Measurement method for flatness deviation

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flatness measurement technique and deviation determination at flat surfaces with different square area and length, in particular for testing, installation and marking-off plates made of cast iron or stone. Invention can be used in different areas of engineering. Effect is reached due to emission of horizontal collimated laser beam by measurement instrument with stationary installed emitting device; receiver contains optical target sign with cross and vernier installed at vertical measurement scale with feature of motion in vertical plane. In the beginning real horizontal auxiliary plane is created by laser beam turning; level of this plane is fixed against readings of linear scale and vernier received at receiver adjustment against optical axis of emitter by means of alignment of optical target cross with central point of collimated laser beam. Readings of linear scale and vernier received during such alignment are accepted as zero mark for further setting and measurement. Then moving receiver without realignment to at least two outermost points located at work surface of plate and aligning cross of receiver's optical target sign with central point of emitter's collimated laser beam by means of vertical regulation of plate level in each of these points work surface of plate is set in parallel to horizon and to auxiliary plane and measurements of flatness deviation are made in received system of two mutually aligned real parallel surfaces by means of plate sections movement into leveling points of receiver only and determination of vertical deviation for cross of target sign to one or another side from auxiliary surface level against linear scale and vernier of receiver.

EFFECT: setting of real horizontal auxiliary plane, accurate setting of basic plane in parallel to auxiliary plane and horizon and obtainment of mutually aligned system to make adjustments and measurements based on these two planes really parallel to each other.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to techniques for measuring and determining deviations from flatness of flat surfaces calibration, installation and marking of plates made of cast iron or stone (granite). The invention can be used in various fields of engineering.

A known method of measuring the deviations of the surfaces of the plates from flatness, the implementation of which as measuring devices use a bubble level mounted on the measuring carriage, and microcephaly mounted on a removable base carriage. A measurement device in the measurement process move along the surface of the plate, creating Micronesia angle from the horizontal plane in two adjacent (100-200 mm) of the surface points. Measurements are performed along the diagonals of the plate, around the perimeter, along the transverse and longitudinal cross sections (2-3 measurements at each measuring point). The obtained angular values translate in a linear, mathematically define the auxiliary plane, which then also by calculations determine the deviation from flatness at the measuring points ("recommendation. State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Plate calibration and marking. The test procedure. MI 2007-89". The USSR state Committee on management of quality of products and with whom the standards, Moscow, 1990, p, C.11).

The disadvantages of this method are the lack of accuracy of the installation plate horizontally on slab level, located in the center of the plate, the task of theoretical auxiliary plane is not related measurements, obtaining unrelated measurements at the point of leveling, the need to shift the entire measuring device at the point of leveling, the need for a large number of measurements obtaining measurements in the angular values and the need for a large number of calculations for the transfer of angular parameters in linear, to build a support plane and determining deviations of the intermediate points on the plate surface from flatness.

Also known a method of measuring the deviations of the surfaces of the plates from flatness, in which the measuring devices use the device with a flat head, which is in the process of measurement is moved over the surface of the plate and which measures the height of the point with respect to the two previously measured. Measurements are performed along the diagonals of the plate, around the perimeter, along the transverse and longitudinal sections. Then spend processing of measurement results, mathematically determine accessories is second plane, which then also by calculations determine the deviation from flatness at the measuring points ("recommendation. State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Plate calibration and marking. The test procedure. MI 2007-89", the USSR State Committee on the management of quality and standards, Moscow, 1990, p, p.14, p.24).

The disadvantages of the method are theoretical task of the auxiliary plane is not related to the measurement results, the need to shift the entire measuring device at the point of leveling, the need for a very large number of measurements and calculations for constructing auxiliary plane and determining deviations of the intermediate points on the plate surface from flatness. Another disadvantage of this method is the necessity of instrument settings on the control bar GOST 22601 according to the measurement procedure. When measuring Subramanya plates under the tip of the indicator, and in some cases and under support devices it is necessary to enclose the end of the measure according to GOST 9038. Thus, introduces an additional surface, and thus increases the probability of random errors in the measurements, which reduces the accuracy of measuring deviations from flatness.

Closest to the claimed technical solution technical with whom snasti is a method of measuring the deviations of the surfaces of the plates from flatness, where as the measuring device, consisting of radiating and receiving devices use the autocollimator and a flat mirror that is part of his kit. The autocollimator in this way is mounted on a rigid support, ensuring the stability of the angular position of its optical axis, the axis is directed along the audited section of the reference plane. A mirror placed on the measuring table, set on the scanned section of the reference plane and adjust the optical axis of the collimator. During the measurements, the mirror is moved along the audited section of the reference plane in the direction of the autocollimator. The reference plane is the working surface of the inspected plate, pre-mounted in horizontal position on slab level, located in the center of the plate. Deviations from flatness are captured by the deviation of the mirror from the optical axis at the measuring points. By means of the collimator determines the deflection angle of the mirror reflected beam at the measuring points of the reference plane. The results, expressed in angular terms, translated into linear. First measurements are performed along the diagonals of the plate and by mathematical calculations set the auxiliary plane. Then carry out measurements on the perimeter, along the transverse and longitudinal cross sections, and also the by calculations determine the deviation from theoretically specified auxiliary plane at the measuring points. At each new section of the plate reinstall all the measuring device (autocollimator together with support) and re-configure it ("recommendation. State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Plate calibration and marking. The test procedure. MI 2007-89", the USSR State Committee on the management of quality and standards, Moscow, 1990, p, p.9 and p, p.15-17).

The disadvantages of this method are the lack of accuracy of the installation plate horizontally on slab level, building a support plane mathematically in no way related to each other measurement points leveling diagonals if not identical overrides measuring device and deviations from flatness at the measurement points of the diagonals of the plate, as well as the need to shift the measuring device along each new section of the plate and the new reconfiguration of the emitting and receiving devices, unrelated to the previous settings, the need for a large number of measurements obtaining measurements in the angular values and the need for a large number of calculations (for the transfer of angular parameters in linear to build a support plane and to determine deviations of the intermediate that is EC of the plate surface from a reference plane).

The objective of the invention is to improve the efficiency and objectivity of measuring deviations from flatness.

The technical result, which provides the invention is the job of the real horizontal support plane, accurate installation reference plane parallel to it and the horizon and on the basis of these two real parallel planes interconnected system for carrying out settings and measurements. The invention also eliminates steps for changing and reconfiguring the entire measuring device on each new section of the plate. In addition, the invention eliminates the need for multiple measurements at each measurement point and eliminates the stages of mathematical calculations (for each measuring point when the transfer of angular parameters in linear, when defining a support plane and in the determination of the magnitude of the deviations from flatness).

This technical result, the proposed method is achieved by a measuring device, consisting of radiating and receiving devices, in which the emitting device used laser level with a collimated laser beam, and as the host of the device containing the optical target sign, sealed with a Vernier, the plant on the vertical linear measuring scale. Moreover, the optical target sign fastened with a Vernier so that its cross-hair coincides with the zero mark of the Vernier, and a radiating device is permanently installed on a separate fibrosawomen stable support with the possibility of rotation of the beam around the vertical axis and subsequently no longer tolerated and, as the receiving device after it has been set on the optical axis of the emitting device is reconfigured. Obtained using this measurement device, the measurement results are expressed in linear units. In the proposed method all measurements and settings are realized by means of a horizontally installed collimated laser beam emitting device of the measuring device and configured according to the optical axis of the receiving device. The receiving device, installed at one point of the perimeter of the working surface of the inspected plate, set on the optical axis horizontally installed collimated laser beam by combining the optical center of the crosshairs of the target mark of the receiving device with the Central point of the collimated laser beam emitting device. Horizontally disposed auxiliary plane set by turning the laser beam emitting device. The level layout of the auxiliary plane relative activities is but check plate is fixed during configuration of the receiving unit along the optical axis of the collimated laser beam. The division of the measurement scale, which thus coincides zero risk of Vernier is taken as the zero point for subsequent adjustments and measurements. The installation of the working surface of the plate, which is the reference plane, at the same time parallel to the horizon and parallel to the support plane carried out in the following way: without changing settings, in turn, exhibited move to the zero position of the receiving device of the measuring device in the most remote point of the perimeter of the plate. The collimated laser beam emitting device target optical target mark of the receiving device. Then in each of these points jacking devices scanned plates choose vertical deviation of the optical center of the crosshairs target mark from the level of the auxiliary plane passing through the optical axis of the beam emitting device. Selecting deviations, at least in the three most distant from each other the points plate, thereby establish its working surface at the same time parallel to the horizon and parallel to the support plane and get a reference plane for measuring deviations from flatness. As emitting device is mounted on a separate support stationary, then after the action of the auxiliary plane will that the same be recorded configured by the host device in any other point of the check plate, after it is installed in a horizontal position on the receiving device. It is enough to establish the desired point on the receiving device, the Vernier is set to the zero reference point and the target sign is oriented in the direction of the radiating device to rotate the beam in the direction of the receiving device and to align its axis with the cross sign. Deviation from flatness is measured directly on a linear scale with a Vernier host device, moving it around the sections of the base plane measurement points and determining deviations of the crosshair optical target mark from the level of the auxiliary plane. This is done by setting the receiving instrument at the measurement points, the combination of a Central point of the collimated laser beam with a vertical axis of the crosshair optical target sign, sampling vertical deflection (in one direction or another, if available) powered by Vernier mechanism to align the center point of the beam with the center of the crosshairs and then read the testimony of the variance in the linear dimension along the measuring scale and the Vernier measuring device.

A significant difference from the prototype is the job via a measuring device real horizontal support plane, the exact setting basic plosko and parallel to it and the horizon and receive on the basis of these two planes and measuring devices interconnected system for carrying out settings and measurements. This system suggests a new procedure for the implementation of this method, as substantially different from the prototype. This procedure involves initially fixed installation emitting device of the measuring device and installation parallel to the horizon is collimated laser beam, the subsequent task by means of this beam and the receiving device measuring device horizontal support plane, by configuring the receiving device to the optical axis horizontally installed collimated laser beam and fixing the level of its location, the installation according to this fixed level of the working surface of the inspected plate, which serves as the reference plane, at the same time parallel to the horizon and parallel to the support plane and measuring deviations from flatness without reconfiguring the measuring device by moving in the leveling point of the cross sections of the plate, only the receiving device and determining the vertical deviations of the center of the crosshairs target sign in either direction from the level of the auxiliary plane on a linear scale and the Vernier host device.

The proposed method is illustrated by the scheme shown in figure 1, and the drawing of the host device, the measuring device is VA, presented in figure 2.

The method is as follows. Installing the measuring device, consisting of radiating and receiving devices: emitting device 1, which applies laser level with a collimated laser beam 2, mounted on a separate, fibrocaseous, steady base 3, and the receiving device 4 on the working surface 5 of the audited mounting (calibration or marking) plate 6. The receiving device 4 includes carrying pad 7, a vertically installed it linear measuring scale 8 has mounted on it a movable Vernier 9 and fastened with a Vernier optical target mark 10 with the crosshair. Moreover, the optical target mark 10 is bonded with a Vernier 9 so that its cross-hair coincides with the zero mark of the Vernier 9, and a radiating device 1 mounted on a support 3 fixed to rotate a beam 2 around the vertical axis until the end of the measurement is not tolerated. After installation, the beam 2 emitting device 1 set parallel to the horizontal plane and directed toward the optical target mark 10 of the receiving device 4. Moving the receiving device 4 and the plate 6, combine the vertical axis of the crosshair target mark 10 with the Central point of the collimated laser beam 2. Then, by moving the movable Vernier 9 target znakom along the scale 8, combine the Central point of the beam 2 with the center of the crosshairs of the target mark 10. This action ends the setting of the measurement device. The division of the measuring scale 8, which thus coincides zero risk of Vernier 9 is taken as the zero reference point when measuring deviations from flatness, while retaining the level (distance D in figure 1) the location of the horizontal support plane 11 defined by the rotation of the beam 2. Configured in this manner, the receiving device 4 is moved alternately in the most remote from each other leveling points located on the perimeter of the working surface 5 of the plate 6, aiming at the same point the beam 2 emitting device 1. After you install the host device 4 in each of the leveling points plate 6 using the jacking mechanisms (figure not shown) rises or falls until, until the center of the crosshairs of the target mark 10 does not coincide with the Central point of the collimated beam 2. So, establish the working surface 5 of the check plate 6 at the same time parallel to the horizon and parallel to the support plane 11. So established a working surface 5 of the plate 6, passing through the calibrated leveling point and interconnected with auxiliary plane is the reference plane for the performance of the measuring deviations from flatness. The receiving device 4 is installed in at least the three most distant from each other, the points of the working surface 5. After you configure the measuring device, job support plane 11 and the installation reference plane begin to inspect the working surface 5 of the plate 6 or the actual measurement of the deviations of the surface from flatness. The measurements are carried out in accordance with the plan of the working surface of the plate 6 is at the point of intersection of the transverse and longitudinal cross-sections (points leveling), placed at equal distances from each other. For this purpose, the receiving device 4 sequentially set at the measuring points (leveling), combining the Central point of the collimated beam 2 with a vertical axis of the crosshair optical target mark 10. Then drive mechanism 9 Vernier choose deviations (in either direction) to align the center point of the beam 2 with the optical center of the crosshairs of the target mark 10 and read the indications of deviations (d in figure 1) in the linear dimension along the measuring scale 8 and 9 Vernier receiving device 4.

An example of practical use of this method of measuring deviations from flatness by using a measuring device consisting of a laser emitter and optical-mechanical receiving device serves its implementation of the production conditions of the Irkutsk aviation plant branch of OAO Scientific production Corporation "Irkut" in the workshop of master-feeder snap. Measurements and repair of cast-iron plates of size 30002000 mm, designed for mounting nodes standards and stocks. Class plate - 3, the maximum difference between the highest and lowest points of the working surface of the plate is not more than 0,14 mm as emitting device used laser level NL-05. The measurements were performed with a step of 250 mm. On the measurement results revealed that the stove is the difference between the highest and lowest points of the working surface is 0.20 mm According to the results of measurements made on repair plate (dabrowka) at identified points deviations from flatness. The difference increased to 0.08 mm, which corresponds to the second class according to GOST 10905-86. Because unlike the prototype method allows directly without preliminary calculations to determine the value of the variance, repair plates were made simultaneously with measurements.

A method of measuring the deviations of the surface of the plates from flatness, including the installation of a working surface of a plate serving as a reference plane in a horizontal position, the installation of measuring devices by installing emitting device of the measuring device on a separate rigid support, and the receiving unit of the measuring device on the measured base PLO the bone, configuring the receiving device to the optical axis of the emitting device, setting a reference plane, the further movement of the host device along the surface sections of the base plane at a point leveling, and getting at these points of evidence deviation of the working surface of the plate from the level of the auxiliary plane, characterized in that by means of the measuring device emitting device which is permanently installed and radiates horizontally mounted collimated laser beam and the receiving device includes an optical target mark with a cross-hair, fastened with a Vernier mounted on a vertical linear measuring scale can be moved in a vertical plane, first ask real horizontally disposed auxiliary plane generated laser the beam during its turn, and record the level of its location on the testimony of the linear scale and Vernier, obtained by tuning the receiving device to the optical axis of the emitting device by combining the optical center of the crosshairs target mark with the center point of the collimated laser beam, obtained by taking this testimony linear scale and the Vernier at zero point for subsequent adjustments and measurements, then moving the host when the PRS without reconfiguring at least in the two most remote from each other point of the working surface of the plate and by combining vertical adjustment of the level of arrangement of the plates in each of these points is the center of the crosshairs optical target mark of the receiving device with the Central point of the collimated laser beam emitting device, set the working surface of the plate parallel to the horizon and parallel to the support plane, and measuring deviations from flatness spend in the resulting interconnected system of two real parallel planes without having to reconfigure the measuring device by moving in the leveling point of the cross sections of the plate, only the receiving device and determining the vertical deviations of the center of the crosshairs target character in one direction or another from the level of the auxiliary plane on a linear scale and the Vernier host device.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring unit which has prod, platform with through opening where measuring unit is installed. Prod is capable of touching surface to be measured and of moving at plane being perpendicular to measured surface and along direction of measurement. Platform is provided with three supports for installation. As measuring unit the linear shift detector is used, which detector has light source, illuminating two diffraction gratings. One of gratings is measuring, being tightly connected with prod, and the other one is additional grating. Detector also has photoreceivers. Supports are made of materials having low temperature expansion coefficient. Supports provide three-point installation of platform onto surface; they are disposed in vertexes of triangle in such a way that one catheter of triangle is parallel to one side of platform.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; reduced limitations in size of surface to be measured; accelerated measuring process; widened working temperature range.

4 dwg

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