Heat exchanger and method of its application
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. The proposed device allows heat exchange between fluid medium and gas and comprises the casing, at least, one flat screen carcass made up of several heat-conducting-material capillaries arranged in parallel and equidistant relative to each other, and several heat-conducting-material wires connected to aforesaid capillaries to transfer heat via metal contacting, and pass at equal distance and crosswire relative to capillaries. The distance between wires approximates to that of their diametre. Gas flows along the wires to transfer heat to fluid medium that flows in capillaries, through capillary walls and via wires. The heat exchanger design allows the gas flowing along each screen carcass, lengthwise relative to the wires, and prevents flowing of a notable amount of gas through screen carcasses. The hothouse comprises soil surface with plants arranged thereon or in bearing pots, cultivation chute and, at least one heat exchanger. Note here that one gas inlet or outlet holes is located above leaf surface, while the other one is located below the said level, or both holes are located within the limits of the said surface. At least one heat exchanger purifies air. Several heat exchangers make the central heating system. Thermal pump system incorporates the heat exchanger.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and simplified servicing.
28 cl, 11 dwg
The invention relates to a heat exchanger.
Such a heat exchanger described in patent JP 61-A (Kokai) and EP 0735328 A.
In heat exchangers, known from these publications, the gas flows through the mesh of the skeleton formed from the capillaries and wires. When the gas is flowing through the heat exchanger, overcomes significant hydraulic resistance. To overcome such hydraulic resistance requires the use of a fan directing the gas stream through the heat exchanger. The cost of electric energy, necessary for this purpose, reduce the performance of the heat exchanger.
In addition, in mesh cages known heat exchangers is impossible to prevent the accumulation of precipitated dust occurring in a very short period of time. In this regard, the design characteristics of the heat exchanger can be temporarily restored only by conducting maintenance activities or reverse purge gas and, thus, cleaning of the sieve frame.
The present invention is to significantly improve the characteristics of the heat exchanger type and creating heat exchanger, essentially maintenance-free.
To solve this problem is proposed a heat exchanger of the above type in which to make the population of the heat exchange between the fluid medium, representing a fluid such as water or a mixture of vapor of liquid and gas, such as air, containing a casing with inlet and outlet ports for gas inlet and outlet for the fluid, at least one essentially flat net frame, which contains multiple capillaries of heat conducting material, for example of tin-plated copper, parallel and equidistant with respect to each other, and a few wires from heat conducting material, for example of tin-plated copper, which is connected with the capillary with heat transfer by conduction t, preferably with the implementation of the metal contact and are equidistant relative to each other in the transverse direction relative to the capillaries, and the distance between the wires is of the order of magnitude of the diameter of the wires, under the action of the device, causing the gas in motion, the gas may flow along the wire to effect the heat transfer between the gas and fluid medium flowing through the capillaries, through the wall of the capillaries and through wires, characterized in that the heat exchanger is made so that the gas flows along each of these mesh cages in a longitudinal direction relative to the wires, while prevented from leaking, at least, essentially the part of the gas through the mesh frames.
Possible practical implementation of the heat exchanger, which contains the input and output reservoirs between which pass through the capillaries, so that through the capillaries and these collectors may leak fluid.
The wire may come into contact with adjacent capillaries alternately one and the other sides of the capillaries, while the adjacent wire or group of wires in contact with other parties capillaries in relation to nearby wires or groups of wires, so as a result, these wire or group of wires are intertwined.
Two groups of wires can be held in the two main planes in mutually parallel direction, while the wire of each group are in contact with the same side of the capillaries. Wire attached to the capillaries not by interlacing, and attach them parallel to each other on both sides of the capillaries. In comparison with the design, the corresponding paragraph 3, construction, according to paragraph 4, has a significant advantage consisting in that the distance between the Central axes of the capillaries can be significantly reduced, which improves the heat transfer. For example, the heat exchanger 3 can correspond to the detailed description set out in paragraph 13 and the heat exchanger section 4 can be performed soglasnoplanu description set forth in item 14.
The inlet manifold has at least one gap or tube, and an output collector has at least one gap or tube, is placed at an offset relative gap or tube in the inlet manifold so that fluid entering through the inlet the inlet manifold is routed sequentially through the first inlet manifold, the group attached capillaries, the first intermediate collector, a second group of capillaries and so forth, and finally through the output manifold, and moving in a zigzag path, fluid flows in one direction in one group of capillaries and in the opposite direction in the next group of capillaries. The inlet manifold may also form part of the output collector for the previous group of capillaries, at the same time, the output collector can form part of the inlet manifold further group of capillaries. Obviously, arranged in a line corresponding collectors must be insulated from each other, because in the process of working between them still exists a temperature difference. Capillaries are formed from a single capillary tube zigzag shape, with each end of each capillary is connected through a curved section of the U-shaped Fort is s with the end of the nearest capillary, and the ends of the capillary tube is attached to the corresponding pipes of the sewers.
The capillaries can be formed from a single capillary tube zigzag shape, with each end of each capillary is connected through a curved section of the U-shaped with the end of the nearest capillary, and the ends of the capillary tube is attached to the corresponding pipes of the sewers. The capillaries are connected to each other in series, with the input and output manifolds are not used, and the fluid in the adjacent capillaries flows in mutually opposite directions. This embodiment causes a greater flow resistance to the fluid than, for example, running under paragraph 5 of the formula, but it has the advantage that its implementation rather use a very small amount of fluid. In particular, in the case where this fluid is a hazardous substance, such as freon used in air conditioning systems, propane and the like, the amount of fluid in the heat exchanger, even if it contains a large number of mesh frames may be negligible, and this amount is, for example, only a few tens of milliliters. When using the collectors to the number of fluid inside the heat exchanger is substantially increased and is, for example, liters. Potentially it is possible that the heat exchanger does not meet regulatory requirements and, therefore, unacceptable for the selected application.
Curved sections of U-shape with both sides of the mesh frame aligned and mechanically connected to each other via a reinforcing profile, material which has low thermal conductivity. In some circumstances it is necessary for mechanical reinforcement, as zigzag capillary tube has a very limited mechanical rigidity.
Each collector consists of a pipe with perforations, which are tightly inserted the ends of the capillaries. In the corresponding collector pipe perforations can be made in any suitable way. You can apply, for example, drilling, punching using a punch or similar tools or drilling jet. Instead of punching holes in the pipe wall of the air channel can be provided to a slit-like non-through cuts, obtained, for example, by vacuum forming or injection molding, in which is fixed a U-shaped knee so that the mesh frames of the heat exchanger become hard and in between are the same intervals.
Pipes can be made of metal, nab the emer of tin-plated copper, and the capillaries are connected with each pipe by soldering with soft solder at a temperature of approximately 300°C or by brazing at a temperature of 500°C.-800°C. Brazing may be due to local heating to a temperature of about from 500 to 800°C. thus, a very simple and known by get a very strong connection that can withstand the high pressure of the order of 15-20 bar, which take place in the chiller compressor and air conditioning systems. The same advantage is obtained when carrying out the invention according to paragraph 6, which, thanks to its properties, can very easily withstand these high pressures.
Each capillary may be made of tin-plated copper at the ends of each capillary tube before soldering, hard soldering cleared from tin, for example, by anodizing in an aqueous solution of NaOH or HCl. Can be taken into account also other possible ways of treatment before coating of tin. However, anodizing can be carried out simply, quickly and reliably.
Each collector may be a tube made of a thermoplastic material such as polypropylene, polyethylene, ABS or ethylenepropylene, and capillaries essentially hermetically connected to the pipe by running the pipe from the ne side of the slot in the longitudinal direction, hold the ends of the capillaries and melting in these parts of the pipe material by means of local heating.
Each of the capillaries may have an outer diameter of approximately 1.8 mm ±30%, and the capillary wall thickness of approximately 0.4 mm ±40%.
The distance between the Central axes of the capillaries may be approximately 10 mm ±40%.
The distance between the Central axes of the capillaries may be in the range from about 4 mm to 16 mm
The diameter of the wires may be 0.12 mm ±50%. In particular, treated tin-plated copper wire. Copper is a metal with high thermal conductivity. In this respect, it is better to use silver wire, but silver has the disadvantage that is significantly greater value of this metal. Suitable material for the wires may also be aluminum. However, despite the large value of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of aluminum, it is still less than the coefficient of thermal conductivity of copper. In addition, aluminum wire, it is difficult to reliably connect with the implementation of metallic contact with the capillaries so as to ensure the transfer of heat by conduction. In the case of copper, tin-plated, this connection can be easily realized by soldering. In the process of manufacturing the mesh is th frame, consisting of capillaries and wires, made of tinned copper, can be heated above the melting temperature of tin. In the soldering in the zones of contact adhesion.
The main direction of the fluid flow is opposite to the direction of gas flow. The heat exchanger can operate in countercurrent mode. As is known, the counter provides the highest efficiency of heat exchange, in particular greater than in the case of cross-flow, described, for example, in earlier publications, referred to in the beginning of this description. In paragraph 16 of course, we must take into account that the heat exchanger is not current in the literal sense of the word, and "effective" counter-current, when in reality, the capillaries are arranged in the transverse direction relative to the direction of gas flow, but the temperature difference between adjacent capillaries corresponds to a counter-current stream.
The heat exchanger can contain multiple flat net cages, held by means of the spacer elements in parallel and equidistant with respect to each other. Obviously, the input of each mesh cages need to be connected to the output of other net frames, for example, by using a common mains input call the Torah. Outputs mesh cages need to be connected to each other via the primary output of the collector.
The spacer elements may be are adjacent to each other, the input and output manifolds. According to paragraph 18 of the spacer elements can serve as collectors. Between these collectors are local temperature difference, so they must be insulated from each other. However, net frameworks and associated reservoir is preferably identical and are connected to each other in all respects parallel. Therefore, there is no fear of unintended heat transfer and, consequently, thermal insulation between the reservoir is not necessary. Distantsiruyasj elements may be held in contact with each other in a known manner. When this net frames can be, for example, formed in a stack, and distantsiruyasj elements are pressed to each other by means of a clip.
The spacer elements may be adjacent to each other reinforcing profiles. The heat exchanger has no collectors, but on each side of the net frame is provided with a reinforcing stiffness profiles. In addition, these profiles can serve as spacer elements. The wall of the air channel may also have geometric times the minimum level, in which slit-like notches hold the U-shaped bend capillaries in their specified position.
The heat exchanger may have a fan to bring the gas in motion.
The casing is made and located so that it performs the function of an exhaust pipe in which the gas moves through natural convection. To improve plant growth in the greenhouse often add exhaust gases containing CO2removed from the installation for the combined production of electric and thermal energy. Pulses of flow of these gases can be used to maintain the natural draught in the heat exchanger.
Known industrial greenhouse cool in the Sunny hours of the day by opening Windows on the roof of the greenhouse. This is an effective method not only to replace the hot internal air cooler external air, but, in addition, to enable necessary for crops to water evaporation occurring due to the substitution moist internal air drier outside air. However, the opening of the Windows of the greenhouse in practice is associated with the risk of infection with flying insects and leads to the loss of almost all of the irrigation water needed by plants.
Windows can be kept closed, and the greenhouse cooling water, for example, ground water. This grunto the water output in the greenhouse is heated, and it must be cooled, for example, at night or in the winter, and therefore has the ability to store the heat abstracted from greenhouses in the period when it is necessary cooling. To implement such a workflow is typically used heat pump, such as used in air conditioning systems, which are in accordance with the prior art equipped with a standard heat exchangers in the form of tube bundles with plate fins, the tubes of the heat exchanger is leaking fluid and the outside of the pipe wrap around the air flow. The heat pump can re-cooling the heated ground waters and designated uses heat to heat the greenhouse at night and in winter. This saves fuel if during these periods, the greenhouse is heated by burning fuel. It should be noted that fuel savings are low and investment is high, and therefore in the absence of additional benefits or government subsidies on energy savings, the following workflow is not acceptable from an economic point of view.
In patent document NL 9301439-described heat exchanger with thin wires. Such heat exchangers sparingly can transfer heat from water to air or from air to water, when the temperature difference between them is only 3-5°C. It is important to note that for this operation the heat exchangers use the amount of electrical energy, equivalent to only a few percent of the transferred heat. This means that the heat pump or cooling unit is no longer required, and the energy savings increases significantly. The result can be saved a significant amount of fuel normally used for heating. At the time of publication of the cited document, it was considered a breakthrough in technology impact on the climate.
In patent document NL 1012114 With the described heat exchanger using thin wires and provided with radial fan type. The fan is enclosed by panels or mesh cages formed from reticulated structure consisting of thin copper wires that serve as a base, and copper capillaries used as weft. In this structure, each wire is soldered to each capillary panel or mesh frame. In addition, all the capillaries attached to the inlet water manifold and the outlet water manifold, which have the shape of a toroidal tubes arranged around the fan. In accordance with the above known analogue of the air blown between the panels or mesh cages. This is at least partially corresponds opican the mu above the principle of cross-flow.
For cooling greenhouses such heat exchangers can be installed below the level of the plants so that they do not prevent the fall on plants of sunlight. The cooled air from the heat exchanger it is necessary to blow up in order not to change the direction of the hot air on the opposite who seek to rise in the greenhouse on top of the cold air. However, such heat exchangers have a number of disadvantages. In particular, for several of these heat exchangers, if they are connected to each other, is difficult to regulate the temperature of the water outlet. In addition, it is difficult to regulate the supply water temperature from different capillaries in a single heat exchanger. However, it is necessary to precisely adjust the temperature difference of water for accumulation of heat removed from the greenhouse. Thus, in accordance with the described prior art for each of the heat exchangers required its own electronic unit, which adjusts the fan speed so that you can always provide the optimal value of the temperature difference between inlet and outlet water. When the annular configuration described above is known of the internal heat exchanger capillary transferred more heat flow from the ambient air flow than the capillaries that are located closer to vneshnepolitcheskih heat exchanger, so even in a single heat exchanger raises the problem of flows of water with different temperatures that are mixed with each other.
For the above known heat exchanger is required casing spiral shape, which changes the radial or tangential direction of the outcoming air flow so that air movement in the greenhouse can be controlled. A heat exchanger in accordance with the present invention, requires only a conventional casing, in which, for example, on the input side are placed the fan, creating and directing the air flow through the heat exchanger. Unlike circular annular heat exchangers with spiral casing of the heat exchangers according to the invention, can be made narrow and placed in a long row between the posts supporting the roof of the greenhouse. With this arrangement, they do not occupy space that can be used for the cultivation of plants.
The greenhouse contains the earth's surface, forming a leafy canopy of the plants supported by the ground surface or through the supporting means, such as pots, the supporting shelf and the cultivation troughs, and means of heating and cooling at least one heat exchanger according to any one of the above embodiments of the heat exchanger, with one of the input or output is th holes for gas is located above the level of the forest canopy, and the other of these holes is located below the level of the forest canopy, or both openings are located within the forest canopy.
The greenhouse may contain a heat accumulator for temporary accumulation of excessive warmth.
In the greenhouse heat accumulator can be performed multilayer.
In the greenhouse means of heating and cooling can be adapted for connection to a water-bearing stratum, i.e. the permeable stratum containing water. In summer for cooling air in the greenhouse can be used water from the aquifer, and the heated water in the greenhouse for some time may again accumulate in the aquifer. In winter, the accumulated heat is again extracted from the aquifer and is used for heating the air in the greenhouse.
Installation for air cleaning contains the means of heating and cooling at least one heat exchanger according to any one of the above-described embodiments.
Central heating system contains several established among consumers of heat exchangers according to any one of the above-described embodiments.
System with a heat pump comprising a heat exchanger according to any one of the above-described embodiments.
Below is the description of the invention with some specific person who values the possible applications of the heat exchanger, corresponding to the invention, and the manner in which it can be made.
It is known that plants, which are contained in the greenhouse, very positive closure of the greenhouse and keep it closed to prevent loss due to cooling and loss of supplied carbon dioxide. In addition, can be produced by spraying the plants with pesticides, you can reuse irrigation water, using air, you can perform the pollination of plants and you can keep the humidity at the desired high level. All these aspects provide a lower cost of production of the products obtained in the greenhouse, and increase output of products.
Studies conducted in recent years showed that the optimal choice of parameters for improved modern greenhouses are a relative humidity of 90%, the concentration of CO2equal to 1000 ppm, a closed roof and install with the cooling capacity of 600 W/m2.
Summer from circulating in the greenhouse air, groundwater, may be transferred to a significantly larger amount of heat (as provided in accordance with paragraph 25)than is necessary to heat the greenhouse during cold nights in the winter season. Maximum air temperature in the greenhouse is about 30°C, at the same time, the minimum temperature is RA is about 19°C. The task, therefore, is cooling, heat preservation and heat without the use of a heat pump. However, using known heat exchangers with finned tubes it can't be implemented, as it became clear during the tests, conducted in the Netherlands (specifically in Themato, Naaldwijk) in 2003-2004. The above-mentioned task, however, can be solved by means of heat exchangers made with wire that has been demonstrated by extensive research conducted in Huissen (nl) in 2005-2006. Investments in closed greenhouse is determined by the maximum energy of solar radiation per unit area per unit time in the summer, i.e. component approximately 600-700 W/m2and this energy must be removed by cooling with water, which is only 10°C colder air. This requires the use of a non-trivial design decisions on the basis of the heat exchanger corresponding to the present invention.
Below you will find brief information about the processes of heat exchange and condensation in the greenhouse.
Criterion Stanton is a quotient of the heat transfer coefficient on the product of specific heat, density and air velocity. In conventional heat exchangers with finned surface of the exchanger is Jena criterion Stanton has a value, approximately 0.002, significantly less than the coefficient of friction f fanning steynfild, minimum value which is equal to 0.02. For a long time it was believed that the ratio (St/Pr1/3) (the so-called attitude of Chilton-Colburn) can never exceed an amount equal to f/2, because of the homology of a differential equation, which determines the hydraulic resistance (based on the transfer of momentum and heat transfer to a flat surface. If the heat exchanger is made with flat net frames using thin wires and provided a high degree of accuracy of their equidistantly, you can get St≥f and it is even possible that St=2f. In addition, it was found that the criterion for St heat exchanger with thin wires is a constant value, even when intensive condensation of water vapor on the wires. This is a significant difference from the heat exchanger with finned surface heat transfer, which under these conditions, as expected, covered with a film of condensate which creates resistance to heat flow. For the proper functioning of the heat exchanger of this film needs to blow off at regular intervals. Around a thin wire condensate film to be formed can not. Instead it makes a number of very small droplets, resembling dew on nithety spider. When the distance between the wires is accurate given the size of these droplets of condensate are transported to the capillaries, which are attached to these wires, and into the drainage device. This is very surprising and unexpected result, which was identified in practice in the greenhouse and confirmed by the measurement results, suggests that the heat transfer coefficient reaches a value equal to 500 W/(m2·To), which should be compared with the corresponding amount constituting only 25 W/(m2·) Received in a tubular heat exchanger with finned surface heat transfer. Hereinafter will be briefly discussed the heat transfer from water to copper. For reasons of economy and practicality, the capillaries, to which is attached a thin wire, have an external diameter of about 2 mm and an inner diameter of 1 mm (see paragraph 12 of the formula). In a hot and humid greenhouse with economical speed of air flow in the heat exchanger component of a few meters per second, for heat exchange between cooling water and the inner wall of these capillaries, as well as to transfer heat by conduction along thin wires, it is necessary distance between the longitudinal axes of the capillaries of the order of only 4-6 mm. It makes the tangle of wires unattractive, because between each of the number of neighboring Capella the s be the intersection of twisted wires. In this position, the wires are very close to each other, which leads to low efficiency of heat transfer to the flow of ambient air. So much more effectively the location of the wires in the two groups parallel to each other on each side of the capillaries and thereby crossing wires in the mesh structure are excluded.
A significant portion of the cost of the cooler for greenhouses is the process of introducing thousands of capillaries in subcollector, ensuring integrity, with a view to their messages in a fluid environment, which is usually water. In order to save each collector may be made in the form of low-cost polyethylene pipes. Effective design with the use of a header of a thermoplastic material described in paragraph 11. Polyethylene is very cheap and available material. Some minor leakage from the greenhouse to the atmosphere does not represent a problem. Water, in the end, is available in abundance.
Another advantageous solution consists in choosing the diameter of each of subcollector, i.e. collector of one of the heat exchanger, with the distance between the Central axes of the mesh frames, equal desirable. Subcollector, tightly placed in contact with each other, can result to form the wall of the air channel. In this regard, the following is the duty to regulate to give a reference to paragraphs 17 and 18 of the formula.
As installed, to use the temperature difference between the inflowing and the resulting water is very advantageous to store heat in the subsoil and, in addition, to use a large temperature difference of the incoming and outgoing air. This reduces air flow and, consequently, the required fan capacity, to improve the condensation by lowering the temperature below the dew point and to equalize the temperature difference between water and air across the heat exchanger.
This result may be achieved in accordance with paragraph 5 of the formula by blocking the flow of water (in the General case, the fluid flow) in General, three to five times in the pipes of subcollection located on both sides of the net frame, in order to create a forced flow of water with an effective counter-current with respect to the air flow. The optimum amount theoretically necessary places blocking tubes (NTU) of the heat exchanger is approximately 1 and, if a passage for flow blocked more than once, you tube, blocking the flow of water in the pipe, can be a little flowing water without too much reduction in the effective NTU. It is important to realize the specified block is an odd number of times so that it was possible to implement two open end on one subcollector and two closed end at the other.
The distance between the Central axes of subcollection equal to the diameter of subcollection, and as a result it is impossible to connect all subcollector with two identical main inlet and outlet manifolds. You must use four of the collector, i.e. two input manifold and two output manifold so that between the holes, which connect the ends of subcollection, there was a gap. The main reservoirs and subcollector, can be made of plastic, for example polyethylene, and provided with perforations, the diameter of which is less than the external diameter of subcollection, so these subcollector can be pressed into these perforations. This connection is a very simple connection, proven technology of drip irrigation. Then briefly discussed the problem of preventing corrosion.
In countries with water scarcity, the greenhouse is often irrigated with treated wastewater, which is directed from the installation for the purification of urban waste water. This purified water contains volatile ammonia, which causes corrosion of tin-plated wires. Corrosion is prevented in case the air flows upwards. Condensate flow always flows down, and in the case of the flow of air up the front end of the heat exchanger with condensation always remains free from to the of densata, preventing corrosion catalyzed by ammonia.
The following briefly discusses the various aspects of the use of the heat exchanger corresponding to the invention, in systems with a heat pump.
The coefficient of performance (efficiency) of the heat pump, such as used for air conditioners and sometimes for heating of premises, largely depends on the temperature difference in the evaporator and condenser.
Currently known heat exchangers cannot be used directly for the fluid, which is vaporized and condensed in a heat pump. Flat copper collectors are not able to withstand high pressure, so for safety purposes, connect the capillary from the reservoir should be carried out using brazing. Cm. in this regard, paragraph 9 of the formula.
For pressures greater than 4 bar required metal collector in the form of a pipe of circular cross section, to which the capillary is attached by brazing at a temperature of, for example, equal to 500°C. Such soldering may not be implemented for capillaries with a length of only 15 cm, since in this case there are too many ends of the capillaries, require brazing. In this regard, one of the main tasks is to deal with the problem. Proposed re the giving is in the process, the relevant paragraph 6. The flow rate of the fluid in this case is much less than in the case of water temperature difference between inlet and outlet of a few degrees Celsius, because the number of the latent heat of the phase transition is much more. Even if the capillary length is several meters high, the pressure drop in two-phase fluid does not hinder the good work of the heat exchanger.
On the basis of these long zigzag bent pipes to use weave for mounting wires is not possible. The width of the machine to weave not big enough, and the interweaving of the long capillary thin wires, the number of which is more than 1000, with moving the machine back and forth to duck technically unfeasible. Therefore, in order to cover an area the size of, for example, 15×15 cm with a distance between the Central axes of the capillaries, for example, equal to 12 mm, it is necessary to give a long capillary tube zigzag shape of mutually parallel, equidistant spaced capillaries, and in the end, a wire mesh cage with only two end sections instead of the mesh frame with thirty integral parts, to which shall be attached collectors, each of which has thirty perforations. These limit castke cleaned for subsequent plating by electroplating in an acidic or basic medium and then added to the appropriate collector using brazing.
After that, a wire mesh cage can be attached by brazing to the thin copper pipes of circular cross section, which carry the working fluid medium to the compressor and from the compressor.
All air conditioners are currently working with finned tube heat exchangers, which contain rigid copper pipes. Otherwise, if another execution pipes, they can bend or warp under the influence of the efforts of the pressure required to press on these pipes aluminum fins. The evaporator and the condenser, thus, have a very significant amount of the working fluid. For security reasons, a large number of the working fluid may not be flammable. For this reason, the use of fluorinated and even chlorinated compounds, which, however, are problematic from the point of view of environmental protection. In the heat exchanger with thin wires corresponding to the present invention, the large diameter pipes are not used, and because of the small internal volume, you can use propane or butane, and the total active volume of the working fluid can be reduced to minimal proportions, for example up to volume tanks, intended for liquid gas lighters, which are widely available for purchase and Vlada so small, what is considered completely ognezashita. Very small volume of heat exchanger is provided, in particular, by the construction, the relevant paragraph 6 of the formula.
Flat net frame size, for example, 15×15 cm, with two thin end, is not mechanically strong enough. Therefore, all curves with a turn of 180° between adjacent capillaries should be fixed. For this purpose, use a rigid structure that holds the mesh structure in place. In this connection, it should refer to paragraphs 7 and 19.
Finally, below is a brief overview of the different aspects related to heat areas.
In cold weather, Central heating densely populated countries is a very effective heating method. The waste heat produced during electricity generation is used here at the lowest possible temperature, while building or subscriber stations are similar to condensers for steam turbines. Water temperature in the return pipeline networks Central heating currently accounts for approximately 40 to 50°C. it would be very beneficial to lower this temperature is, for example, to 25°C. In this case could be heated twice more buildings with the same water flow rate and at a lower steam pressure in the condenser, Thu is possible to increase the efficiency of electric energy production. These suggestions can also be implemented using a heat exchanger corresponding to the present invention.
The temperature of the water supplied to the Central heating system, often is 100°C. the water Temperature in the return pipe can be scheduled is equal to from 25 to 27°C. the Difference between these temperatures is large enough to use very long capillaries and to give the heat exchanger of the same form, which can be used for direct connection to the evaporator or condenser of the air conditioner.
Long tubes, such as used in Central heating systems exposed to hydraulic shock. The heat exchanger in accordance with the invention, is characterized, for example, in paragraphs 6 and 9, can withstand very high pressure.
Using the above-described structure, the air can be heated, for example, up to 50°C, and for this purpose may be provided with the necessary number of seats blocking the flow of NTUin subcollector, thereby to exhaust the heat exchanger of the necessary warmth is very little air flow and, therefore, can be selected fan with a very low noise level. From the point of view of conformity available volume of the indoor heat exchanger can be designed narrow, aprimarily 15 cm, length of 1 m and a height of 15 cm, can be used silent fan with low speed and with the provision of the transverse motion of the air relative to water movement.
The present invention below will be disclosed with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Figure 1 shows a heat exchanger in accordance with the present invention, a perspective view with a partial cutout;
figure 2 schematically shows a cross-section of the heat exchanger presented in figure 1;
figure 3 shows a perspective view of part of the structure of the sieve frame heat exchanger, in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention where multiple wires for clarity are not shown;
figure 4 shows a transverse section along the line IV - IV of figure 3;
figure 5 shows a variant of the design shown in figure 3, a perspective view;
figure 6 shows a cross section along the line VI - VI of figure 5;
7 shows a wire mesh cage of the heat exchanger, in which a group of capillaries connected with the formation of zigzag passages, perspective view;
on figa shows a longitudinal section of the site design of the arrow shown in Fig.7;
on Fig shows a variant of a design corresponding to Fig.7;
on figa shows a longitudinal section of the site shown by the arrow on Fig;
figure 9 shows another variant is HT embodiment of the invention, illustrated in Fig.7 and Fig;
figure 10 schematically shows a cross-section of the greenhouses in accordance with the invention;
figure 11 shows a schematic illustration of the use of the cooling system with heat exchanger corresponding to the present invention.
Figure 1 shows a heat exchanger 1 in accordance with the present invention. The heat exchanger 1 is provided with a housing 2 with an inlet 3 for air and the outlet 4. In the input hole 3 is an axial fan 5.
Inside the casing 2 has two input manifold 6 and two output collector 7. The collectors 6 and 7 are connected through respective subcollection 91, 92 with the capillary 8, placed groups of mesh frames. The capillary 8, which pass from the inlet manifold 91 to the outlet manifold 92, attached to the intermediate reservoir 9 serving as, respectively, the output manifold and the inlet manifold. Figure 2 shows how through the inlet 3 by means of the fan 5 in the casing 2 blown air 63. The air flows along the capillary 8 and leaves the casing 3 via the outlet port 3 (arrow 64). Water flowing through the capillaries, heated air, 63, 64, which in turn is cooled by water. It should be noted that for clarity in figure 1 and figure 2, the e as in figures discussed below, is not displayed by a thin wire, which are important structural elements of the heat exchanger according to the present invention.
Figure 3 shows a portion of a flat mesh frame heat exchanger made in accordance with the invention. Capillaries 8 are mutually parallel and equidistant, and the distance between their Central axes is 12 mm Thin wire 10 is intertwined with the capillary 8.
Figure 4 explains this design. The distance between Central axes of adjacent spaced appropriately wires 10 may be equal to or larger diameter wires 10.
Figure 5 and 6 shows an alternative implementation in which the wire 10 is not intertwined with capillaries and form two groups, which are mutually parallel are arranged on both sides of the capillary 8.
Obviously, to implement the construction according to figure 3 and figure 4, you must perform the weave. However, it is relatively slow, which makes mass production of such heat exchangers is problematic. For making easier the heat exchanger, shown in figure 5 and 6. At the present time, it is obvious that for mass production it is more acceptable.
The capillary 8 is made of copper, and their outer surface covered with a layer of tin. Also copper wire and covered is at the forefront of tin. Therefore, to implement in a short period of time between the capillaries and the wires intense metal contact with the heat transfer is sufficient soldering operation with local heating.
It is important to note that the distance between the Central axes of the capillaries 8 in figure 3 and 4 must be greater than the distance between the Central axes of the capillaries 8 figure 5 and 6. This is due to the fact that the operation weave for construction according to figure 3 and figure 4 imposes a lower limit determined by the technical possibilities. At the same time for a design corresponding to figure 5 and 6, this lower limit does not exist. Therefore, the heat exchanger according to figure 5 and 6 it is easier to perform with dimensions corresponding to the selected structural requirements.
7 shows that the capillary 8 is inserted in tinned copper pipes, serving as a reservoir, and connected with them by means of soldering with soft solder. Flat net frame 21 of the heat exchanger in accordance with 7 includes four sections 22, 23, 24 and 25. The inlet manifold 26 is connected with five capillaries 8, in which the fluid medium flows in the direction shown by the arrow 127, to the manifold 27, which is also connected with a group of five capillaries 8 section 23, in which the fluid flow moves in the direction shown by the arrow 128, i.e. in the opposite direction to the speaker 29. Then the stream flows through five capillaries to the collector 30 of the section 24, which is in section 25 and, finally, five capillaries passes to the outlet manifold 31. The entrance for the fluid shown by arrow 32, and the output of the fluid shown by arrow 33. The movement of the fluid in the collector pipes are also shown by arrows. The air flow indicated by the reference position 64. As can be seen, the air passes on each side of the flat net frame 21 along the wires 10.
On figa presented in an enlarged scale a cross-section of the node on which it is shown that between the collector pipes that are on the same line, there are gaps. In those places where these breaks are considered collector pipes are closed by plugs, indicated by position 34. In addition, the same tubes closed ends of the tubes 27 and 30.
On Fig presents a variant that implements the same function. Depicted on the figure of net framework 35 of the heat exchanger operates in the same manner as a wire mesh cage 21, but the collector pipes 41 and 42 are made of polyethylene or other thermoplastic material having low thermal conductivity. In the manufacturing process in each tube with one hand, make a slit in the longitudinal direction, after which it place the ends of the capillary 8 and melted at this point, the pipe material by Loka is inogo heating so the capillary 8 is tightly connected to both the collector pipes 41, 42 as shown Fig. Instead breaks and tubes 34, used in the variant shown in figa, in accordance with Figo in a certain place pipe place one tube 43. The ends of the pipes 41 are closed with plugs.
Figure 9 shows the flat net frame 51 of the heat exchanger according to an important alternative embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment, the capillary 8 is formed from a single capillary tube, which give a zig-zag profile, with each end of each of the capillaries connect through a curved section 52 of the U-shaped form, with the end of the adjacent capillary. These curved sections of U-shaped form, located on both sides of the sieve frame 51, aligned and mechanically connected to each other by appropriate strengthening core elements 53, 54 with low heat conductivity, made for example from plastic. The input section 101 and the output section 102 a capillary tube forming the capillary 8, and sections 52 of the U-shaped joining with the ability to withstand high pressure by means of brazing to the respective collectors (not shown), which in the same way, attach other net frameworks heat exchangers.
Figure 10 on the azan greenhouse 11 with heat exchangers, relevant to the present invention. Greenhouse 11 includes a floor 12, which is spaced plants 95 in pots, or they are supported at some distance from the floor using, for example, roller conveyor 61. Plants 95 form a canopy, which depends on the nature of plants and the stage of its growth. For the convenience of images of different leaf canopies shown generally by broken lines 62. It is clear that leaf canopies may not be limited to the strict boundaries and can demonstrate a significant difference between the heights of the plants, even within the same canopy.
Greenhouse 11 has a translucent, preferably transparent, roof 13, through which the sun's rays 96 may fall on the leaf chamber 62. Between plants 95 posted by the heat exchangers 1, corresponding to figure 1. In this embodiment, the 63 air is sucked into the heat exchangers 1 near the floor 12, is directed along a flat mesh cages heat exchangers (see figure 1 and 2) and is cooled or heated by the water passing along the vertically stretched wires 10. Then the air is blown upward as shown by arrows 64, in the direction of the upper part of the greenhouse 11.
It should be noted that the heat exchanger can be used without fan 5, i.e. through the use of shell-like exhaust pipe, one end of which is held in faiths who have both been part of the greenhouse 11, and the other end is located near the floor 12. In this implementation of the casing may be a natural craving, which saves energy on the fan motor 5.
Figure 11 shows part of the construction of the greenhouse, where in the intermediate zone between the transparent sections of the roof 13 is a chute 71. This chute is installed pipe 72, made of a film and having a number of perforations 73. This pipe is filled with exhaust gases of a gas turbine used for cogeneration of electricity and thermal energy. It should be noted that in a gas turbine, these gases contain only 4% CO2. Thus, there is a large amount of gas, the pressure at the outlet of the turbine may be 3600 PA. This corresponds to the speed of the exit stream of 50 m/sec. Consider the air flows out of the perforations 73, shown by arrows 74, and enters the "reverse exhaust pipe 75, the top of which is placed a heat exchanger 76, corresponding to the invention. The design of the heat exchanger mainly corresponds to the design shown in Fig.7. Through pipe 77 for supplying cooling water cooling water admitted from the bottom side of the heat exchanger, is heated and divert heated via the output pipe 78. "Reverse exhaust pipe 5 is made, for example, polyethylene film.
Due to the natural version of the deadlift and its maintenance using the resulting gases 74 is effective cooling of the hot exhaust air from the upper part of the greenhouse (see the arrows 79), and the cooled air is blown from the bottom, as shown by arrows 80.
1. A heat exchanger for performing heat exchange between the fluid medium, representing a liquid, such as water, or a mixture of vapor of liquid and gas, such as air, containing a casing with inlet and outlet ports for gas inlet and outlet for the fluid, at least one essentially flat net frame, which contains multiple capillaries of heat conducting material, for example of tin-plated copper, parallel and equidistant with respect to each other, and a few wires from heat conducting material, for example of tin-plated copper, which is connected with the capillary with the possibility heat transfer by conduction, preferably with the implementation of the metal contact, and are equidistant relative to each other in the transverse direction relative to the capillaries, and the distance between the wires is of the order of magnitude of the diameter of the wires, under the action of the device, causing the gas in motion, the gas may flow along the wires to complete the heat transfer between the gas and fluid medium, flowing through the capillaries, through the wall of the capillaries and through wires, characterized in that the heat exchanger is made so that the gas flows along each of these mesh cages in a longitudinal direction relative to the wires, thus prevented the flow of at least a substantial portion of the gas through the mesh frames.
2. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains the input and output reservoirs between which pass through the capillaries, so that through the capillaries and these collectors may leak fluid.
3. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that the wire is in contact with the adjacent capillaries alternately one and the other sides of the capillaries, while the adjacent wire or group of wires in contact with other parties capillaries in relation to nearby wires or groups of wires, so as a result, these wire or group of wires are intertwined.
4. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that two groups of wires are held in the two main planes in mutually parallel direction, while the wire of each group are in contact with the same side of the capillaries.
5. The heat exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the inlet manifold has at least one gap or tube, and the output Kollek, the PRS has, at least one gap or tube, is placed at an offset relative gap or tube in the inlet manifold so that fluid entering through the inlet the inlet manifold is routed sequentially through the first inlet manifold, the group attached capillaries, the first intermediate collector, a second group of capillaries and so on, and finally through the output manifold and moving in a zigzag path, fluid flows in one direction in one group of capillaries and in the opposite direction in the next group of capillaries.
6. The heat exchanger according to claim 4, characterized in that the capillary is formed from a single capillary tube zigzag shape, with each end of each capillary is connected through a curved section of the U-shaped with the end of the nearest capillary, and the ends of the capillary tube is attached to the corresponding pipes of the sewers.
7. The heat exchanger according to claim 6, characterized in that the curved section of the U-shape with both sides of the mesh frame aligned and mechanically connected to each other via a reinforcing profile, material which has low thermal conductivity.
8. The heat exchanger according to claim 2, characterized in that each collector is a tube with a perforation from what Artemi, which is hermetically inserted the ends of the capillaries.
9. The heat exchanger according to any one of p or 8, characterized in that the tube is made of metal, for example of tin-plated copper, and the capillaries are connected with each pipe by soldering with soft solder at a temperature of approximately 300°C., or by brazing at a temperature of 500-800°C.
10. The heat exchanger according to any one of p or 8, characterized in that each capillary is made of tin-plated copper at the ends of each capillary tube before soldering, hard soldering cleared from tin, for example, by anodizing in an aqueous solution of NaOH or HCl.
11. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, wherein each collector is a tube made of a thermoplastic material such as polypropylene, polyethylene, ABS or ethylenepropylene, and capillaries, essentially, is hermetically coupled to the pipe by running the pipe on one side of the slot in the longitudinal direction, hold the ends of the capillaries, and melt in these parts of the pipe material by means of local heating.
12. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the capillaries has an external diameter of approximately 1.8 mm ±30%, and the capillary wall thickness of approximately 0.4 mm ±40%.
13. The heat exchanger according to claim 3, characterized in that the distance mitozantrone axes of the capillaries is approximately 10 mm ±40%.
14. The heat exchanger according to claim 4, characterized in that the distance between the Central axes of the capillaries is in the range from about 4 to 16 mm
15. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that the diameter of the wires is 0.12 mm ±50%.
16. Heat exchanger according to claim 11, characterized in that the main direction of the fluid flow is opposite to the direction of gas flow.
17. Heat exchanger according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 7, characterized in that it contains several flat net cages, held by means of the spacer elements in parallel and equidistant with respect to each other.
18. The heat exchanger 17, characterized in that the spacer elements are adjacent to each other, the input and output headers.
19. The heat exchanger 17, characterized in that the spacer elements are adjacent to each other reinforcing profiles.
20. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a fan to bring the gas in motion.
21. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that the casing is made and located so that it performs the function of an exhaust pipe in which the gas moves through natural convection.
22. Greenhouse, containing the earth's surface, forming a leafy canopy of the plants supported by the ground surface or through the supporting means, the same is how the pots, the supporting shelf and the cultivation troughs, and means of heating and cooling at least one heat exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 21, or one of the inlet or outlet for the gas is located above the level of the forest canopy, and the other of these holes is located below the level of the forest canopy, or both openings are located within the forest canopy.
23. A greenhouse on p.22 containing heat accumulator for temporary accumulation of excessive warmth.
24. A greenhouse on item 23, in which the heat accumulator is made of a multilayer.
25. A greenhouse on p.22, in which heating and cooling are adapted for connection to a water-bearing stratum, i.e. the permeable stratum containing water.
26. Installation for the purification of air containing means of heating and cooling at least one heat exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 21.
27. Central heating system, containing several established among consumers of heat exchangers according to any one of claims 1 to 21.
28. System with a heat pump comprising a heat exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 21.
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely may be used at manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing of heat exchanging finned tubes, manufacturing of a frame, at least one heat exchanging section with lateral walls and interconnecting beams, manufacturing of chambers of input and output of gas, packing the bundle of heat exchanging tubes, manufacturing of collectors of input and output of gas, a supporting construction for the apparatus with supports for the engines of the ventilators and assembling of the elements of the apparatus. At that each lateral wall of the heat exchanging section is fulfilled in the shape of a channel with shelves inverted to the heat exchanging tubes and located on the interior surface of the channel's wall longitudinally oriented by dispersers-cowls of the flow of cooling environment forming the channel's ribs of rigidity which are installed in accord with the height of the channel's wall with a pitch in the axles corresponding to the double pitch between the rows of the tubes in the bundle. At that at least part of the volume of each marginal tube in the row and/or its finning is placed at least in a row under the overhang of the channel's shelf corresponding to the lateral wall of the heat exchanging section of the apparatus. At that the support for the engine of each ventilator consisting out of a central supporting element and tension bars is fulfilled suspended connecting it with corresponding bundles of the supporting construction of the gas air cooling apparatus.
EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of assembling the apparatus and its elements at simultaneous decreasing of labor and consumption of materials and increasing thermal technical efficiency of the heat exchanging sections and reliability of the apparatus in the whole due to manufacturing walls of heat exchanging sections allowing to use to optimum the heat exchanging volume of the section and to optimize the feeding of the exterior cooling environment to the tubes at the expense of reducing energy waists for feeding the exterior cooling environment with excluding the necessity in reverse cross-flows in the wall zones of the chambers and combining of functions of the chambers' elements providing the indicated thermal technical effect and simultaneously increasing rigidity of the frame of the heat exchanging sections.
13 dwg, 23 cl
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely may be used at manufacturing of heat exchanging apparatus particularly at manufacturing of gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing and mounting of heat exchanging sections with chambers of input and output of gas and with a bundle of heat exchanging finned tubes, collectors of input and output of gas and supporting construction of the apparatus with supports for the engines of the ventilators. At that the support for the engine of each ventilator is made suspended consisting of a central supporting element and tension bars connecting it with corresponding bundles of the supporting construction of the gas air cooling apparatus. At that the central supporting element is fulfilled in the shape of a many-sided socket with a supporting site with a central transparent opening for the engine of the ventilator and connected with it and between themselves the supporting and connecting plates forming lateral edges of the socket interchanging along its perimeter supporting and connecting plates. The supporting plates are fulfilled with configuration corresponding to the configuration of supporting sites of tension bars of end plots predominantly rectangular inverted to them, the supporting plates are located with possibility to contact along its surface with the surface of the supporting site of the end plot of corresponding tension bar. The connecting plates are fulfilled in the shape of pairs of identical trapezes inverted with their smaller foundations to the supporting site for the engine of the ventilator. At that the trapeze of each pair is located diametrically opposite to each other and the central supporting element is fulfilled preferably on the slip.
EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of the gas air cooling apparatus, to simplify the assembling of its elements at simultaneous decreasing of men-hours and material consumption and increase reliability and longevity of the manufactured construction due to simplification of manufacturing of supports for the engines of the ventilators and the supporting construction of the apparatus as a whole and using for manufacturing of the elements of the apparatus of the technological rigging developed in the invention that allows to increase accuracy of assembling and to reduce labor-intensiveness.
15 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering namely it may be used at manufacturing of heat exchanging apparatus particularly for manufacturing of heat exchanging sections of gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus envisages manufacturing and assembling of a frame of a heat exchanging section, a chamber of input and a chamber of output of cooling gas with upper, lower walls, lateral walls forming correspondingly tube and exterior plates with openings, gables and at least one power bulkhead, assembling the walls of the heat exchanging section with wall dispersers-cowls of the flow of the exterior cooling environment predominantly of air, packing the heat exchanging section with a bundle of heat exchanging finned, single passing tubes with their installation in the heat exchanging section in rows along the height with dividing the rows with elements on different distances and fixing the ends of the tubes in the openings of the tube plates. At that the number n on a meter of the width of the transversal section of the bundle of the heat exchanging tubes is taken out of condition where FT - arelative total square of the heat exchanging surface of the bundle of finned tubes falling on 1 m2 of the square of the transversal section of the flow of the heat exchanging environment predominately of air taken in the diapason 72,4<FT < 275,8, a stretched magnitude; D1- a diameter of a heat exchanging tube with finning, m; D2 -a diameter of the same heat exchanging tube without finning, m; Δ -the thickness of the fin of the finning or an average thickness of a fin, m; Β - a pitch of the fin of the tube, m.
EFFECT: allows to decrease labor-intensiveness of manufacturing and assembling of a heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus at simultaneous increasing of heat exchanging effectiveness and manufacturability due to optimization of the quantity of heat exchanging tubes in a bundle and as a result of mass of elements of the chamber of input and of the chamber of output of gas namely tube and exterior plates, optimal number of openings in which their mass is decreased at simultaneous security of demanded solidity and longevity of separate elements of a heat exchanging section and as a result of the whole gas air cooling apparatus.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering and namely is used for manufacturing of heat exchanging equipment particular for gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a tube chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or a section of the gas air cooling apparatus fabrication of half-finished articles out of metallic sheet for lateral, upper, lower and butt-ends walls and for no less than two power bulkheads of the tube chamber with openings for passing of a gas flow. At that the length of the half-finished articles for lateral walls are fulfilled correspondingly the width of the apparatus or of the section of the apparatus. All half-finished articles are fabricated for the lateral walls with fulfilling chamfers for welding. At that at least the chamfers on the half-finished articles for the lateral walls forming the tube and the exterior plates of the chamber and also the chambers on upper and lower walls are fulfilled of broken configuration in the transversal section with forming support regions and edges of a welding mouth with a technological angle of opening-out 41-53°. After fabrication of half-finished articles an in series assembling and connection on welding of lateral walls with power bulkheads are executed and trough them a united rigid construction to which the upper and the lower walls are connected is formed. After that in one of the lateral wall forming a tube plate openings for the ends of the heat exchanging tubes openings are made and in the other lateral wall forming an exterior plate threading openings coaxial with the openings in the tube plate are fulfilled for providing possibilities of introduction of technological instruments for fixing the ends of the tubes in the tube plate and the subsequent installation of caps predominantly along the thread in the openings of the exterior plate and in the upper and/or in the upper walls openings for sleeves predominantly with flanges for connection with a collector of feeding or for offsetting of gas are fulfilled. At that the power bulkheads are installed in a high range making up ±1/4 of the high of the chamber counting from medium horizontal flatness along the height of the chamber, and the gables of the chamber are mounted after installation and fixing of the ends of the heat exchanging tubes of the chamber.
The tube chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or the section of the gas air cooling apparatus, the gas input chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or the section of the gas air cooling apparatus and the gas output chamber of the gas air cooling apparatus or of the section of the gas air cooling apparatus are manufactured in accord with the above indicated mode.
EFFECT: allows to decrease the labor-intensiveness of the mode, increase manufacturability of the measuring chambers and improve their strength characteristics and thermal efficiency.
15 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in energy engineering namely in the technology of manufacturing and construction of heat exchanging sections of a gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing of a heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus includes manufacturing predominantly on a loft of the lateral walls of the frame of the
section with wall displacers-cowls of air environment, assembling on a slip with support poles of the elements of the frame of the section - lateral walls, lower transversal beams and gas input-output chambers forming gables of the frame and also of frame rigidity elements with the following packing of the multi-row bundle with single-passing finned heat exchanging tubes with forming with them and the gas input-output chambers of a vessel working under pressure, installation of upper transversal beams and carrying out hydraulic tests of the assembled section. At that the terminal poles of the slip are executed with locating their leaning sites at different levels with height difference making ( 1,1-4,6)d, where d - an interior diameter of a tube of the bundle and at assembling the frame the gas input-output chambers are installed on the final poles of the slip.
The heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus is fabricated in accord with above indicated mode. The mode of manufacturing of the heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus includes manufacturing on the loft of the lateral walls of the frame of the section with wall dispersers-cowls of air environment, and also elements of rigidity of the frame, assembling on the loft with support poles of the elements of the frame - lateral walls , lower transversal beams and forming gables of the walls of the frame of the chambers of input-output of the gas and also of the elements of rigidity of the frame with following packing of the multi-row bundle out of single-passing finned heat exchanging tubes forming with their help and the gas input-output chambers of a vessel working under pressure, installation of upper transversal beams and carrying out of hydraulic tests of the assembled section. At that the low and the upper transversal beams of the frame of the section are installed along the length of the lateral walls with spacing overall of height marks, equal (0,12-),51)d, where d - an interior diameter of the tube of the bundle and cuts of different height predominantly for dimensions of the transversal section of the chambers are made for installation of gas input-output chambers on the final plots of the lateral walls in the upper belt and the overall part of the height of the walls. The heat exchanging section of the gas air cooling apparatus is characterized with the fact that it is manufactured in accord with this mode.
EFFECT: allows to increase manufacturability of fabricating of the heat exchanging sections at simultaneous lowering of metal consuming of construction, simplification of the process of fabricating and lowering labor-intensiveness.
13 cl, 10 dwg .
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in the field of heat exchange-and-power engineering namely in heat exchanging apparatus of the type of a gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the heat exchanging apparatus of the type of a gas air cooling apparatus has an arrangement for drawing off and feeding into the zone of the bundle of heat exchanging tubes of exterior heat exchanging environment fulfilled in the shape of a vessel open from the side of the gables. The vessel is formed in the zone of location of the heat exchanging tubes with the help of lateral and gables walls of the heat exchanging section of the apparatus and a multi-row bundle of heat exchanging tubes. At the input it is fulfilled with multi-mouth section formed by the mouths of the casings of ventilators for feeding the cooling environment . Each of them has a baffle with a round transversal section in the zone of locating the ventilator and a multi angular predominantly rectangular transversal section in the zone adjoining to the heat exchanging section c with at least two opposite edges adjoining to the corresponding contact plots of the lateral walls of the heat exchanging section. AT that the lateral walls from the interior side of the vessel are provided with longitudinal cowl-displacers in the shape of the elements forming in the vessel extensive projections at least on the most part of the length of the interior wall of the vessel and the gables of the vessel are formed with the help of the tube plates of the gas input-output chambers of the heat exchanging section at least at the part of their height making up 0,5-0,85 of the height of the lateral walls. The tube plates are installed as piers of different height in the final ends of the plots of the lateral walls of the vessel. AT that the correlation of the total square of the multi mouth section at the input of the vessel formed with the help of mouths of the casings of the ventilators in the vessel to the square of the section of the vessel at its output makes according to overall dimensions of the vessel ∑Flow:FUPPER=0,42-0,9 and in the flatness of aerodynamic shading formed by the upper row of the bundle of the heat exchanging tubes the mentioned correlation makes 0,51±11,5% where ∑low- total square of the multi mouth input section of the vessel, m2; F upper - the dimension square of the working section of the vessel in its upper part without taking into consideration the aerodynamics shading developed by the heat exchanging tubes of the bundle,m2.
EFFECT: allows to increase efficiency of a gas air cooling apparatus due to constructive decisions of the walls of a vessel securing better aerodynamics of passing of the cooling environment including wall zones of the vessel and also in high adaptability of the system of the vessel to seasonal changes in exterior environment and mass of the cooling gas passing through the heat exchanging tubes of the bundle of the vessel at the expense of optimization of correlation of parameters of passing sections of the vessel and of the whole apparatus.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in heat exchanging apparatus namely in heat exchanging sections and may be used in air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the heat exchanging section of a gas air cooling apparatus has a frame consisting of lateral walls provided with wall displacers of the flow of exterior cooling environment predominantly air, upper and low beams and also chambers with tube plates for inputting and outputting of the cooling gas. In the tube plates the ends of finned heat exchanging tubes are choked up. These tubes develop a multi-row, single passing bundle. AT that each chamber of input and output of gas is located correspondingly on the input and the output of the heat exchanging tubes and together with them a vessel working under pressure. At that the chamber of input or output of gas is formed by corresponding tube plate and the parallel exterior plate which has transparent openings provided with removable corks. These openings are coaxial with the openings in the tube plate and the openings in the tube plates are located in rows at the height of the section with an axial pitch making up (0,95-1,35)-d and with axial pitch in the rows adjacent according the height making (0,91-1,21)-d where d - an exterior diameter of the finning of the heat exchanging tube. At that the openings in each row are displaced on 0,4-0,6 of the pitch from the axles of the openings in the row relatively to the adjacent rows according to the height. The number of the heat exchanging tubes in the direction of the vector of the flow of the exterior cooling environment predominantly air makes from 4 to 14 and in the row the number of the heat exchanging tubes edgewise of the section exceeds in 4-9 times the number of the heat exchanging tubes located in series along the way of the mentioned flow of exterior cooling environment predominantly air.
EFFECT: allows to increase efficiency of heat exchanging at minimum metal consuming in the construction due to optimization of the parameters of heat exchanging elements.
19 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to heat-and-power engineering particularly to the rows of heat exchanging tubes and may be used in gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the tube row of the gas air cooling apparatus consists of finned tubes successively located in a row with spacing in axes making 1,7-3,4 diameter of the body of the tube without taking into consideration the diameter of fins. At that the finning of each tube is fulfilled transversely relatively to the central longitudinal axle of the tube and located under an angle to the mentioned axle. The central longitudinal axes of the tubes are oriented predominantly in parallel and located in a conditioned flatness normal to the vector of the flow of the exterior cooling environment, predominantly air. At that the tubes are located to form the flow in the projection of the mentioned conditioned flatness of aerodynamics shading with various aerodynamics transparency consisting of plots of complete aerodynamics opaque corresponding to projections on the mentioned flatness of the bodies of the tubes without taking the finning into account and the plots of incomplete aerodynamics transparency each limited from one side with a conditioned direct line passing along the tops of the fins and from the other side - with the contour of the body of the tube to the base of the fins. At that the tubes in the row are accepted at the condition according to which correlation on the unit of the square of the mentioned flatness of total square of the mentioned plots with various aerodynamics opaque compose correspondingly (0,25-0,52):(0,29-0,58).
EFFECT: allows to increase thermal aerodynamics characteristics of the tube row of the gas air cooling apparatus and improve conditions for streamlining tubes in the row with the exterior cooling environment and provides increasing thermal effectiveness of the apparatus at minimal metal consuming by the construction.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for application in heat-and-power engineering particular in convection heating surfaces namely in the bundle of finned heat exchanging tubes and may be used in a gas air cooling apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: the bundle of finned heat exchanging tubes for a gas air cooling apparatus has tubes located in rows placed one over another with displacement of the tubes in each row relatively to the tubes in the rows adjacent throughout the height of the bundle. The rows of the tubes are separated one from another by distancing elements in the shape of plates with prominent and concave plots placed interchangeably forming supporting sites for the rows of tubes adjacent throughout the height of the bundle. At that the tubes are predominately fulfilled as single-pass ones with finning. They form in the limits of each row in projection on conditional flatness normal to the vector of the flow of an exterior heat exchanging environment inputting to the tubes predominantly cooling air flow. The flow passes through the central longitudinal axle of the tubes of each row of the plots of complete aerodynamics opaque corresponding to projections on the indicated flatness of the tubes without taking into account the finning, the plots of complete aerodynamics transparency corresponding to the projections on the indicated gaps between the edges of the fins directed to each other and adjacent to the row of the pipes and the plots of incomplete aerodynamics transparency. Each plot is limited from one side with conditional direct line passing over the tops of the fins and the other side - with the contour of the body of the tube along the base of the fins. At this the specific correlation of the mentioned conditional flatness of the unit of the area to the mentioned conditional flatness of the summary of the square projections of the indicated areas with various aerodynamics transparency in each row composes correspondingly (0,85-1,15): (1,82-2,17): (1,80-2,190).
EFFECT: allows to increase thermal effectiveness due to optimization of parameters of the heat exchanging elements.
4 dwg, 19 cl
FIELD: air conditioning.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises cooling and drying air mixture down to the moisture content inherent in the supplying air at a temperature of ambient air less than the dew point of the supplying air by changing the ratio between the outer and inner air.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: ventilation and air-conditioning systems and installation of associated items of equipment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes supply and exhaust systems connected in parallel with drum-type revolving air dehumidifier containing layer of grain adsorbent by means of air ducts. Supply system is provided with bypass air duct for outside air which is located behind fan and before and after revolving air dehumidifier; device is also provided with surface air cooler connected with cold water producing system on base of multi-stage direct and indirect cooling of air. Units of supply and exhaust systems are mounted on articulated frame whose axis of rotation coincides with its vertical or horizontal axis of symmetry.
EFFECT: possibility of using device all year round; enhanced ecological safety; low cost.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: heat supply system comprises pipeline for supplying heat-transfer agent to the consumer, pipeline for returning the heat-transfer agent, cooling plant mounted upstream of the consumer, condenser connected to the supplying pipeline, and evaporator connected with the returning pipeline. The cooling plant is provided with condensers and evaporators. The condensers have different level of condensation temperature of the heat-transfer agent and are interconnected in series along the flow of the heat-transfer agent. The evaporators have different level of the boiling temperature of the coolant and are interconnected in series in the direction of flow.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: power engineering, in particular, centralized heat supplying systems.
SUBSTANCE: method includes heating grid water in grid heaters of heating energy plants, feeding hot water via feeding water main to heating and hot water providing systems, cooling of reversed grid water by heat pump plants, positioned at heat stations, returning of cooled water via reverse water main to grid heaters, while heat pump plant is made cascading with finalizing water loop, in upper branch of cascade, positioned at heat station, secondary heating of water of heating system is performed due to additional cooling of reverse water of heating system, by water loop of grid water and heating system upper and lower cascades of thermal pump plant is closed, and in lower branch of cascade, positioned at thermal power station, heating of cooled reversed grid water is performed due to heat of condensation of steam processed in turbine.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of heat power station and heat supplying grid, increased heat productiveness of heat supplying system.
1 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device enabling regulation of microclimatic conditions inside a green-house consists of two heat radiators (the upper one and the lower one) interconnected via side pipes; the upper radiator is mounted inside the green-house above the ground level with the lower one being buried in the soil. In the central part of the device overground section there is an additional horizontally positioned radiator installed contained in a tank filled with cold water and connected to the side pipes. At the points of the additional heat radiator connection to the side pipes there are solenoid-operated regulator valves installed. The device is equipped with an electrical heater unit.
EFFECT: improvement of the green-house microclimatic conditions due to the thermal regime stabilisation.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, industry, power engineering and can be applied for room heating and cooling. Environmental heat based on developed method and device for heating and cooling of industrial and agricultural facilities, accommodation spaces with environmental heat by means of natural self-organisation effect, i.e. ensuring maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, and possibility of operation without primary energy supply owing to use of environmental heat. Method of heating and cooling with environmental heat based on self-organisation effect by start of accumulator, switch box, capacitive heat converter to electrical energy and heat pump, used for energy heat closure by means of capacitive converter, and by capacitive converter in heating mode moved outside the heated room. At that automatic control of heat pump is matched with control of capacitive converter moving away from the heated room, as well as by the fact that to provide maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, operating mode of capacitive converter is performed at golden ratio of charge-discharge stroke Sc/Sd=0.618. Electric power of capacitive converter is set up not lower 25% of pump heating capacity. Besides, device for heating and cooling with environmental heat is described.
EFFECT: availability of widely used energy source.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of agriculture and deals with growing agricultural plants in greenhouses. The suggested aeration system intended for heating and moistening the air, and heating, moistening and aerating the soil inside a solar greenhouse consists of a glazed frame, a soil medium and a subsurface aeration system equipped with perforated air and water pipe ducts. The hydraulic motor is connected via a spindle to the water pump. The liquid-gas ejector is connected to the solar greenhouse air exhaust line. The valves and the separator are connected to the input of one of the valves via air pipe duct. The valve output is connected to the greenhouse. The water pump output is connected to the input water nozzle of the liquid-gas ejector whose output is connected to the separator. The air pump duct is connected to the generator of negative-charged ions, with the gravel layer inside the greenhouse - via the second valve whose drive is connected to the control unit. The third valve output is connected to the input of the perforated air pipe duct via a washer plate. The third valve drive is connected to the soil moisture monitoring and control unit connected to a pressure gauge.
EFFECT: improving the quality of heating and moistening the air and heating, moistening and aerating the soil inside a solar greenhouse.