Multi-purpose space system

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to satellite systems for realisation of communication and monitoring tasks, comprising groups of spacecrafts (SC) brought to orbits of different height. System is intended for servicing of vast geographic region: land territory with adjacent sea and ocean areas. System comprises SC on highly elliptical orbits (101-105), including two SC (1, 2) for meteorological and heliogeophysical monitoring and specialised SC (3, 4, 5) for communication, and also SC (6, 7) at low orbits (106, 107) for radio-locating monitoring. System comprises ground complex (29) for SC control, ground complex (24) for reception, processing and distribution of space data and ground communication segment (25). At that possibility is provided to transfer information from SC (1, 2) directly to ground complexes (24, 29), and also to transfer data by components of ground complex (24) and ground communication segment (25) with application of space retranslation channels via SC (1-5).

EFFECT: improved reliability and expansion of system functions in combination with simplification of its service.

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The invention relates to a multi-purpose space systems to perform the tasks of communication and monitoring, containing groups of SPACECRAFT (SC)placed on different height of the orbit.

Known multipurpose space system specified destination according to the patent of Russian Federation №2169433 (publ. 20.06.2001 [1]). The space segment of this system includes three groups of CA. The first two groups include 24 SPACECRAFT in orbits with an altitude of about 10,000 km, and the third group 8-12 SPACECRAFT into orbit with altitude of 600 km Ground segment system contains 12-14 coordinating stations, and Park movable and stationary subscriber stations.

This system has a high complexity in both space and ground segments. The system is organized in such a way that the transmission of information in it is carried out through multiple SPACECRAFT and ground stations, which increases the travel time of the signals and degrades their quality.

Also known space system according to the patent of Russian Federation №2302695 (publ. 02.06.2005 [2]), including three groups KA, one of which is located in a geostationary orbit, the other to the low-altitude orbit, and the third to medium-high orbit. In addition, the system includes at least one ground control station. In this case, at least one SPACECRAFT, located on geostation the nuclear biological chemical (NBC orbit, through the communication line connected to the ground control station, CA, bred in the geostationary orbit, are connected to each other by the high-speed communication lines and are intended to relay control signals from a ground control station to the satellite, located at medium and low altitude orbits, with whom they have the ability to connect via communication lines, and relay information signals received from the SPACECRAFT medium - and low-altitude orbits on the ground control station. Each of CA, located on the low-altitude orbit, is capable of at least one of CA, located on medium-high orbit, and each of the SPACECRAFT, located on this orbit, with one of the SPACECRAFT, which is in a geostationary orbit. The system is designed for global coverage and can serve the regions of any size, including large geographical regions, which is located on a land area with the adjacent sea and ocean waters.

Thanks described this process transmission and reception signals can be provided in near real time with higher quality and reliability.

However, the organizing principle of this system focused on the global scale of its use, remains difficult and does not reduce to icesto AC in the maintenance of large areas of non-global scale. System complexity is also due to its three-tiered building with the presence of connections between the SPACECRAFT to geostationary orbit and vertical links between the SPACECRAFT of different layers and ground points of contact and control. However, despite the desire for specialization KA of different layers on the solution of different tasks, in performing each of these tasks actually participate KA several tiers. So, for communication and detailed monitoring use the AC all three tiers, for the implementation of the review of the monitoring of the AC top (geostationary orbit) and medium levels (medium-altitude orbit). This complicates the management of the system and reduces the reliability of its functioning. In addition, the functionality of the system is limited and not realize the potential corresponding to its complexity, in particular, due to the unavailability of the high-latitude regions for monitoring with satellites located in geostationary orbit.

This cosmic system closest to the cosmic system according to the invention.

The invention aims to obtain a technical result, which consists in providing a continuous hydro-meteorological monitoring in the Northern high-latitude regions and geophysical monitoring of the situation in the near-earth space above the North on what usariem Land, not available for CA, which is in a geostationary orbit, the global radar monitoring of surface Lands and waters of the World ocean, the provision of communication services at the current level, increasing the reliability of the system in combination with its simplification in the service of a vast region non-global scale (e.g., Arctic and subarctic regions of Russia) and the simultaneous expansion of functionality.

Multipurpose space system according to the invention, as specified closest to it in Russian Federation patent No. 2302695 contains the combined structure on the basis of high altitude and low-orbit SPACECRAFT and ground-based communication and control and is designed to service a large geographical region that includes located on land area with the adjacent sea and ocean waters.

To achieve the technical result of the proposed space system unlike specified the most similar known system contains space complex, including not less than four SPACECRAFT on highly-elliptical orbits, including two KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and at least two specialized communication satellites, as well as one or two SPACECRAFT in low-earth orbits DL the radar monitoring of the land surface and oceans. In addition, the system contains the ground of reception, processing and distribution of satellite data, ground control of the SPACECRAFT and ground segment communication.

The number of orbital planes is equal to the number of SPACECRAFT. The inclination of the orbital planes KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and are within 60-70 degrees, and the inclination of the orbital planes of specialized communication satellites are within 60-90 degrees. The arguments of perigee KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring of specialized communication satellites are within about 220 to 320 degrees, and the longitude of the ascending node KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring in Greenwich coordinate system, connected with the Earth, the same and different at 45-90 degrees from the longitude of the ascending node of specialized communication satellites in the same coordinate system, which is also the same. The apogee altitude of the orbits of communication satellites exceeds the height of the peak KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring. The time span of the ascending node communication satellites are shifted relative to each other 1/2-1/3 of their period of circulation, equal to 24 hours, and the time span of the ascending nodes KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring are shifted relative to each other by 1/2 of their orbital period equal to 12 hours.

p> Thus the proposed system is built with the ability to transfer information from its member KA directly on these terrestrial systems and capable of transmitting information components of ground reception, processing and distribution of satellite data and ground segment communications using satellite channels relay through the AC on highly-elliptical orbits, with the possibility to relay navigation signals of the GLONASS system and the wide gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections) through specialized communication satellites to the satellite for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and KA for radar monitoring. This system, along with significant simplification by reducing the number of SPACECRAFT allows the decision in the Northern high-latitude region of the Earth extended set of the following tasks:

- analysis and forecasts of weather, heliogeophysical environment in near-earth space conditions aviation;

- monitoring of emergency situations of natural and technogenic origin and monitoring of climate change;

- collection and relay of data from mediaplatform land, sea and air-based and with emergency beacon COSPAS-SARSAT;

- ensuring podi is Noah and fixed-line communications, transmission and reception of digital information, direct satellite radio and TV broadcasting;

- the provision of more accurate and reliable navigation information consumers with subscriber equipment system GLONASS.

Building a system using KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and specialized communication satellites on highly-elliptical orbits and space channel relay through them ensures that you always receive and update the weather data and the maximum efficiency of delivery of data on the weather in the Northern high-latitude regions within them to consumers because of the high-latitude regions inaccessible to observation satellites international meteorological grouping on geostationary orbits, and low-orbit meteorological satellites do not provide observation of the high-latitude regions with the required frequency, in addition, improves the measurement accuracy of the coordinates.

When selected numerical values of the orbital parameters are provided the opportunity to observe the Northern high-latitude region of the Earth, available for observation satellites in geostationary orbits, visibility, CA on highly-elliptical orbits with the surface of the Northern high-latitude region of the Earth at angles to the horizontal resolution is that more than 10 degrees, what is needed to enable communication between mobile users, relaying through the AC data about the state of the atmosphere from platform to platform collecting different meteorological data base, spatial separation of CA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring from specialized communication satellites for consumers in the Northern high-latitude region of the Earth in the interests of achieving electromagnetic compatibility means of communication and monitoring.

At KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring can be installed multispectral scanning device containing 10-12 spectral bands in the visible and infrared ranges, geophysical equipment complexes containing sensitive sensors for measuring characteristics of Solar radiation, radiation and magnetic environment at the altitude of the orbit, the data collection system and on-Board radio complex, containing the radio to reset to ground station ground station reception, processing and distribution of satellite data obtained on Board the SPACECRAFT multispectral and geophysical data, and relay means for receiving and transmitting digital information between devices that are within ground complex of receiving, processing, and distribution of satellite data. These SPACECRAFT razmisha the tsya also apparatus for precise placement in the navigation field space of the GLONASS system.

The composition specified heliogeophysical hardware system installed on the SPACECRAFT for meteorological and geophysical monitoring can enter the spectrometer corpuscular radiation spectrometer solar cosmic rays, the detector galactic cosmic rays, measuring the solar constant, the flow meter of Solar x-rays, measuring the Sun's ultraviolet rays, a magnetometer for measuring magnetic field strength, UV monitor polar lights.

This ensures a continuous and reset to ground station ground station reception, processing and distribution of satellite data multi-spectral images of the polar regions of the Earth, the solar-geophysical data on the height of the orbit, relay signals from platform to platform collecting meteorological data specified ground station and emergency beacon COSPAS-SARSAT, as well as the transfer and dissemination processed by means of ground reception, processing and distribution of satellite data of hydrometeorological information, and transmission of meteorological information to consumers in the absence of the necessary coherent infrastructure through the channels of the relay.

This gives:

- information analysis (nature and parameters of cloud formations, frontal sections, the circulation of air masses, natural hydrometeorological phenomena and weather not only regionally, but also to forecast the weather on a global scale;

- information to analyze and forecast the state of the Northern seas and oceans (excitement, sea surface temperature, storm surge processes at the coast) and for analysis of spatial-temporal changes in snow conditions;

information for the analysis of ice conditions, for example, in the seas of the Arctic ocean, analysis of conditions for aviation (cloudiness, wind, jet stream, and others), analysis of heliogeophysical environment in near-earth space, as well as to monitor emergency situations of natural and technogenic origin and the monitoring of climate and global change.

Specialized communication satellites can be installed onboard relay system for direct digital radio and television broadcasting to mobile receivers, on-Board relay complex mobile satellite communications, on-Board relay complex direct broadcast and communication with the stationary or relocated receiving and/or transmitting devices, on-Board relay complex seroconverting data system (GLONASS differential corrections).

This allows you to link both static and moving objects, to make them data transmission, including Internet, Fax and telephone, as well as to carry out radio and television broadcasting and transmission of navigation information.

On the SPACECRAFT for radar monitoring can be installed in the onboard SPACECRAFT control, radar complex synthetic aperture and apparatus radio "space-to-Earth data observations directly on the ground receiving station included in the ground station for reception, processing and distribution of satellite data, and apparatus for accurately determining the position in the navigation field space of the GLONASS system, providing the ability to accept a wide gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections). Specified radar system may contain connected in series transceiver antenna transceiver apparatus, the device side processing radioprogram and control system, connected the outputs from all said parts onboard radar complex. When this apparatus for precise placement in the navigation area space systems GLONASS through the on-Board complex control KA tie is on with the specified onboard radar complex, and apparatus radio "space-to-Earth" with their second input connected to the second output of transceiver equipment specified radar complex. Through equipment radio "space-Ground data transfer remote sensing and information support.

This allows, in particular, to solve problems: selection moving objects (ships, vehicles) and the determination of the direction and parameters of their movement; strip them of course, including through the pack ice; clarification of the ice edge position; tracking ice Islands, icebergs and their fragments; identify areas with thin ice within the pack ice; congestion detection on large river systems and monitoring rivers; mapping of areas with fractures and cracks in the coastal and continental ice, borders, offshore and land ice, ice currents, ice, snow cover to build a hydrological forecast; monitor the condition of the snow cover; determination of moisture content and humidity of the snow, determine the moment of the beginning of the snowmelt monitoring line snowmelt.

Ground control of SPACECRAFT proposed system includes the mission control center, command-measuring stations, ballistic centre, means of communication and transmission of amande-telemetry data.

Ground reception, processing and distribution of satellite data includes meteorological (General and regional) centers receiving and processing data, meteorological data collection platforms that form a distributed network of Autonomous points of reception of meteorological information, the Autonomous points of reception heliogeophysical information posted directly from consumers, as well as the reception and processing of remote sensing.

In the regional meteorological centres and data processing are receiving station and processing meteorological data transceiver station space station receiving data from the meteorological data collection platforms. In the main center, in addition to the above means, is automated planning and management, as well as the station receiving data from emergency beacons COSPAS-SARSAT.

Ground segment communication includes communication centres and broadcasting and equipment users.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, which shows a possible implementation of the proposed multi-purpose space systems:

figure 1 presents the structure of the system in General and the composition of its surface part;

figure 2 - composition of the target equipment KA for meteorological and geophysical mon the monitoring;

figure 3 - composition of the target equipment specialized communication satellites;

figure 4 - composition of the target equipment KA for radar monitoring.

The proposed space system when it is executed, as illustrated by figure 1, contains the following main parts:

- space complex, which consists of five SATELLITES (1-5) on highly-elliptical orbits of the two SPACECRAFT (1, 2), are in orbits 101 and 102, are designed for meteorological and geophysical monitoring, and the other three SPACECRAFT (3, 4, 5)located on the orbits of 103-105 are specialized communication satellites, and two KA (6, 7)intended for radar monitoring, are in low-earth orbits 106, 107;

- ground 24 reception, processing and distribution of satellite data;

- ground 29 SPACECRAFT control;

- ground segment 25 of the connection.

Each of these SPACECRAFT has its own orbital plane. The inclination of the orbital planes KA 1, 2 for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and are within 60-70 degrees, and the inclination of the orbital planes of specialized KA 3-5 links are within 60-90 degrees. The arguments of perigee KA 1, 2 for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and specialized KA 3-5 links are within about 220 to 320 degrees. Longitude of Vash the included nodes KA 1, 2 for meteorological and geophysical monitoring in Greenwich coordinate system are identical and differ from the longitudes of the ascending nodes of specialized KA 3-5 connection that the same system is also the same at 45-90 degrees. While the apogee altitude SPACECRAFT orbits 3-5 connection exceeds the height of the peak KA 1, 2 for meteorological and geophysical monitoring. The time span of the ascending node communication satellites are shifted relative to each other by 1/2 to 1/3 of their period of circulation, equal to 24 hours, and the time span of the ascending nodes KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring are shifted relative to each other about 1/2 of their orbital period equal to 12 hours.

Ground 24 reception, processing and distribution of satellite data includes:

the main hydrometeorological center 18 for receiving and processing data;

regional weather centers 19 receiving and processing data;

platform 20 of the collection of meteorological data, forming a distributed network;

- offline points 21 receiving meteorological information posted directly from consumers;

- offline points 22 receiving heliogeophysical information posted directly from consumers;

centers 23 receiving and processing remote sensing data of the Earth.

Each of the regional Gerome eorological centers 19 receiving and processing data contains:

station 14 receiving and processing of meteorological information;

- receiving-transmitting station 15 space communications;

station 16 to receive data from the meteorological data collection platforms.

The main hydrometeorological center 18 on the composition of the constituent funds of similar regional centres 19, with the difference that additionally includes automated complex 17 planning and management, as well as station 78 receive data from emergency beacons 77 COSPAS-SARSAT. Themselves emergency beacon 77 COSPAS-SARSAT part of the proposed multi-purpose space systems are not included, it only interacts with them.

Ground segment 25 links includes the centers of 26 communications and broadcasting equipment and 28 of consumers.

Centers 26 communication and broadcasting organize and manage communication, TV broadcasting, transmission of navigation signals and wide-gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections). The apparatus 28 of consumers provides communication services directly to consumers and is located at.

Ground 29 SPACECRAFT control center includes : 30 flight control, command-measuring station 31, the ballistic center 32, means of communication and transmission of command and telemetry data 73.

The target apparatus KA 1 and 2 for meteorological and heliogeophysical the CSO monitoring (figure 2) includes multispectral scanner 33 and heliogeophysical hardware complex 34, comprising: a spectrometer 35 corpuscular radiation spectrometer 36 solar cosmic rays, the detector 37 galactic cosmic rays, the meter 38 solar constant, measuring 39 x-ray flux of the Sun, the meter 40 ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, magnetometer 41 for measuring magnetic field strength.

Listed measuring means preferably should be designed to operate in the following ranges:

spectrometer 35 corpuscular radiation in the ranges of energies of 0.05...20,0 Kev; 0,03...1.5 MeV; 0,5...30,0 MeV;

spectrometer 36 of solar cosmic rays is in the range of energies 1-12 MeV, 30,0-300,0 MeV and more 350,0 MeV;

detector 37 of galactic cosmic rays in the energy range of more than 600 MeV;

the meter 38 solar constant is in the range of 0.2-100 μm;

- measuring 39 x-ray flux of the Sun - in the energy range 3-10 Kev;

the meter 40 of ultraviolet radiation on the resonance line of hydrogen HLa (to 121.6 nm);

magnetometer 41 for measuring magnetic field strength in the range of ±300 NT.

As mentioned measuring devices can be used, for example, the following commercially available devices (respectively): SKIF-6; SCR-e; GALS-e; COI-2M; DIR-e; VOSS-e; FM-E.

In addition, KA 1 and 2 set the trading subsystem 42 data collection and on-Board radio complex 43 for downlink to ground stations ground station reception processing and distribution of satellite data, and to relay digital data between devices that are within the terrestrial range of reception, processing and distribution of satellite data.

Outputs multispectral scanner 33 and nodes heliogeophysical hardware complex 34 (spectrometers 35, 36, detector 37, gauges 38, 39, 40 and magnetometer 41) is connected to the inputs of the subsystem 42 data collection, and outputs the latter to the inputs of radio engineering complex 43 for downlink to ground stations ground complex for reception, processing and distribution of satellite data.

Complex 43 contains the transmitting shaft 44 to reset multispectral data channel 60, the transmitting shaft 45 to reset the solar-geophysical data on channel 61, a transmitting-receiving barrel 46 for high-speed relay data channels 64, transceiver barrel 47 to relay weather data from the meteorological data collection platforms on channels 62-63, transceiver stems 48 and 49 to bring meteorological data and high and low resolution to consumers respectively on channels 65-67 65-66 and transmitting the shaft 147 to relay data from emergency beacons COSPAS-SARSAT channels 162-163.

On SPACECRAFT 1 and 2 is also not shown in the drawing, the apparatus for precise placement in the navigation the field space of the GLONASS system.

The composition of the target devices 150 specialized KA 3, 4, 5 communication includes (figure 3): on-Board relay complex 50 for direct digital radio and television broadcasting for mobile reception devices like cell phone, side repeater complex 51 mobile satellite communications, on-Board relay complex 52 direct broadcast and communication with the stationary or relocated foster and (or) transmitting devices, on-Board relay complex 53 wide gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections).

Target equipment low-orbit SPACECRAFT 6, 7 for radar monitoring (figure 4) includes multimode airborne radar system 54 synthetic aperture for an all-round shooting, containing connected in series transceiver antenna 55, transceiver apparatus 56, the device 58 on-Board processing radioprogram and control system 57 that is connected outputs from all said parts onboard radar complex, and the input to an output side of the complex 157 SPACECRAFT control. These SPACECRAFT also installed onboard equipment 59 radio "space-to-Earth and apparatus 76 to determine the exact position in the navigation area space systems GLONASS capable in order to ensure the reception of a wide gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections). Apparatus 76 is connected by its output to the onboard radar complex 54 through the onboard 157 SPACECRAFT control. When this apparatus 59 radio "space-to-Earth" with their second input connected to the second output of the transceiver apparatus 56. Channel 68 is transmitting data of remote sensing and information support.

Apogee areas HEO orbits 101-105 are located over the Northern hemisphere of the Earth and contain work areas, during the passage through which the AC 1-5 operate in the operating modes, and outside sites - duty modes. Multispectral scanner 33 on-site orbit 1, 2 directed towards the Earth. Multispectral data and geophysical monitoring are transmitted via the satellite with KA 1-2 meteorological and geophysical monitoring in ground 24 reception, processing and distribution of satellite data, in which multispectral data are being processed and after processing are relayed via the onboard radio complex 43 (see figure 2) SATELLITES for meteorological and geophysical monitoring in the form of high resolution data from the main 19 in 18 regional hydrometeorological centers receiving and processing data and data of low resolution - and the business development points 21 receiving meteorological information, set among consumers, including the courts, the characters, paragraphs, etc. In accordance with the schedule or upon request is a retransmission of information from the platform 20 of the collection of meteorological data. At the working sites specialized KA 3-5 communication through their on-Board relay complexes 50-53 (see figure 3) is to relay information from the centers for communications and broadcasting equipment users, including navigation is relayed signal of the GLONASS system and the wide gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections). This allows you to link both static and moving objects, to make them data transmission, including Internet, Fax and telephone, as well as to carry out radio and television broadcasting and transmission of navigation information. KA 6, 7 radar monitoring in low-earth orbits 106, 107 in the work multimode radar systems 54 (see figure 4) synthetic aperture for all-weather and round-the shooting receive data remote sensing of the Earth and transmit them by radio equipment installed on the SPACECRAFT directly to the ground receiving station. This can be passed as radioprogramme and the synthesized radar images obtained p is the processing radioprogram in the device on-Board processing radioprogram. In this case, synthesized radar images can be transferred on a stand-alone items receive information directly from consumers on ships, in sparsely populated villages, etc. additionally, the apparatus 76 to determine the exact position in the navigation field space of the GLONASS system also provides for the reception of a wide gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections), which are used in the acquisition and synthesis of radar images.

In the proposed system, the data being transferred from its constituent KA 1-2 directly to the specified receiving station 14, 22 of the ground segment 24 of receiving, processing, and distribution of space data, as well as the use of satellite channels relay through the specified transceiver trunks onboard radio complex 43 KA 1 and 2, located on highly-elliptical orbits.

Figure 1 shows the direction of information flow within the system and between it and the consumers:

60 - multispectral data with KA 1 or 2 at station 14 receiving and processing of meteorological information;

61 - solar-geophysical data with KA 1 or 2 in offline points 22 receiving heliogeophysical information;

62 - weather data from platforms 20 collection of meteorological data on SPACECRAFT 1 and 2;

63 weather data from the meteorological data collection platforms, relayed KA 1 and 2 at station 16 to receive data from the meteorological data collection platforms;

64 high - speed two-way data transmission and service information through the KA 1 or 2 between transceiver stations 15 space communications regional 19 and 18 main hydrometeorological centers receiving and processing data;

65 - processed weather data from the station 15 space communications chief hydrometeorological center 18 for receiving and processing data on the SPACECRAFT 1 or 2;

66 - processed high-resolution weather data, relayed KA 1 or 2 at the transmitting station 15 space communications regional meteorological centres 19 receiving and processing data;

67 - processed data has low resolution, relayed KA 1 or 2 on a stand-alone paragraphs 21 receiving meteorological information;

68 data of remote sensing and information support from the low-orbit SPACECRAFT 6 and 7 on a stand-alone paragraphs 21 receiving meteorological information centers and 23 receiving and processing remote sensing data of the Earth;

69 - command and program information, information support, circulating between the center 30 mission control ground station 29 management, complex 17 planning and control of the chief of the hydrometeorological center 18 for receiving and processing data and Central earth a hundred the of 26 ground segment 25 communication;

70 - bilateral channels through mobile KA 3-5, located on highly-elliptical orbits between the centers 26 communications and broadcasting equipment and 28 communications of consumers of the ground segment 25 ties;

71 - channel fixed link through the AC 3-5, located on highly-elliptical orbits between subscriber stations 28 communication ground segment 25 ties;

72 - channels relay radio and television broadcasting through the AC 3-5, located on highly-elliptical orbits for the equipment 28 communications of consumers of the ground segment 25 ties;

73 - command software and telemetry information circulating between the center 30 flight control and command-measuring stations 31 and ballistic center 32 of the ground segment 29 of management;

74 management team, numeric arrays, telemetry information transmitted or received with the AC 1-7 command-measuring stations 31 of the ground segment 29 of management;

75 - meteorological information, data, remote sensing transmitted from the ground station 24 reception, processing and distribution of satellite data to the ground segment 25 communication by relaying through specialized communication satellites to other consumers;

76 - navigation signals and wide-gap differential data system (GLONASS differential pop is where it is refuelled), transmitted by the centers 26 communications and broadcasting KA 3-5;

80 - navigation signals and wide-gap differential data system (GLONASS differential corrections), relayed to the SPACECRAFT 1, 2 and 6, 7;

88 data from emergency beacons 77 COSPAS-SARSAT transmitted to the station 78 reception, a subset of the main hydrometeorological center 18 for receiving and processing data.

Investigation of the possibilities of space systems offer the type carried out on the example of the system for servicing the Arctic and subarctic regions of Russia, showed that such a system will successfully solve the following relevant to the development of this region tasks:

1. The task group transport (provision of information exchange with the air, sea and river vessels in the Arctic latitudes; the provision of navigation in the Arctic ice, navigation and meteorological information; navigational and hydrometeorological support of civil aviation; providing navigational and meteorological information land transport; maintaining the functions of the COSPAS-SARSAT system; monitoring the condition of power lines, pipelines etc).

2. Group hydrometeorological tasks: rapid assessment of the state of the ice cover; rapid assessment of the state of the atmosphere and the region is cnyh systems; rapid assessment of the condition of the surface of the ocean, operational assessment and snow cover (operational detection and monitoring of the pollution of the natural environment).

3. The task group on development of information infrastructure: creating and maintaining reliable communications systems and the Internet (support social infrastructure, with emphasis support of indigenous peoples of the North in the areas of health, science and education through the creation of remote systems of medical care, exchange of scientific information and conducting distance learning); the creation and development of topographic maps, thematic maps for various purposes, integrated thematic mapping; creation of digital terrain models and digital terrain models; creating and informational support of public information systems for various purposes; clarifying General and detailed maps of seismic zoning.

4. The task group control of economic and other activities (identifying violations of technological processes and established regulations; control over compliance with license agreements during the development of mineral deposits; the monitoring of biological resources; control of illegal fishing in the waters; control of the state forest Fund; monitoring sankcionirovannaja construction; tracking the development of transport infrastructure).

5. A task group of the geological, geophysical and geochemical orientation: expanding the mineral resource base at the expense of the search for hydrocarbon deposits on the shelf of the Arctic seas (monitoring degradation of permafrost; monitoring of exogenous geological processes - the destruction of the shores of the seas and reservoirs, channel processes, mudflows, landslides, avalanches, etc.; creation and periodic updating of inventories of natural resources, identifying areas promising for the search of oil, gas and solid minerals; providing exploration of different types).

6. The task group control emergency situations (early detection, prognosis and monitoring of the development of man-made disasters, forecasting the occurrence and development of high-risk areas; information support of rescue operations; early detection and monitoring of forest and peat fires; objective and rapid assessment of damage from natural disasters, maintaining the functions of the COSPAS-SARSAT).

7. Group environmental objectives (monitoring of ecological situation on the seas and in areas construction of new ports and oil terminals, identification and monitoring of real-time sources of pollution of the environment).

Sources of information

1. The patent of Russian Federation №2169433, publ. 20.06.2001.

2. The patent of Russian Federation №2302695, publ. 02.06.2005.

1. Multipurpose space system for servicing a large geographical region that includes located on land area with the adjacent sea and ocean areas containing the combined structure on the basis of high altitude and low-orbit SPACECRAFT and ground-based communication and control, characterized in that it contains space complex, including at least four SPACECRAFT on highly-elliptical orbits, including two KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and at least two specialized communication satellites, as well as one or two SPACECRAFT in low-earth orbits for radar monitoring, the number of orbital planes is equal to the number KA, the inclination of the orbital planes KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring are within 60-70°, and the inclination of the orbital planes of specialized communication satellites are within 60-90°, the argument of perigee KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring and specialized communication satellites are within 220-320°, and longitude of ascending node in Greenwich coordinate system, connected with the Earth, the SPACECRAFT to mete the hydrometeorological and heliogeophysical monitoring the same and differ in the same coordinate system from the same longitudes of the ascending nodes of specialized communication satellites at 45-90°, the apogee altitude of the orbits of these communication satellites exceeds the height of the peak KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring, the time span of the ascending nodes of the specified communication satellites are shifted relative to each other by 1/2 to 1/3 of the period of their circulation, equal to 24 h, and the time span of the ascending nodes KA for meteorological and geophysical monitoring are shifted relative to each other by 1/2 of the period of their circulation, equal to 12 h, in addition, this system contains the ground of reception, processing and distribution of satellite data and ground control of the SPACECRAFT and ground segment communication, this system is built with the ability to transfer information from its constituent KA directly on these ground systems and information transfer components of ground reception, processing and distribution of satellite data and ground segment communications using satellite channels relay through the SPACECRAFT, located on highly-elliptical orbits.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that on the SPACECRAFT for meteorological and geophysical monitoring installed multispectral scanner visible and infrared ranges, the geophysical instrument system for measuring characteristics of Solar radiation the magnetic environment at the altitude of the orbit, the data collection system and on-Board radio complex, containing the radio to reset to ground station ground station reception, processing and distribution of satellite data obtained on Board these SPACECRAFT, multi-spectral and solar-geophysical data, and relay means for receiving and transmitting digital information between devices that are within the terrestrial range of reception, processing and distribution of satellite data, in addition to the above KA is apparatus for accurate determination of their position in the navigation field space of the GLONASS system.

3. The system according to claim 2, characterized in that the composition specified heliogeophysical hardware system installed on the SPACECRAFT for meteorological and geophysical monitoring, enter the spectrometer corpuscular radiation spectrometer solar cosmic rays, the detector galactic cosmic rays, measuring the solar constant, the flow meter of Solar x-rays, measuring the Sun's ultraviolet rays, a magnetometer for measuring magnetic field strength, UV monitor polar lights.

4. System according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that on specialized communication satellites installed onboard relay system for direct is the number of radio and television broadcasting to mobile receivers, on-Board relay complex mobile satellite communications, on-Board relay complex direct broadcast and communication with the stationary or relocated receiving and/or transmitting devices, on-Board relay complex wide gap differential data of the GLONASS system.

5. System according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that on the SPACECRAFT for radar monitoring installed the onboard SPACECRAFT control, radar complex synthetic aperture and apparatus radio "space-to-Earth data observations directly on the ground receiving station included in the ground station for reception, processing and distribution of satellite data, and apparatus for accurately determining the position in the navigation field space of the GLONASS system, which also receiving wide gap differential data of the GLONASS system, and the specified radar complex contains connected in series transceiver antenna and equipment, device on-Board processing and radioprogram control system, connected by their outputs with all the mentioned parts of airborne radar complex, and the entry with the specified onboard control complex KA, with the specified equipment to accurately determine who their position in the navigation area of the GLONASS system through the onboard control system of the SPACECRAFT associated with the specified onboard radar complex, as specified radio equipment "space-to-Earth with his second input connected to the second output of the specified radar complex.

6. System according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the ground control of the AC includes the mission control center, command-measuring stations, ballistic centre, means of communication and transmission of command and telemetry data.

7. System according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the ground of receiving, processing, and distribution of space data includes main and regional meteorological centres receiving and processing data, meteorological data collection platforms, Autonomous points of reception of meteorological information, the Autonomous points of reception heliogeophysical information posted directly from consumers, as well as the reception and processing of remote sensing.

8. The system according to claim 7, characterized in that each of these regional hydrometeorological centers receiving and processing data includes receiving stations and processing of meteorological data transceiver station space station receiving data from the meteorological data collection platforms, and the main hydrometeorological center in addition to these funds provides automated planning and management, and St is nciu receive data from emergency beacons COSPAS-SARSAT.

9. System according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the ground segment communication includes communication centres and broadcasting and equipment users.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric communication engineering and may be used for organisation of communication and rendering services of information exchange to mobile teams of experts for performance of works in area that is not equipped with stationary facilities and means of communication, and also to provide coupling with existing communication systems. Mobile unit of portable communication comprising satellite communication set has two technological automated workplaces introduced, as well as satellite modem, switchboard of lines and group tracks, Ethernet circuit board, server, unit for distribution and switching of local computer network (LCN) users, telephone set of system Internet Phone, two workplaces of operator, two telephone sets of telephone confidential communication, digital ministation of DECT system, remote base station of mobile radio communication of DECT system with antenna, subscriber lines of telephone confidential communication and LCN line.

EFFECT: expansion of functional resources and increased throughput capacity of communication directions organised by unit.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of positioning a remote device using the global satellite system for positioning - GPS. In the method the mobile device receives Doppler information from the satellite, situated in its the field of vision. Information is received from the base station of the cellular communication system.

EFFECT: positional information is computed in the mobile device using Doppler information.

30 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: physics, radio.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to systems of radio communication and may be used in systems of train technological radio communication with application of artificial Earth satellites. Gateway is introduced in system of satellite technological train radio communication comprising retransmitters located on artificial Earth satellites, stationary satellite communication sets and satellite communication sets installed on movable objects, at that every stationary satellite communication set and satellite communications that located on movable object is connected to corresponding control panel, at that outlet of stationary set of train dispatcher is connected to device for signals processing and display of locomotive location, and control panel of set installed on locomotive comprises module for determination of object location.

EFFECT: organisation of trains traffic control along channels of satellite communication, increased efficiency of subscribers interaction, and also provision of possibility to determine location of locomotive on section.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to equipment of satellite communication. Satellites may support multiple areas that correspond to multiple satellite beams. Every satellite may support all areas in reverse direction, and every satellite may be assigned as primary satellite for one of multiple areas that correspond to one of multiple satellite beams. Every satellite may receive signals of reverse communication line that are sent, for instance, by mobile station, from any of areas. Every satellite may send received signals of reverse communication line, for instance, to base station or gateway, where signals may be combined to increase quality of signal. Mobile station receives signals of straight communication line from primary satellite and controls quality of signal from primary and secondary satellite. If quality of signal from primary satellite drops below threshold value, communication signal is transmitted to the secondary satellite.

EFFECT: diversion of communication by application of multiple satellites.

28 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: high-orbit satellite-repeater (SR) receives the signal-order for communication from low-orbit space vehicle (LOSV) via the wide fixed antenna beam. The SR narrow controlled antenna beam is used to compute the ephemerises of the LOSV that requests for communication and these ephemerises are used to guide the SR narrow controlled antenna beam to LOSV requested for communication. Now the said SR narrow beam is guided to the LOSV and, via this beam, the signal-permission for communication is transmitted.

EFFECT: relaying of data from LOSV in spontaneous time intervals, LOSV being initiators of communication session.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics, communication.

SUBSTANCE: mobile station of satellite communication contains station of a satellite communication as a part of antenna system, the device of partitioning of paths of reception and transmission, the transceiver, channeling equipment, the block of guidance and prompting system, the switching block, a router, the portable computer of the operator's automated workplace (PC OAWP), the small-sized printer, station of navigation as a part of the transceiver, the antenna and the portable terminal of data, the self-acting circuit changer of channels, base station of trunking radio communications with the antenna, two user's (vehicle-carried or man-portable) stations of the mobile radio communication with antennas, a user's line of telecommunication, n of portable stations of the mobile radio communication, a telephone set of system of automatic telephone exchange, wire communication links, the block of a workplace of the functional, the portable computer of a workplace of the dispatcher, system of a video conferencing as a part of a small-sized videocamera, a dynamic microphone and phone (dynamics), The block of recording of video signals of system of the video observation, two portable portable videocameras, base station of broadband wireless access (BWA) with the antenna and two user's stations BWA with antennas, the basic and portable telephone sets of system of MB.

EFFECT: expansion of functionality and pinch of throughput capacity of communication centre

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics, radio.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns systems of an aviation radio communication and can be used for communication between flying machine and land radio station, and also for communication between flying machines in VHF range. On boundary of direct visibility erect the independent repeater providing in a self-acting mode relaying of radio signals. For repeater installation in a settlement point of flight from a flying machine board dump a repeater attached to a shell of a ball, joined by a hose with a cylinder with gas. A shell at a ball automatically charge with gas, and then detach the shell from the cylinder which dump to the Earth then the free flight of a ball which retains a repeater at height not less than dump height begins. After the termination of a communication session the ball shell is destroyed.

EFFECT: radio communication maintenance in VHF range outside of a band of direct visibility at essential decrease in material inputs on expedient embodying.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: radio navigation.

SUBSTANCE: receiver contains radio frequency converter, N channel digital correlator with device for quick searching and shaper of time marker signals and calculator, in which device for quick searching contains input multiplexer of GPS/GLONASS, digital generator of carrier, mixer of carrier, shift register of signal, code register, M multiplexers of signal, M multiplexers of code, M mixers of code, M-input summator, integrator, unit for calculation of complex number module square, the second summator, RAM, unit for generation of RAM address, unit for maximum selection, threshold device and synchronizer. Device for quick searching provides coherent accumulation of signal at the interval of 1 ms with further non-coherent accumulation for the time set bt calculator depending on expected ratio of signal-noise.

EFFECT: reduction of time spent for signal searching.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method and system imply that data transfer rate can be changed reducing coding rate to compensate inferior quality of signal. Communication system with time-dependent multiplexing implies that number of users use available communication bandwidth along with time-dependent multiplexing. System provides simultaneous correction of time preset for user on the basis of coding rate in particular. Time preset for user can be increased to reduce coding rate to provide essentially stable symbol transfer rate during each cycle of time-dependent multiplexing.

EFFECT: increased symbol transfer rate for user.

25 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: searcher contains a multiplier, frequency operated generator, pre-adder, accumulated sum converter, multichannel correlator, two delay elements, three RAMs, two quadrature filters, maximum determinant, feedback adder, stack for "К" positions and resolver. Multichannel correlator contains interleaver, range code generator and memory. Quadrature filters contain adders, envelope computer, and maximum determinant. The searcher can be used in navigation signal receivers, such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo.

EFFECT: decreased total time of signal search.

1 dwg

Radar device // 2358283

FIELD: physics; radio.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to radar and is meant for increasing angular resolving power of radar stations and its regulation with simultaneous side lobe suppression of the directional pattern. The proposed device contains an antenna, whose inputs/outputs are connected to a generator of composite and differential signals, the output of which is connected to the input of a "transmit-receive" switch, the other input of which is connected to the output of a transmitter, a composite signal channel, comprising an amplitude detector, as well as differential signal channel, comprising an amplitude detector, a subtractor, video amplifier, limiter, the output of which is the output of the device and a controlled attenuator. The output of the "transmit-receive" switch is connected to the input of the amplitude detector of the composite signal channel, the output of which is connected to the first input of the subtractor. The output of the generator of composite and differential signals is connected through the controlled attenuator to the input of the amplitude detector of the differential signal channel, the output of which is connected to the second input of the subtractor, the output of which is connected through the video amplifier to the input of the limiter.

EFFECT: simplification of the circuit of the device.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: inventions are related to the field of radiolocation and may be used in radiolocating stations for direction-finding of active noise jammers (ANJ) in process of space coverage. Technical result is achieved due to the fact that angular positions of beam, in which active noises have been detected, are memorised and angular packets of ANJ bearings are formed according to them, afterwards angular packets of bearings, size of which exceeds the unit, are used to calculate angular coordinates of ANJ, and bearings received only in one direction of beam are excluded from further processing as false bearings.

EFFECT: reduction of number of false bearings of active noise jammers with provision of high chances for detection of true bearings.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: the proposed invention relates to the field of radar location and can be used for measuring angular coordinates of objects during the process of scanning the area of a radar station. The technical outcome is the increased accuracy of measuring angular coordinates of an object. Based on the information from all positions of the beam of the given two-dimensional angular packet of the received signal, and from a single calculation, the angular coordinates of the observed object are obtained.

EFFECT: formation of a two-dimensional angular packet of the received signals.

2 dwg

FIELD: radiolocation.

SUBSTANCE: in the first variant, the ground/space radar system contains space-based transmitting station consisting of a transmitting antenna, continuous signal generator, and control and communication system connected in series; one or more ground fixed or mobile receiver stations consisting of a receiving antenna, receiver unit, dedicated digital computer of the receiving station, and communication equipment connected in series, and a ground control station consisting of control and communication equipment, dedicated digital computer of the ground control station, and an operator workstation connected in series. In the second variant, the ground/space radar system contains one or more ground fixed or mobile transmitting stations consisting of transmitting antenna, continuous signal generator, and control and communication system connected in series; space-based receiver station consisting of receiving antenna, receiver unit, dedicated digital computer of the space-based receiving station, and communication equipment connected in series; and ground control station consisting of control and communication equipment, dedicated digital computer of the ground control station, and an operator workstation connected in series.

EFFECT: significant expansion of detection and tracking zone area and height, particularly for small air and aerospace objects and objects made using the Stealth technology.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to radiolocation and may be used in two-coordinate radar stations of meter range with an antenna array consisting of two subarrays with phase centers spread along the height for measuring of the angular attitude of radar targets.

SUBSTANCE: the achievable technical result of the proposed invention is significant reduction of the number of ambiguities at definition of the angular attitude of the target in the radar set of meter range due to working on two-three frequencies. The indicated result is achieved due to measuring of relation of the amplitudes of the signals in the subarrays of the antenna according to which with taking into consideration the known form of the direction of the subarrays they define the set of possible values of the angular attitudes of the target on several frequencies and adopt as true value the angular attitude coinciding on all frequencies.

EFFECT: significant reduction of the number of ambiguities.

5 dwg

FIELD: radars for target indication, identification and recognition of ballistic objects.

SUBSTANCE: radar systems of target indication, identification and recognition of ballistic objects. The leading radar has topographical surveyor, antenna control system, and an automatic range finder, target indication generating unit, control radio line, the first difference unit, base and direction determining unit, gate forming unit, coordinate transformation unit, ballistic parameters computation unit, unit for determining the geocentric coordinates of the trajectory points, the first switching unit, coordinate transformation unit, gate forming unit according to the ballistic target, the second switching unit, decision taking unit, the third comparison unit, unit for forming the scanned area of the slave radar boundaries connected in a definite way. The radar has a topographical surveyor, inclination sensor, control radio line, target indication system range finder, coordinate transformation unit, the second difference unit, the first comparison unit, control unit, the third difference unit and the second comparison unit connected in a definite way.

EFFECT: obtained target indication on ballistic target.

5 dwg

FIELD: radio location.

SUBSTANCE: method and radar station can be used in survey single-channel radar stations with phased aerial grating for measuring angular coordinates of object. Probing signals are irradiated. Signals reflected from objects are received. Amplitudes of received signals ρij and angular coordinates εj and βj of beam of aerial of radar station, which amplitudes correspond to received signals. Two-coordinate angular package of received signals is formed and angular coordinates of object are calculated. Coordinates of location of beam εmax and βmax are found in formed package of received signals, in which beam the amplitude of received signal is maximal. Minimal and maximal ρmin and ρmax values of amplitude of signals at input of aerial; of radar station are measured. Value, which characterizes degree of fluctuation of signal reflected from object, is calculated. After that angular coordinates of object are found from angle of site to azimuth.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: special radio engineering, possible use in systems for detecting and tracking moving objects.

SUBSTANCE: it is known, that movement of object causes Doppler dispersion, making it harder to detect, due to decrease of signal/noise ratio at system output. In accordance to invention, emitted signals are supposed to be transformed in accordance to rule s(t)→s(arctg(t)} in time span. It is determined, that such signals are invariant relatively to acceleration of target, while speed causes only frequency shift of signal without distortion thereof. For correlation processing of received signal, echo signal is returned into original linear scale, realizing operation of interpolation of counts of received signal in accordance to rule s(arctg(t))→s(t)) in real time scale.

EFFECT: response of system, realizing described processing method, is stable during detection and tracking of targets moving at high speeds.

1 dwg, 1 app

FIELD: automated systems.

SUBSTANCE: space automated system for taking control over moving objects relates to information-control systems. It has pace radar average-orbit echelon, on-board equipment which has radar set, communication terminal placed onto objects of control, stations for taking control over on-ground and naval base, low-orbit echelon of communication and retranslation space apparatuses and set of detectors-correctors of location-finding systems integrated into on-board equipment of objects under control. Global scope of action and continuity of information field and tight and stable mating with of on-board and on-ground systems are provided. High speed of delivery of formalized radar information in movable packages to consumer is provided with probability of 0,99 and higher.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method and device belong to angle-measuring assemblies for determining coordinates of remote object. After coordinates of area of observation are fixed, a set of shoots of panorama of region is made and the shoots made are introduced into memory of frame field unit. Then shoots are combined by means of correlation device into integral reference panorama of region to be observed. Relative angular coordinates in form of points of image are fixed on the base of pre-known parameters of optical system. Then real angular position of panorama is determined. After that the viewer brings pointing direction into coincidence with one or another object to be viewed and recording of corresponding frame is performed. Frame goes to correlation device, which finds location of similar shoot at reference panorama. Control and commutation unit fixes real angles at object of viewing. During process of observation, optical axis of pointing of direction is stabilized due to decoupling it from case of optical device of observer. Device has optical observation system connected with device for fixing optical image in digital form. Device for observation of self-coordinates of observer is introduced into the device for determining coordinates of objects. The former has output connected with input of control and calculation device. Device for fixing optical image in digital form has output connected with input of single-frame memory unit which has its inputs-outputs connected with input-output of correlation device correspondingly. Correlation device has its output-input connected with input-output of frame field memory unit. Correlation device has its output-input connected with input-output of control and calculation unit. Frame field memory unit has its output also connected with input of control and calculation unit which performs function of determination of angular coordinates. All the devices, tools and units are disposed on case of optical observation system.

EFFECT: improved reliability; improved precision.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers namely to telecommunication satellites with energy consumption power of 1-2.5 kV. According to the invention, space vehicle (satellite) is made of two modules: payload and support systems. Instruments are installed on inner skins of their radiators - honeycomb panels. Evaporation zones of horizontal straight and uncontrolled L-shaped heat tubes are built into those panels opposite the instrument location area. Those zones are attached with their flanges to inner skin of panels in that area. Condensation zones of the above tubes are arranged in the panel areas free of instruments. Radiators are located in planes perpendicular to the axes corresponding to northern and southern sides of the vehicle. At that, opposite located radiator panels are arranged at a minimum possible distance from each other, which is determined beforehand based on instrument arrangement conditions. More heat-stressed instruments are located in the lower part of panels, in which there used are uncontrolled L-shaped heat tubes. Condensation zone flanges of the above heat tubes are made so that they face outer skins, and are attached thereto. The above zones are located in extreme zones of panels, which are free from instruments.

EFFECT: decreasing mass, and reaching the acceptable configuration of the above satellites.

4 dwg

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