and processing data, as this parameter must be consistent with the speed of manufacturing and j is 100, to be checked.

According to the invention the time of the invoice may be a parameter that is entered into the system, or the result of a calculation made using the following theoretical formula:

with the approach, according to which the spatial angle is 4πD2,

where:

A(t) represents the activity of the source, expressed in units of becquerels (Bq);

D represents the distance between the source and collimation window, expressed in mm;

S represents the surface area collimating window detector, mm2;

α is a condence interval for the case when the pulse count follows a Poisson distribution;

ε represents the performance of the overall absorption of photons by the detector;

I is the intensity of the photon beam with energy E, weakened by passing through the object, expressed in γ·-1;

I0represents not obstructed the intensity of the photon beam with energy E, γ·-1;

R0=(I/I0represents the transmittance of the object, through which pass the monochromatic photons emitted by the source;

Σ represents the total number of hits registered in the measured spectrum, expressed by the number of shock is;

P represents the total number of beats contained in the peak energy E,

βsec=β/10 represents a P value attributed to the safety factor of 10,

where β=Δρ/ρ,

and where ρ represents the density value of the object.

The precision is determined by the intensity I, weakened by the passage of the photon beam through the object 100, is particularly dependent on the position of the above-mentioned object 100 relative to the source 32. Therefore, the accuracy of determining the intensity I depends on the performance and calibration means adjusting the position of the object. These aspects will be discussed below in more detail.

Various means of transporting 70, 12, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88 and means for adjusting the position 74, 76, 78, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98 shown in figures 1 and 2, depicting the entire system as a whole. Their purpose is the transportation of the object 100 to each of the devices 2, 30, used to determine or regulate the position of the object 100 relative components of each of the measuring devices 2, 30.

The support plate 150 supports all components of the system, namely the device 2 used to determine the significant size of the object, the device 30 used to determine the weak intensity of the beam transporting means, first means to regulate ovci and second means to adjust the position of the object. The offset direction is schematically depicted coordinate system 152 in figure 2. Offsets are produced in the horizontal plane (X, Y) of the support plate 150 or in the vertical direction Z, perpendicular to the horizontal plane (X, Y) of the support plate 150.

Conveying means 70, 72 are designed for the transportation of the object 100 in the first position, in which the device 2 determines the significant size of the object 100. These tools include a horizontal rotary table 70, driven by the stepper motor 72, both of which are installed on the base plate 150. In the above example, the turntable 70 has twelve locations of objects.

First means for adjusting the position 74, 76, 78 are designed for adjusting the position of the object 100 relative to the two nodes of infrared radiation 4, 6 and 8, 10, which are used to measure significant amount x of the object 100.

The adjusting means 74 is a carrier oriented in the X direction, along which are the base 26 of the device 2 of infrared radiation, is used to determine the size, and the turntable 70.

These two nodes infrared radiation 4, 6 and 8, 10 is installed on the base 26 so that the axis 12, 14 infrared radiation are parallel is but the direction X. For this party objects, all sizes which essentially have the same order of magnitude, the relative position of the base 26 and the turntable 70 along the direction X is preferably fixed once at the beginning of a series of measurements for a given batch of objects.

The adjusting means 76 is the Executive mechanism, the function of which is to move the first node of infrared radiation 4, 6 closer to the second node of infrared radiation 8, 10, or further away in the direction y Is the offset of the first node of infrared radiation 4, 6 in the Y direction provides a means to control the position of the object 100 with an accuracy of approximately one micrometer with respect to the two beams of infrared radiation to determine significant size (diameter or thickness).

The adjusting means 78 is the Executive mechanism, the function of which is to move the base 26 in the direction Z. the Amplitude of this bias is relatively small, so the possibility of gathering the base 26 of the slide 74. The offset base Z-direction provides the means for obtaining the size of the object 100 that is used to determine its significant size x with an accuracy of approximately one micrometer.

Conveying means 70, 72, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88 also done is have a function of displacement of the object 100 from the first position, in which the device 2 determines a significant amount x, the second position in which the device 30 determines weakened the intensity I of the photon beam. These tools include rotary table 70 driven by respective stepping motor 72. Multiple objects 100 are arranged on the disc turntable 70 and the rotation of the disk at the same time two things happen: first, the transport of the object 100 in the first position measurement and, secondly, the movement of the preceding object 100 from the first position measurement in an intermediate position after performing the angular displacement of the object by an angle A. In the example shown in figures 1 and 2, the magnitude of the angle a is equal to 90°. Conveying means also includes a mechanical arm 80, which captures the object 100, mounted on the turntable 70 in the intermediate position, and transports the object to the substrate 90 to radiation, located between the collimator 32 source and collimator detector 40. In the example shown in figure 2, the mechanical arm 80 has an exciting clip 82, pivotally mounted on the intermediate segment 84, which is pivotally connected with the actuating mechanism 86, the transmission of movement to move in the X direction of the support plate 150 along the guide rails 88. Compressive/loosening the e motion capture 82 and rotary movement around the segment 84, as well as rotary movement of the segment 84 relative to the actuator 86 is controlled by actuators (not shown).

The function of the second adjusting means 90, 92, 94, 96, 98 is to regulate the position of the object 100 relative to the source 32 and the detector 40 gamma-spectrometric device 30, which determines the intensity of the beam which has passed through the above-mentioned object 100. These tools include a substrate 90 for irradiation, which sets the object 100. This substrate 90 for irradiation has a top surface 92 with a V-shaped cross-section or any other means that allows an object 100 to be automatically set in a stable equilibrium position on the substrate 90 for exposure, it is particularly important that the object 100 could not move relative to the substrate 90 for irradiation along the direction X of the support plate 150. The substrate 90 to the exposure feature along the direction X of the support plate 150 using the carrier 94, which preferably coincide with the carrier 74. For this party objects 100 such installation at a certain position is done once at the beginning of a series of measurements corresponding to this party objects. The substrate 90 for irradiation can be moved in the Y direction of the support plate 150 with the actuator 96, and also in the direction perpendicular to the base plate 150, by using the actuator 98. When positioning performed using actuators 96 and 98, essentially, the object is centered (Z-direction) between the slits of the respective collimators source 32 and detector 40.

Furthermore, it is necessary to place the object along the Y-direction with an accuracy of about one micrometer, so that the intensity I of the photon beam was measured accurately on the size of the object, which was defined as its significant size X. This location of the object for measurement is carried out by fixing the object on the upper surface 92 of the substrate 90 to irradiation. For example, the object can be brought into strong contact with the stopper 93 on the upper surface 92 of the substrate 90 to irradiation with the discharge operation of the purge device (not shown), which forces compressed air to the object along the direction Y.

The figure 1 shows the connection diagram using the appropriate connecting means 180, first, between different actuators 76, 78, 86, 96, 98, freely shifting parts during the transfer movement, and stepper motor 72 which rotates the turntable 70, and, secondly, between the control and control units 160. These blocks 160 control mechanics and automation systems and the use of appropriate connecting means 190 is connected to the system unit 172 computer 170 in the device 200 for collecting, processing and analysis of data.

Now consider how to determine the density ρ of each object in a given batch of 100 objects by comparison with the density value ρemasone or more objects selected as the standard or reference density and are part of the same batch of 100 objects.

This method is used with algorithms to send a series of commands that will automatically perform various operations of the method.

The method in accordance with the present invention includes a preliminary calibration operations that are performed once before the start of a series of measurements on the party objects, and the operation of the actual definitions that are performed on each object 100 in the above-mentioned parties of interest. All operations of the method is shown schematically in figures 9A and 9B.

The calibration operation is followed in a given timeline and include the following system components:

- stage 1: calibration of the position of two nodes infrared radiation 4, 6 and 8, 10 of the device 2 to determine the significant size of the objects 100;

- stage 2: calibration of the position of the substrate 90 for irradiation of 90 gamma spectrometric device 30 for determining the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by passing through the object 100;

- stage 3: calibration of the measurement site history the nick-detector" 32, 40 of the device 30.

Stage 1 calibration of the position of two nodes infrared radiation 4, 6 and 8, 10 are shown in figure 10.

This calibration stage 1 consists of adjusting the position in the Y direction of the first node of infrared radiation 4, 6 relative to the second node of infrared radiation 8, 10, to fix the distance d between the infrared rays emitted by the two emitters 4, 8, respectively, depending on exactly known significant amount of xedimone or more objects with a standard size edim. In practice, the distance d is determined by the gradual displacement of the first node of infrared radiation 4, 6 from the second node of infrared radiation 8, 10 in the Y direction, while the second node device remains fixed in position YFIXby measuring the response object via infrared radiation for each position of the first node 4, 6.

Stage 1 calibration of the position of two nodes infrared radiation 4, 6 and 8, 10 includes, first of all, the input operator of a number of input parameters using the module dialog mode. These options include:

- configuration of components that have a micrometric movement; actuators 76, 78, who manage their dynamic parameters: position, speed, acceleration,

configuration povorotnoye 70, in other words, the nature of the objects, which take on different locations on the turntable 70; arbitrary object 100, or the standard size of the object edim, or standard density of the object emas, or free location

the position taken by the objects standard size edim, on the turntable 70, and this location is marked with the number varying from 1 to 12 for the above example,

- the position of ZISMalong the Z-direction frame 26 of the device 2, which corresponds to the size of Zedimon the object edim against the frame of the object

position Y(l) and Y(N), the bounding interval of the displacement of the first infrared node 4, 6 along the direction Y,

- stage INT move, expressed in micrometers, the first infrared node 4, 6 along the direction Y (the value ofmust be an integer).

Then stage 1 to calibrate the positions of the two infrared nodes 4, 6 and 8, 10 includes the following automated operations:

a) moving the frame 26 along the Z-direction up to the position of ZISMdue to the action of the actuator 78,

b) the rotational movement of the rotary table 70 in order to transport the object of standard size edim up to its initial position measurement relative to the device 2,

c) moving the first is on the IR site 4, 6 along the direction Y until its initial position Y(L) by the action of the actuator 76,

d) the translational displacement of the first infrared node 4, 6 along the Y-direction with successive increments INT, removing it from the second infrared node 8, 10, locked in position YFIXbetween positions Y(l) and Y(N), while the definition infrared response RI(n) of the object edim, in accordance with each position Y(n) as follows:

d-1) rotational movement of the rotary table 70 in order to transport the object of standard size edim end position measurements,

d-2) measurement of the infrared response RI(n) of the specified object standard size edim,

d-3) rotational movement of the rotary table 70 in order to translate the object of standard size edim in the initial measurement position,

e) calculating the optimum infrared response

where RIMINmeans is the minimum saturation infrared response; at the beginning of the calibration, the distance between the two infrared nodes 4, 6 and 8, 10 much less than a significant amount of xedimthe object of standard size edim; therefore, when the object edim crosses 50% of the first infrared beam, this object edim crosses 100% of the second infrared beam, then the lane is haunted infrared responses have the same so-called "rich" value RI MIN,

and RIMAXrepresents the maximum value of saturation of the infrared response; at the end of the calibration, the distance between the two infrared nodes 4, 6 and 8, 10 is much more than a significant amount of xedimthe object of standard size edim; therefore, when the object edim crosses 50% of the first infrared beam, this object edim crosses the 0% of the second infrared beam; then the last infrared responses have the same so-called "rich" value RIMAX,

f) calculation of the optimum position of YOPTthe first infrared node 4, 6 relative to the second IR site 8, 10; optimal infrared response RIOPTis between two previously computed consistent and RI(j) and RI(k) infrared response, which correspond to two positions Y(j) and Y(k) of the first infrared node 4, 6, respectively; the optimal position YOPTcalculate these values as follows:

The above operations from a) to f) can be repeated, using the number of objects standard size edim, as necessary.

At the end of stage 1 for calibrating the position of the two infrared nodes 4, 6 and 8, 10, a first calibration file, which contains in particular the optimal distance d for two and prekrasnyh nodes 4, 6 and 8, 10, which is virtually the same significant sizeobjects.

The sequence of stages of calibration 2 substrate 90 for irradiation in the instrument gamma-ray spectrometry 30 to determine the intensity of the photon beam, attenuated by passing through the object 100, is schematically presented in figure 11.

This stage of calibration 2 is to regulate the position along the Z-direction of the irradiated substrate 90 relative to the source 32 and the connected detector 40, in order to fix the position of ZQPTalong the Z-direction on the upper surface 92 of the irradiated substrate 90 on which are the objects 100, passing through the beam of photons, depending on exactly known density ρ of one or more objects standard density emas. In practice, the position of ZQPTis determined by the gradual movement of irradiated substrate 90 along the Z-direction and the irradiation object standard density emas mounted on the exposed substrate 90, several times in each position of the irradiated substrate. This position is determined by calculating the minimum value of the polynomial regression of the fourth order and includes a step of determining a significant amount of xemasfor each standard object density emas.

Stage 2 calibration state is irradiated substrate 90 of the device 30, first, include a step in which the operator enters the number of input parameters, using the module dialog mode. These options include:

- configuration of components that have a micrometric movement for adjusting dynamic parameters: position, velocity, acceleration used actuators 96, 98,

configuration of the turntable 70, in other words, the nature of the objects, which take on different locations on the turntable 70; arbitrary object 100, or the standard size of the object edim, or standard density of the object emas, or free location

the location made objects standard density emas, on the turntable 70, and this location is marked with the number varying from 1 to 12 for the above example,

- measurement of the length or time account

position Z(l) and Z (N), limiting the interval of movement of irradiated substrate 90 along the Z-direction,

the number M of measurements of intensity of a beam of photons attenuated by passing through the object, for each position Z(i)accept the irradiated substrate, for i=1, ..., N.

Then stage 2 to calibrate the position of the irradiated substrate 90 of the device 30 includes the following automated operations:

a) the definition of significant size xemasobject with andartes density in accordance with stage 4, which will be described below

b) the rotational movement of the rotary table 70 on the corner And to transport the object to the standard density emas in an intermediate position, in which the object will be captured by the capture device 80,

c) the location of the object emas on the exposed substrate 90 that includes the following intermediate steps:

s-1) moving the irradiated substrate 90 and down along the Z-direction due to the action of the actuator 98,

C-2) moving the gripping device 80 from the position of waiting in a vertical position in accordance with the intermediate position of the object emas due to the action of the actuator 86,

C-3) capture object emas gripper 80 and subsequent transportation of the object in the upright position in accordance with the upper face 92 of the irradiated substrate 90 by the action of the actuator 86,

C-4) moving the irradiated substrate 90 until the position Z(l), up and along the Z-direction due to the action of the actuator 98,

C-5) lowering the object emas down on the upper face 92 of the irradiated substrate 90 using a gripping device 80, due to the action of the actuator 86,

C-6) relocation and return of the gripping device 80 until the provisions of expectations due to the action of the actuator 86,

the -7) cast the object emas in contact with the stopper on the top face 92 along the direction Y, for example, due to the discharge operation, which is carried out as follows:

- move the irradiated substrate 90 down along the Z-direction until the so-called discharge position, in which the object stands before injection device provided in the system

- compressed air from the discharge device is an object emas along the direction Y in order to bring the object into contact with the stopper 93 is irradiated on the substrate 90,

d) adjusting the actual position of the irradiated substrate 90 relative to the source 32 and the attached detector 40, which includes the following auxiliary operations:

d-1) translational movement of irradiated substrate 90 along the Z-direction between the specified position Z(l) and a given position Z(N),

d-2) for each position Z(i), i=1, ..., N the irradiation object standard density emas beam of photons multiple (M) times, resulting in a range of values of the attenuated intensity I (i, J), where i=1, ..., N specifies the number of consecutive positions Z(i)accept the irradiated substrate 90 and j=1, ..., M denotes the number of exposures made at each position Z(i)

d-3) calculation of the optimum position of ZORTthe irradiated substrate 90, based on polynomial regression of the fourth order provisions Z(i) relative to the values of the attenuated intensity I(i, j), being the m this polynomial regression of the fourth order is defined and integrated into the data element of the device 200 for collecting, processing and analysis of data,

e) return transport object standard density emas on the turntable 70 by using the same sequence of operations as described above auxiliary operations from s-1 to s-6), but in reverse order.

After the completion of stage 2 to calibrate the position of the irradiated substrate 90 in the device gamma spectrometer 30 for determining the intensity of the photon beam, attenuated by passing through the objects 100, creates a second calibration file, which, in particular, includes the optimal position of ZOPTthe irradiated substrate 90 along the direction Z.

Step 3 to calibrate the measurement device 30 for gamma-spectrometric determination includes the following automated operations:

a) measuring the intensity of Iemasbeam of photons attenuated by passing through the object standard density emas used as standard,

b) calculate the mass attenuation coefficient µmfor standard object density, and then for all objects in the set of objects, using the following relationship:

At the end of stage 3 to calibrate the measurement device gamma spectrometer 30 to determine the intensity of a beam of photons attenuated by passing through 100 objects, you create a third file feces is Brovki which, in particular, includes the intensity of the photon beam Iemasweakened by passing through the object standard density emas.

On stage the actual definition also follow a given time sequence and perform the following operations:

- stage 4: determining significant amount x of the test object 100,

- stage 5: the transportation of the object 100 in the direction of the irradiated substrate 90,

- step 6: adjusting the position of the object 100 by adjusting the position of the irradiated substrate 90 relative to the source 32 and the attached detector 40,

- stage 7: identify weak intensity of the first beam of photons passing through the object 100,

- stage 8: the collection, processing and analysis of the obtained spectra,

stage 9: identifying the relative change Δρ/ρ the density of the object 100 relative density of one or more objects standard density emas,

stage 10: the reverse transport of the object 100 up to its location on the turntable 70.

Stage 4 to determine significant amount x of the test object 100 is schematically depicted in figure 13. In this step, first, the operator enters a set of input parameters, using the module dialog mode. These options include:

- configuration of components that have micrometer per the room: actuators 76, 78 used to control the dynamic characteristics of the components: position, velocity, acceleration,

configuration of the turntable 70, in other words, the nature of the objects, which take on different locations on the turntable 70; arbitrary object 100, or object is of a standard size edim, or object standard density emas, or free location

- location taken by the object 100 on the turntable 70, and this location is marked with the number varying from 1 to 12 for the above example,

- the position of ZISMalong the Z-direction frame 26 of the device 2, which corresponds to the size z of the object 100 relative to the frame of the object

the number R of infrared measurements for each object of standard size edim(n), n=1, ..., N, where N is the number of objects of a standard size,

- quantity Q infrared measurement object 100.

In stage 4 to determine significant amount x of the test object 100 also uses the data contained in the first calibration file, obtained in stage 1.

Then stage 4 to determine significant amount x of the test object 100 includes the following automated operations:

a) moving the frame 26 along the Z-direction up to the position of ZISMdue to the action of the actuator 78,

b) moving the, I can pay tithing IR site 4, 6 along the direction Y by the action of the actuator 76, up to position YISMspecified as:

YISM=YOPT+(xedim-xedimAVE)

where

Yoptmeans optimum position obtained at the stage of calibration 1, and this value is stored in the first calibration file,

xedimrepresents the size of the object edim standard size used during the stage of calibration 1, and this value is stored in the first calibration file,

xedimAVErepresents a significant average size of all objects of a standard size edim, and this value is set by the manufacturer,

c) measuring the infrared response RI(p), repeated R times, R=1, ..., R N objects standard size edim(n), n=1, ..., N, which leads to a set of values RI(n, R),

d) calculation of a meaningful size x of the object 100 as follows:

d-1) calculating the average value of

infrared response of each object standard size edim(n), for which known significant amount of xedim(n), and the use of polynomial regression 4-th order significant dimensions xedim(n) to calculate the coefficients A0, A1And2And3And4in relation of the following type:

xedim(n)=A4·(RIedimAVE(N))4+A3·(RIedimAVE(n))3 +A2·(RIedimAVE(n))2+A1·(RIedimAVE(n))1+A0,

d-2) measurement of the infrared response RI(q), repeated Q times q=1, ..., Q for the test object 100, and calculating the average value ofthese infrared response, and calculating the necessary significant amount x of the object 100 from the following equation:

x=A4·(RI)4+A3·(RI)3+A2·(RI)2+A1·(RI)1+A0

Stage 5 for transport of the test object 100 to the irradiated substrate is an automated stage, which repeats the sequence of operations b) and (C) the stage of calibration 2, as described in detail above.

Stage 6 for adjusting the position of the object 100 relative to the source 32 and the attached detector 40 is an automated stage in which repeated auxiliary operations d) stage calibration 2, as described in detail above.

Step 7 to determine the photon intensity I of the beam of photons attenuated by passing through the object 100, is to measure activity, then these data are collected, processed and analyzed, essentially, in a known manner.

Stage 8 of the collection, processing and analysis of spectral data obtained on an automated stage on which used, there is TSS known algorithms for computing is performed using a specially designed program entered into the computer 170 of the device 200 for the collection, processing and analysis of data.

Stage 9 to determine the relative change Δρ/ρ the density of the object 100 relative density of one or more objects standard density emas schematically depicted in figure 14. At this stage is automated calculation using equationand the data found in the previous stages.

Phase reverse transport 10 object 100 in its position on the turntable 70 is an automated stage at which repeated auxiliary operations (e) stage calibration 2, described in detail above.

In the just described method refers to the use of special software. This software consists of five independent modules and the main dialog menu, with which the operator can select one of five modules for execution. The five modules include the following functions:

first module: determining the density of an object that includes a step of calibration 3 and stage 4 to 10 actual density determination,

second module: the definition of a meaningful size of an object

third module: calibration Polo is possible instrument for the determination of a meaningful size,

fourth module: calibration of the position of the device to determine the weak intensity of photons

fifth module: organization of data files.

Example

Tested the system and method described above. The source was a133VA source with an activity of 10 millicurie. Data collection duration was 20 minutes.

The measurements were performed on a series of 7 pellets of uranium dioxide (UO2)that has the following characteristics: diameter, height and density, which are shown in table 1.

Table 1
Tablet No.: i123 (standard)
Diameter (mm)8,1658,1438,166
Height (mm)11,5411,4411,27
Density (g·cm-3)10,260±0,00310,130±0,0039,900+0,003
The standard deviation (g·cm-3)of 1.99×10-21,98 the 10 -21,96×10-2

Table I (continued)
Tablet No.: i4567
Diameter (mm)8,1478,1238,1178,169
Height (mm)11,4911,2911,5411,59
Density (g·cm-3)10,150±0,0039,950±0,0039,960±0,00310,070±0,003
The standard deviation (g·cm-3)to 1.98×10-2of 1.95×10-2of 1.93×10-2of 1.97×10-2

Tablet No. 3 is used as the reference tablets.

The aim of the measurements is the accurate estimation of relative changes in the density of the tablets(1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7) relative density standard tablet 3, use the I system and method according to the invention. Apply the following relationship:

Diameter of tablets taken "unknown", get on stage identify significant size, in this case, the diameter of the tablet, using infrared radiation.

Data on the number of pulses registered by gamma-spectrometry method for each of the six tablets is shown in table II. Data were obtained through careful attitude to the way a temporal sequence, as described above

Table II
Tablet noIntensity (pulse)Variations in density
1974725±1974(3,448633±0,017045)×10-2
21012550±2012(2,286541+0,061460)×10-2
41009661±2010(2,344449±0,016572)×10-2
51063886±2063(6,611105±0,132441)×10-3
61067853±2067(5,941459+0,122442)×10-3
71014895±2015(1,873675±0,017101)×10-3

The standard deviations of the measured variations in the density estimate by calculating the propagation of uncertainty. In table III, these results are compared with theoretical deviation given by the manufacturer of the tablets.

Table III
Tablet no124
theoretical value [Δρ/ρ]3,63636×10-2±2,77×10-32,32323×10-2±2,78×10-32,52525×10-2±2,77×10-3
Measured value [Δρ/ρ]3,44863×10-2±1,70×10-42,28654×10-2±1,65×10-42,34445×10-2±1,66×10-4
Tablet no567
theoretical value [Δρ/ρ]5,0505×10-3 -36,0606×10-3±2,77×10-41,71717×10-2±was 2.76×10-3
Measured value [Δρ/ρ]6,611×10-3±1,32×10-45,9415×10-3±1,22×10-41,8737×10-2±1,71×10-4

These results are illustrated by the diagram in figure 15. Circles presents values of Δρ/ρ, obtained from measurements, while the crosses represented the value of Δρ/ρ, is given by the manufacturer. Marked intervals show the values of standard deviation, calculated according to data given by the manufacturer.

These results show that the system and method according to the invention allows to detect the relative change in density of approximately 6×10-3regarding tablets, selected as a standard object.

1. Device for the automatic determination of the density of the object (100), belonging to the party of interest, characterized in that it includes:
the device (2) to determine the significant size of the specified object (100);
the device (30) for determining the intensity (I) of the photon beam, attenuated by passing through the specified object (100);
the device (200) for collection, processing and analysis of data;
when estva transportation (70, 72, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88) object (100) to the device (2) to determine significant size (x) and in the direction of the device (30) to define a weakened intensity of the photon beam,
the first means of adjustment (74, 76, 78) of the object (100) relative to the device (30) to define a weakened intensity of the photon beam, and
the second tool adjustment(90, 92, 94, 96, 98) object (100) relative to the device (30) to define a weakened intensity of the photon beam,
and the fact that the first and second means of adjustment can move the object (100) with an accuracy on the order of one micrometer relative to the support plate (150), on which are mounted the elements included in the device,
and the fact that the position of the object (100) relative to the device (30) to define a weakened intensity (I) of the photon beam is adjustable depending on a significant amount of (x) the specified object (100).

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the device (200) for collection, processing and analysis of data includes the computer 170, running specialized software that executes a number of instructions and the computational algorithms used in an automatic procedure for determining the density of the object (100).

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the device (200) for collection, processing and analysis of data gives the relative activities is the amount of change (Δρ/ρ) of the density (ρ) of the object (100) relative to the known density, at least one object standard density emas belonging to the same batch of objects (100).

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the device (2) to determine significant amount x of the object (100)includes:
the first node (4, 6) of infrared radiation, comprising a first infrared radiator (4) and the first infrared receiver (6),
the second node (8, 10) of infrared radiation, comprising a second infrared emitter (8) and the second infrared receiver (10),
both node (4, 6 and 8, 10) of infrared radiation are separated from each other by a known distance d and the generated infrared rays are parallel to each other,
and a significant amount (x) of the object (100) is determined by infrared response obtained when the movement of the object (100) in such a way that the object successively crosses the first infrared light beam and the second infrared light beam in the direction which is almost perpendicular to the axes (12, 14) of the two beams, and the specified infrared response corresponds to the proportion (24) of the second beam, yet not intersect with the object (100), which still crosses the half (22) of the first beam.

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the device (2) to determine the amount also includes a third transceiver unit (16, 18)located on the input side of the first node (4, 6) of infrared radiation,with regard to the second node (8, 10) infrared radiation and is intended for preliminary adjustment of the intensity of two infrared rays.

6. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that a significant amount x of the object (100) is determined after moving the specified object QN times and measure Q infrared response RI(q), where q denotes a number between 1 and Q, using the dependence of the following type:
x=A4(average RI(q))4+A3(average RI(q))3+A2(average RI(q))2+A1(average RI(q))1+A0,
where a4And3And2, A1, A0are coefficients obtained earlier using a similar dependence, at least for the four objects with standard size edim, for which the measured infrared response RIedim.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the device (30) to define a weakened intensity of the beam of photons is a gamma spectrometer, which consists of:
node (32), comprising a radiation source and collimator,
the node (40)consisting of a detector and collimator,
system (48) for collecting and counting the gamma photons.

8. The device according to claim 7, characterized in that the system (48) for collecting and counting includes:
germanium detector high density,
pre-amplifier (50);
the processor (52) converting digital is Ignatov;
module high voltage (54);
network module (56);
the computer (170) to collect data;
cryostat (60).

9. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the conveying means(70, 72, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88) include the turntable (70) and stepper motor (72), moving the specified turntable (70).

10. The device according to claim 1, wherein the conveying means includes a pointing device (80).

11. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the arm (80) is a mechanical manipulator, equipped with a gripping clamp (82), designed to capture and move down the object (100).

12. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the first means to adjust the position include:
the slide (74) for fixing the position of the base (26) of the device (2) to determine the significant size of the object along the direction X;
the actuator (76) to move the first node of infrared radiation (4, 6) closer to or further from the second node of infrared radiation (8, 10) of the specified device (2) in the direction Y perpendicular to the direction X;
the actuator (78) to move the specified base (26) of the device (2) along the direction Z perpendicular to the plane (X, Y).

13. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the first means to adjust the position of the VC is ucaut a substrate (90) for irradiation, which set the object (100) between a source (32) and a detector (40) in the gamma-spectrometric device (30) to define a weakened intensity of the photon beam, which has passed through the object (100).

14. The device according to item 13, wherein the second means for adjusting the position include:
the carrier (94) for fixing the position of the substrate (90) for irradiation along the direction X;
the actuator (96) to move specified in the X direction,
the actuator (98) to move a specified substrate (90) for the radiation between the source (32) and a detector (40) in the device (30) to define a weakened intensity of the photon beam, which has passed through the object (100) along the direction Z perpendicular to the plane (X, Y).

15. The method of using the device for the automatic determination of the density of the object (100), belonging to a party objects, according to any one of claims 1 to 14, the specified device includes a device (2) to determine significant size (x) of the object (100) and the device (30) for determining the intensity (I) of the photon beam, attenuated by passing through the specified object (100), characterized in that the method includes the following stages of calibration:
stage 1 for calibrating the position of the two blocks infrared radiation (4, 6 and 8, 10) in the device (2) to determine significant is the size of the objects (100);
stage 2 to calibrate the position of the substrate (90) for irradiation by gamma-spectrometric device (30)that is used to determine the intensity of the photon beam is weakened by passing through the object (100);
stage 3 for calibration node source-detector (32, 40) of the device (30) and the fact that the method includes the stage of the actual definition of a meaningful size (x) of the object (100)that are executed for each object (100) in the specified object.

16. The method according to item 15, wherein the first stage of calibration involves the insertion operator of a number of input parameters using the module dialog mode, and these options include:
the configuration of components that have a micrometric movement, including two actuator (76, 78),
the configuration of the turntable (70), in other words, the nature of the objects, which take on different locations on the turntable 70,
the position taken by the objects standard size edim, on the turntable (70),
the position of ZISMalong the direction Z of frame (26) of the device (2),
position Y(l) and Y(N), the bounding interval of the displacement of the first infrared node (4, 6) along the direction Y,
stage movement (INT) first infrared node (4, 6) along the direction Y.

17. The method according to item 16, wherein the first hundred who their calibration also includes the following operations:
a) moving the frame (26) along the Z-direction up to the position of ZISM,
b) the rotational movement of the rotary table (70) in order to transport the object of standard size edim up to its initial position measurement relative to the device (2),
c) moving the first infrared node (4, 6) along the Y-direction up to its original position Y(1),
d) the translational displacement of the first infrared node (4, 6) along the Y-direction with successive increments INT, removing it from the second infrared node (8, 10), fixed in position YFIXbetween the Y-positions(1) and Y(N), while the definition infrared response RI(n) of the object edim, in accordance with each position Y(n),
e) calculating the optimum infrared response RIORT,
f) calculation of the optimum position of YOPTthe first infrared node (4, 6) relative to the second infrared node (8, 10).

18. The method according to 17, wherein the operation (d) includes the following auxiliary operations:
d-1) rotational movement of the rotary table (70) in order to transport the object of standard size edim until the provisions of finite dimensions,
d-2) measurement of the infrared response RI(n) of the specified object standard size edim,
d-3) rotational movement of the rotary table (70) to generate the, to make the object of standard size edim in the initial position of the dimension.

19. The method according to 17, characterized in that the optimal infrared response of shorts get, using the ratio:
RIORT=1/2(RIMAX-RIMIN),
where RIMINmeans the minimum value of the saturation of the infrared response;
and RIMAXrepresents the maximum value of saturation of the infrared response.

20. The method according to 17, characterized in that the operation f) calculate the optimum position of YORTperform the following way:
if
then YOPT=Y(j)
if
then YOPT=Y(k)
where RI(j) and RI(k) represent two previously calculated values of the infrared response, between which is required for optimal response RIORTthat correspond to the two positions Y(j) and Y(k) of the first infrared node (4, 6), respectively.

21. The method according to item 15, wherein the second stage of calibration involves the insertion operator of a number of input parameters using the module dialog mode, and these options include:
the configuration of components that have a micrometric movement, including two actuator (96, 98),
the configuration of the turntable (70), in other words, the nature of the objects that take the location on the turntable,
the position taken by the objects emas, on the turntable (70),
the measurement of the length or time account,
position Z(1) and Z(N), limiting the interval of movement of irradiated substrate (90) along the Z-direction,
the number M of measurements of intensity of a beam of photons attenuated by passing through each object standard density for each position Z(i)accept the irradiated substrate, for i=1, ..., N.

22. The method according to item 21, wherein the second stage of calibration also includes the following operations:
a) the definition of significant size xemaseach object standard density emas,
b) the rotational movement of the rotary table 70 on the corner And in order to transport the specified object standard density emas in an intermediate position, in which the object will be captured by the capture device (80),
d) adjusting the actual position of the irradiated substrate (90) relative to the source (32) and is attached to the detector (40),
e) return transport object standard density emas on the turntable (70) with repetition of the same sequence of operations as described in the operations), but in reverse order.

23. The method according to item 22, wherein operation (C), the location of the object emas irradiated on the substrate (90), includes the following intermediate steps:
s-1) peremeshany the irradiated substrate (90) down along the Z-direction,
C-2) moving the gripping device (80) from the position of waiting in an upright position in accordance with the intermediate position of the object emas,
C-3) capture object emas-coupled device (80), followed by transportation of the object in the upright position in accordance with the upper face (92) of the irradiated substrate (90),
C-4) moving the irradiated substrate (90) up to the position Z(l), up and along the Z-direction,
C-5) lowering the object emas down on the top face (92) of the irradiated substrate (90), using a gripping device (80),
C-6) relocation and return of a gripping device (80) until the provisions of waiting,
C-7) cast the object emas in contact with the stopper on the top face (92) along the direction Y.

24. The method according to item 22, wherein the operation (d), the regulation of the actual position of the irradiated substrate (90) relative to the source (32) and is attached to the detector (40), includes the following auxiliary operations:
d-1) translational movement of irradiated substrate (90) along the Z-direction between two given positions Z(1) and Z(N),
d-2) for each position Z(i), i=1, ..., N, the irradiation object standard density emas beam of photons multiple (M) times, resulting in a range of values of the attenuated intensity I(i,j), where i=l,..., N means the number of consecutive put the nd Z(i), accept irradiated substrate (90), and j=1, ..., M denotes the number of exposures made at each position Z(i),
d-3) calculating the optimum position (ZORT) irradiated substrate (90), based on polynomial regression of the fourth order provisions Z(i) relative to the values of the attenuated intensity I(i,j), and this polynomial regression of the fourth order is defined and integrated into the data element of the device (200) for collection, processing and analysis of data.

25. The method according to item 15, wherein the third stage of the calibration measurement results in the device (30) for gamma-spectrometric determination includes the following automated operations:
a) measuring the intensity of Iemasbeam of photons attenuated by passing through the object standard density emas,
b) calculate the mass attenuation coefficient µmfor standard object density, and then for all objects in the set of objects, using the following ratio:

26. The method according to item 15, wherein the stage is the actual definition also includes:
stage 4 to determine significant amount x of the test object (100),
stage 5 for transporting the object 100 in the direction of the irradiated substrate (90),
stage 6 for adjusting the position of the object (100) by correcting for the ogene irradiated substrate (90) relative to the source (32) and is attached to the detector (40),
stage 7 to determine the attenuated intensity I of the beam of photons passing through the object (100),
stage 8 for the collection, processing and analysis of the obtained spectra,
stage 9 to determine the relative change Δρ/ρ the density ρ of the object (100), relative to the density of one or more objects standard density emas,
stage 10 for the reverse transport of the object (100) until its location on the turntable (70).

27. The method according to p, characterized in that in stage 4 to determine significant amount x of the test object 100, the operator enters a set of input parameters, using the module dialog mode, and these options include:
the configuration of the turntable (70), in other words, the nature of the objects, which take on different locations on the turntable,
location taken by the object (100) on the turntable (70),
the position of ZISMalong the direction Z of frame (26) of the device (2),
the number R of infrared measurements for each object of standard size edim(n), n=1, ..., N, where N is the number of objects of a standard size,
the number Q infrared measurement for the object (100).

28. The method according to item 27, wherein the stage 4 to determine significant amount x of the test object (100) also includes the following operations:
a) moving the frame (26) in instrument panel (2) along which upravleniya Z up to the position of Z ISM,
b) moving the first infrared node (4, 6) along the Y direction until position YISMspecified as: YISM=YOPT+(Xedim-XedimAVE), where
YORTmeans optimum position obtained at the stage of calibration 1,
Xedimrepresents the size of the object edim standard size used during the first stage of calibration,
XedimAVErepresents a significant average size of all objects of a standard size edim,
c) measuring the infrared response RI(p), repeated R times, R=1, ..., R N objects standard size edim(n), n=1, ..., N, which leads to a set of values RI(n, p),
d) the actual calculation of a meaningful size x of the object (100).

29. The method according to p, wherein stage (d) the actual calculation of a meaningful size x of the object (100) is performed as follows:
d-1) using polynomial regression 4-th order significant dimensions xdim(n) for each of N objects standard size edim, as a function of the average valueinfrared response of each object standard size edim(n) in order to calculate the coefficients And0, A1And2And3And4in relation of the following type:
xedim(n)=A4·(RIedimAVE(N))4+A3·(RIedimAVE(n))3+A2·(RIedimAVE (n))2+A1·(RIedimAVE(n))1+A0,
d-2) measured infrared response RI(q), repeated Q times q=1, ..., Q for the tested object (100), and calculating the average value ofthese infrared response, and the calculation of significant size x of the object (100) from the following equation:
x=A4·(RI)4+A3·(RI)3+A2·(RI)2+A1·(RI)1+A0.

30. Application device according to any one of claims 1 to 14 for testing the retrieved objects (100).

31. The application of article 30, in which the objects (100) are tablets of nuclear fuel.

32. Application of the method according to any of PP-29 to test the retrieved objects (100).

33. Use p in which objects (100) are tablets of nuclear fuel.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: nuclear power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of dimensions of nuclear reactor fuel elements is equipped with linear electromechanical drive with unit of automatic measurement of metering frame displacement value. Drive is fixed on the column. Device is equipped with guides with pneumatic drive for orientation of fuel assembly during loading and balloon cylinder mounted in seat-caliper, and device for generation of beams that are parallel to axis of fuel assembly represents laser units, which are installed on the foundation in boxes filled with sand, and are equipped with pendant compensators for automatic retention of beams in vertical position.

EFFECT: obtained for measurement of dimensions of nuclear reactor fuel elements.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: can be applied in burnup control of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the facilities storing or operating with SNF, in order to increase efficiency of SNF technological processing cycle due to the optimal configuration. During fuel burnup check fuel assemblies by gamma-ray spectrometric method burnup check process is combined with fuel assembly canisters unloading from transport. At that, fuel assembly canister is fixed, so that fuel assembly core centre is placed at the detection unit axis. Flux of gamma-ray radiation emitted by the whole fuel assembly core is passed through a collimator. Then, the flux of gamma-ray radiation is passed through dissipating filter, and photon gamma-ray radiation spectrum is measured. Peak of total energy of Cesium-137 radioactive nuclide with energy of 662 keV shows Cesium-137 content in uranium. The device for spent nuclear fuel burnup detection includes bridge crane actuator, gamma-ray dissipating filter, while collimator and detection block protection are united in a single protection monoblock. At that, the hole of the collimator is a penetration in the protection monoblock, and bridge crane actuator holds fuel assembly canister steadily against detection block.

EFFECT: fast detection of fuel burnup in fuel assemblies on industrial scale; higher efficiency of spent nuclear fuel processing and simpler construction of measurement plant.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to the instrumentation and may be used for determining parameters of bodies, mainly for remote determination of parameters of radiated fuel elements. According to the invention, for remote measurement of fuel element parameters, an empty grip is weighed and the sample held by the grip is weighed, in the air. After that, the sample and the grip are immersed in the working fluid and weighed after their immersion in the working fluid. The results are used for calculating the initial density of the working fluid. The fuel element held with the grip in the air is weighed. The fuel element with the grip are immersed in the liquid, to various depths, and weighed after each immersion. After that, the partial volume of the fuel element is calculated; the partial volume being the volume contained between the two successive cross sections of the fuel element coinciding with the surface of the working fluid in the vessel at two successive immersion stages; after that, this volume is used for calculating the average area of the fuel element cross section and the full volume of the fuel element.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of fuel element parameter determination.

1 dwg

FIELD: nuclear fuel production.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for detecting surface flaws on cylindrical pieces of equipment includes sequential delivery of piece of equipment under inspection to surface inspection position. Butt-end surfaces of piece of equipment delivered to inspection position are illuminated by radiating flux. Radiation detectors receive radiation reflected from butt-end surfaces. Images received from detectors are treated in analyzing device. Side surface of piece of equipment under inspection is illuminated by radiation flux passed at angle φ to normal to its surface. Image reflected at angle to normal equal to incident angle of radiating flux is received. Butt-end surfaces of piece of equipment under inspection are illuminated by radiating flux passed at angle α to normal to butt-end surface. Radiation reflected from butt-end surfaces at angle to normal equal to incident angle of radiating flux is received. Image boundaries of piece-of-equipment surfaces are determined in image frames by means of analyzing device using boundary tracing method. Same method is used to find surface flaw sections on surface images. Surface flaws are described by geometric figures. Surface areas of these figures are calculated. Type of flaws is determined, and decision is taken on fitness of piece of equipment under inspection basing on logic decision rules.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of on-line inspection of cylindrical pieces of equipment for surface flaws and their type.

1 cl 4 dwg

FIELD: nondestructive inspection of fissionable materials in irradiated nuclear fuel of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability of irradiated nuclear fuel inspection with respect to inherent neutron radiation, enlarged functional capabilities due to pre-identification of fuel assembly.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: nuclear power engineering; checking nuclear reactor fuel elements.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method involves following procedures. Welded joint between plug and fuel rod can incorporating spring is checked for condition by means of electromagnetic induction detector. Excess-energy formed welded joint loosens spring metal structure which can reduce electromagnetic coupling and level of detector-recorded signal. Criterion of fuel rod quality estimate is found by comparing peak values of signal and those of signal on straight-line section of curve.

EFFECT: enhanced quality control level of welded joint between plug and can charged with fuel pellets.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: nuclear technology; production of pelletized nuclear, mainly uranium-gadolinium, fuel for power reactors.

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EFFECT: enhanced product quality due to enhanced precision of main process control and measurement characteristics, facilitated procedure, simplified design of process hardware.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: nuclear power engineering; manufacturing and checking fuel assemblies mainly for water-cooled and water-moderated power reactors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus for measuring fuel assembly dimensions has column vertically mounted on base, turnbuckles, seat-gage to receive fuel assembly bottom nozzle, movable measuring frame with two diametrically opposite video cameras which is provided with inductive sensors, contactless sensors responding to measuring frame positioning at points of measurement, their quantity being equal to sum of measuring points for top nozzle, spacer grids, and bottom nozzle, and device generating beams parallel to fuel assembly axis. Sensors are brought to fuel assembly under measurement by means of air cylinders. Device generating beams parallel to fuel assembly axis has gas laser and set of mirrors, Beam generating device is disposed on vibration-damping base. The latter is isolated from column-supporting base as well as from turnbuckles and seat-gage. One of mirrors is semitransparent and is fixed in position at certain angle to vibration-damping base.

EFFECT: enhanced quality and reliability of fuel assembly dimensions measurement results.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: nuclear power engineering; production and application of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies at nuclear power stations.

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EFFECT: reduced cost and enhanced precision of experiment.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: nuclear power engineering; evaluating service life of pressurized-tube reactor and its graphite stack.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for evaluating service life of pressurized-tube reactor graphite stack includes step-by-step selective accelerated irradiation of graphite blocks, evaluation of limiting value of fluence as soon as graphite has acquired ultimate strength, and its comparison with fluence of graphite blocks of other reactor subchannels. Graphite blocks are subjected to step-by-step irradiation on running reactor in subchannels with power generation amounting to 90 - 100% of current maximum value attained for reactor; mean power level higher than average for reactor by 20 - 30%, but not higher than maximal admissible level, is maintained in them. Upon termination of each irradiation step strength of graphite blocks of selected subchannels is measured, service life of reactor graphite stack is evaluated as soon as they have reached permissible ultimate strength through margin of fluence by difference between maximum value of graphite block fluence in chosen subchannels measured for graphite brought to ultimate strength and fluence of graphite blocks in remaining subchannels of reactor.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of evaluating graphite stack life and its extension ensuring desired safety in reactor operation.

7 cl

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of process parameters measurement and control. Method and device may be used for measurement of electrolyte density in lead accumulators in composition of accumulator batteries diagnostics system by means of refractometric determination of function, for instance, of Lorentz-Lorentz, index of electrolyte refraction. Measurement of density consists in measurement of photodetector electric signal, which registers monochromatic flow of radiation reflected at the angle of 45° from flat surface of reference material, which is in permanent contact with accumulator electrolyte, measurement of electrolyte temperature and calculation of electrolyte density according to suggested formulas. Device that realises the method comprises refractometric detector, temperature detector and microcontroller, which calculates battery accumulator electrolyte by measured electric signals of detectors.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of measurements, automation, and also design simplification.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics, measuring.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns field of measuring of density of products with gamma radiation use. The essence lies in registering of backscattered radiation simultaneously in each of two channels of the detector and approximate function of a density function of radiuses of a start of quantums by exponential dependence. In relation to intensity of the account in two channels of the detector gain the integrated performance of impairment of backscattered radiation on radius on which bottom on the gauge diagramme of dependence of an integrated testimonial from of density at the given energy of radiation erect density of object of the control. The device contains scintillator in the two-channel detector, executed in the form of a disk from two rings of different diameters. The ring of smaller diameter in which the ring block of a radiation protection at which centre the gamma radiation radiant is disposed is interposed is interposed into a ring of greater diameter. Each of two ring scintillators is supplied by a ring pulse counting device. The radiant in the radiation protection channel has possibility to change a standing by means of the device of travel of a radiant.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics, instrumentation technology.

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EFFECT: improved accuracy of mass flow metering along with design simplification.

28 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: nuclear engineering; non-destructive inspections in nuclear fuel (pelletized fuel) production.

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EFFECT: enhanced measurement accuracy, operating reliability, and environmental friendliness in pellet manufacture.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises pipe for flowing the fluid, source of photons mounted at one of the ends of the pipe, and detector of photons for receiving the photons passing through the pipe in the longitudinal direction. The pipe has the first and second axially aligned straight sections mounted from the opposite sides of the source of photons. Each measurement section receives appropriate photon from a pair. The detectors mounted at the other ends of the measurement sections receive photons from the pairs. The density of the fluid is judged by the number of coincident photons.

EFFECT: enhanced precision.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of updated gasket materials from graphite tape, foil, strips or sheets.

SUBSTANCE: thermally expanded graphite powder is rolled into cloth, 0.1-10 mm thick. In the course of rolling, cloth is subjected to nondestructive testing by means of one or several pairs of measuring sensors placed along its width; each pair of sensors includes transmitting and receiving sensors which are placed on either side of cloth; They are subjected to electromagnetic radiation at frequency of 103-106 Hz and phase shift angle relative to phase of oscillations of wave falling on specimen is measured. Frequency of oscillations is fixed. For obtaining enhanced accuracy of measurements, correcting pair of sensors may be mounted in parallel with measuring sensors. Present density of material is determined by calibration graph of material density versus phase shift angle which is plotted before measurements. At plotting the graph, density of material is determined by direct weight method. Thus, rolling parameters are corrected according to results of determination of present density.

EFFECT: improved quality of flexible material; immediate elimination technological malfunction.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology, in particular to a device for measuring the density of bulk materials and bodies of arbitrary shape, and may find application in various industries such as chemical, food, pharmaceutical, etc

The invention relates to non-destructive testing methods using ionizing radiation, namely the radioisotope gauges density fuel pellets for power reactors

FIELD: manufacture of updated gasket materials from graphite tape, foil, strips or sheets.

SUBSTANCE: thermally expanded graphite powder is rolled into cloth, 0.1-10 mm thick. In the course of rolling, cloth is subjected to nondestructive testing by means of one or several pairs of measuring sensors placed along its width; each pair of sensors includes transmitting and receiving sensors which are placed on either side of cloth; They are subjected to electromagnetic radiation at frequency of 103-106 Hz and phase shift angle relative to phase of oscillations of wave falling on specimen is measured. Frequency of oscillations is fixed. For obtaining enhanced accuracy of measurements, correcting pair of sensors may be mounted in parallel with measuring sensors. Present density of material is determined by calibration graph of material density versus phase shift angle which is plotted before measurements. At plotting the graph, density of material is determined by direct weight method. Thus, rolling parameters are corrected according to results of determination of present density.

EFFECT: improved quality of flexible material; immediate elimination technological malfunction.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

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