Solid geiger detector with active restorer

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is used in optical data acquisition systems with high registration efficiency of light radiation by means of avalanche photodiodes with Geiger discharge quenching circuit. Into solid Geiger detector with active restorer, which includes avalanche photodiode the anode whereof is connected to the shift voltage bus and cathode is connected to the first electrode of damping resistor, and a switching restoring transistor, there introduced is the additional damping resistor. The first electrode of the additional damping resistor is connected to the second electrode of damping resistor and to the sink of switching restoring transistor the gate of which is connected to the first electrode of damping resistor, and sink is connected to the second electrode of the additional damping resistor and detector power bus. Switching restoring transistor is made in the form of transistor with a built-in channel.

EFFECT: increasing dynamic range of detector as well as increasing registration efficiency.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to systems with high detection efficiency light emission by using avalanche photodiodes with the scheme damping gagarinskoe category.

Known solid-state Gagarinsky single-photon detector (IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol.15, No.7, July 2003, p.963-965), containing the avalanche photodiode, the anode of which is connected with the bus bias voltage, the cathode is connected to the first electrode of the resistor damping.

Bus bias voltage applied voltage exceeding the breakdown voltage of the avalanche photodiode that enables operation in hagurosan mode. If you get quantum optical radiation in the active area of the detector, it develops self-extinguishing Gagarinsky discharge. The damping, i.e. the termination of the discharge is due to drop at the p-n junction voltage to a value below the breakdown that provides a diagram of the damping discharge.

In this case, the diagram quenching of the avalanche discharge is passive, and is a series of avalanche photodiode resistance. The development of the avalanche, the re-charging of the parasitic capacitance of the detector and increase the current in the external circuit happen fairly quickly (about 2-5 NS). After the termination of the avalanche discharge is restore the detector to its original state by charging the capacitance through the resistance and therefore the s damping to the source voltage, exceeding the breakdown. The recovery time is determined by an RC circuit and can be 20-40 NS. During this time the detector is immune to the registered radiation and its dynamic range is reduced. In this device from the detectors form a multi-element receiver, so it is important that schemes of extinction and recovery in each single detector were compact, occupied a small area and not close the active part of the detector from the radiation.

Known solid-state Gagarinsky single-photon detector with an active recovery (XVI The 16-th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers. September 15-18, 2002, Prague, Czech Republic, p.482-483), containing the avalanche photodiode, the anode of which is connected with the bus bias voltage, the cathode is connected to the first electrode of the resistor damping, key transistor recovery.

The disadvantage of these devices is that: 1) recovery scheme is quite cumbersome, contains a comparator, an inverter, other schemes that opens transistor recovery delay sufficient for quenching the avalanche process in the photodiode, and requires a large area for placement that will limit the minimum size of a single detector, and thereby, the number of detectors in a multi-element receiver, limiting its dynamic range; 2) the formation of a schema restore the program requires a full CMOS process, that adds cost and complexity to the device as a whole; 3) internal total delay circuit recovery can exceed the desired time restore the detector to its original state, in order to avoid which will require the use of high quality CMOS process with a design rule of 0.5 to 1.0 μm, which will also increase the cost of the device as a whole.

Known solid-state Gagarinsky single-photon detector with an active recovery (US 6,541,752 B2, Apr.1, 2003), containing the avalanche photodiode, the anode of which is connected with the bus bias voltage, the cathode is connected to the first electrode of the resistor damping, key transistor recovery.

This device is the closest to the proposed technical solution.

The device operates as follows. The avalanche current of the photodiode, flowing through the resistor damping leads to a change in voltage at the first electrode. This voltage is fed through the delay block in the recovery block, which opens the transistor recovery. Thus shunted resistor damping and rapid recovery of the detector to its original state.

The disadvantage of these devices is that the recovery scheme is also quite cumbersome and requires a large area for placement that will lead the shade of the active part of the detector and to limit the minimum size of a single detector, hence, to reduce the detection efficiency and to limit the dynamic range of the multi-element device. The formation of the restoration schemes require full CMOS process that adds cost and complexity to the device.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the dynamic range of the detector and the detection efficiency.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that solid-state Gagarinsky detector with an active recovery scheme containing the avalanche photodiode, the anode of which is connected with the bus bias voltage, the cathode is connected to the first electrode of the resistor damping, key transistor recovery, and the detector includes an additional damping resistor, the first electrode of which is connected with the second electrode of the damping resistor, the source of the switching transistors recovery, the gate of which is connected to the first electrode of the damping resistor, and a drain connected to the second electrode of the additional damping resistor and the power detector, and key transistor recovery is made in the form of a transistor with built-in channel.

Technical solutions containing signs, similar to the distinctive, not identified, which allows to make a conclusion on the conformity of the proposed technical solution the criterion of "novelty".

the claimed technical solution of the initial damping resistor is divided into two series-connected resistor: resistor damping and additional damping resistor. The state of the switching transistors is determined by the value of the voltage drop across the resistor damping. When restoring a detector, in the initial moments of time, the time constant determined by the product of the sum of the values of resistors damping capacity detector that provides the necessary delay for quenching the avalanche process in the diode. However, when the voltage drop across the resistor damping becomes less than the threshold voltage of the switching transistors, it closes and bypasses the additional damping resistor, greatly reducing the recovery time of the detector.

Thus, a new set of features allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the proposed technical solution the criterion of "inventive step".

The drawing shows a schematic diagram of the detector when the bus voltage bias applied negative bias voltage, and power bus detector, current pulse which can be information signals close to ground potential. As the switching transistors used pop transistor with built-in channel.

The drawing shows: 1 - avalanche photodiode, 2 - damping resistor, 3 - additional resistor damping, 4 - key transistor recovery 5 - bus bias voltage, 6 - bus power detector, 7 - parasitic capacitance is to be the avalanche photodiode.

As shown in figure 1, the anode of the avalanche photodiode 1 of the detector is connected to the bus voltage offset 5, and the cathode with the first electrode of the damping resistor 2 and the gate of the switching transistors recovery 4, the source of which is connected with the second electrode of the damping resistor 2 and the first electrode of the additional damping resistor 3, the second electrode of which is connected to the drain of the switching transistors recovery 4 and bus power detector 6. In parallel to the photodiode is connected parasitic capacitance 7.

The device operates as follows.

The source current through the avalanche photodiode 1 does not leak, and it includes a voltage greater than the breakdown. Since no current flows through the damping resistor 2, the voltage of the gate-source of the switching transistors recovery 4 is zero, and since the transistor with built-in channel (its threshold voltage is negative), then he closed and bypasses the additional damping resistor 3. If you get Quantum optical radiation in the active region of the photodiode 1, it develops an avalanche discharge and starts to leak current, causing the voltage on the gate of the switching transistors recovery 4 begins to decrease relative to the voltage on its source. When this difference exceeds the value of the threshold voltage of the transistor, it will open, and the whole current of the photodiode sweat the et through connected in series damping resistors 2 and 3. With further increase of current, the voltage drop across these resistors will reduce the voltage on the photodiode to values smaller breakout, and the cessation of further development of the avalanche process.

When restoring a detector, in the initial moments of time, the time constant determined by the product of the sum of the values of the damping resistors 2 and 3 the sum of capacitances of the connected elements, which provides the necessary delay for quenching the avalanche process in the diode. However, when the voltage drop across the damping resistor 2 will be less than the threshold voltage of the switching transistors recovery 4, it closes and bypasses the additional damping resistor 3.

Let the value of the damping resistor 2 R2equal to 40 ohms, the value of the additional resistor damping 3 R3equal to 360 ohms, the threshold voltage of the switching transistors recovery 4 is -0,3 V, the voltage difference on the power bus of the detector 6 and the bias voltage 5 50 V, the breakdown voltage of the avalanche photodiode 46, and its capacity to 0.05 pF. With the development of the avalanche discharge and increasing current to 7.5 μa, the voltage drop across the resistor R2 is 40 kω×7.5 μa=0.3 and key transistor 4 will open. Applied to the photodiode, the voltage will decrease to (40 kω+360 kω)×7.5 μa=3, i.e. up to 47 C. Further increase in the current to 10 µa leads the children to decrease to 46 In and stop the avalanche process.

The restoration will begin with a time constant equal to 0.05 pF×(40 kω+360 kω)=20 NS, but after 6 NS, the voltage at the resistors will decrease from 4 to 4×exp(-6 NS/20 NS)=3, and, therefore, the voltage of the gate-source of the switching transistors recovery 4 will exceed the threshold and it will close. Since then, the restoration of the detector will continue with a time constant of 0.05 pF×40 kω=2 NS. The total recovery time will not exceed 8 NS, i.e. reduced by 2.5 times.

The formation of built-channel transistor is in its manufacture by changing the dose of the doping of the channel and does not require additional process steps. At the same time, active recovery scheme contains only one transistor of the conductivity type, which greatly simplifies the process.

The advantage of the proposed solution are that it allows: 1) to increase the dynamic range based on a single multi-element detectors receivers due to the possibility of more such detectors assigned to the area; 2) to increase the detection efficiency of light due to less shading detector active recovery scheme; 3) to simplify the scheme and to use a less complex processes of formation of active restoration schemes.

TV is totally Gagarinsky detector with an active recovery scheme, contains the avalanche photodiode, the anode of which is connected with the bus bias voltage, the cathode is connected to the first electrode of the resistor damping, key transistor recovery, characterized in that the detector includes an additional damping resistor, the first electrode of which is connected with the second electrode of the damping resistor, the source of the switching transistors recovery, the gate of which is connected to the first electrode of the damping resistor, and a drain connected to the second electrode of the additional damping resistor and the power detector, and key transistor recovery is made in the form of a transistor with built-in channel.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: infrared detectors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed photodiode infrared detector has semiconductor substrate translucent for spectral photodetection region rays and semiconductor graded band-gap structure disposed on substrate;. graded band-gap structure has following layers disposed one on top of other on substrate end. Highly conductive layer of one polarity of conductivity and fixed forbidden gap width produced by heavy doping; layer of other polarity of conductivity and other forbidden gap width in the form of little hump whose value gradually rises from that corresponding to forbidden gap width of preceding layer and then, with smoother decrease to value corresponding to forbidden gap width of preceding layer or smaller. Working layer of same polarity of conductivity as that of preceding layer and fixed forbidden gap width equal to degree of final decrease in forbidden gap width of preceding layer and also equal to forbidden gap width in first of mentioned layer or smaller. Working layer is provided with p-n junction exposed at its surface. Layer disposed on working-layer p-n junction and having gradually increasing forbidden gap width to value corresponding to working layer and polarity of conductivity reverse to that of working layer.

EFFECT: maximized current-power sensitivity, enhanced maximal photodetection frequency, uniform parameters with respect to surface area.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: fiber-optic communications, data protection, telecommunications, large-scale integrated circuit diagnosing and testing, single molecule spectrometry, astronomy, and medicine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has substrate carrying contact pads, One strip is made of superconductor in the form of meander and its ends are connected to contact pads. Other, additional, semiconductor strip is connected in parallel with above-mentioned strip made in the form of meander. Additional strip is made of superconductor whose kinetic inductance is lower than that of strip made in the form of meander.

EFFECT: enhanced speed, sensitivity, and bandwidth of detector.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: spectral-analytical, pyrometric and thermal-vision equipment.

SUBSTANCE: emitter has electro-luminescent diode of gallium arsenide, generating primary emission in wave length range 0,8-0,9 mcm, and also poly-crystal layer of lead selenide, absorbing primary emission and secondarily emitting in wave length range 2-5 mcm, and lead selenide includes additionally: admixture, directionally changing emission maximum wave length position as well as time of increase and decrease of emission pulse, and admixture, increasing power of emission. Photo-element includes lead selenide layer on dielectric substrate with potential barrier formed therein, and includes admixtures, analogical to those added to lead selenide of emitter. Optron uses emitter and photo-elements. Concentration of addition of cadmium selenide in poly-crystal layer of emitter is 3,5-4,5 times greater, than in photo-element. Open optical channel of Optron is best made with possible filling by gas or liquid, and for optimal synchronization and compactness emitter and/or photo-element can be improved by narrowband optical interference filters.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: spectral-analytical, pyrometric and thermal-vision equipment.

SUBSTANCE: emitter has electro-luminescent diode of gallium arsenide, generating primary emission in wave length range 0,8-0,9 mcm, and also poly-crystal layer of lead selenide, absorbing primary emission and secondarily emitting in wave length range 2-5 mcm, and lead selenide includes additionally: admixture, directionally changing emission maximum wave length position as well as time of increase and decrease of emission pulse, and admixture, increasing power of emission. Photo-element includes lead selenide layer on dielectric substrate with potential barrier formed therein, and includes admixtures, analogical to those added to lead selenide of emitter. Optron uses emitter and photo-elements. Concentration of addition of cadmium selenide in poly-crystal layer of emitter is 3,5-4,5 times greater, than in photo-element. Open optical channel of Optron is best made with possible filling by gas or liquid, and for optimal synchronization and compactness emitter and/or photo-element can be improved by narrowband optical interference filters.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: fiber-optic communications, data protection, telecommunications, large-scale integrated circuit diagnosing and testing, single molecule spectrometry, astronomy, and medicine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has substrate carrying contact pads, One strip is made of superconductor in the form of meander and its ends are connected to contact pads. Other, additional, semiconductor strip is connected in parallel with above-mentioned strip made in the form of meander. Additional strip is made of superconductor whose kinetic inductance is lower than that of strip made in the form of meander.

EFFECT: enhanced speed, sensitivity, and bandwidth of detector.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: infrared detectors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed photodiode infrared detector has semiconductor substrate translucent for spectral photodetection region rays and semiconductor graded band-gap structure disposed on substrate;. graded band-gap structure has following layers disposed one on top of other on substrate end. Highly conductive layer of one polarity of conductivity and fixed forbidden gap width produced by heavy doping; layer of other polarity of conductivity and other forbidden gap width in the form of little hump whose value gradually rises from that corresponding to forbidden gap width of preceding layer and then, with smoother decrease to value corresponding to forbidden gap width of preceding layer or smaller. Working layer of same polarity of conductivity as that of preceding layer and fixed forbidden gap width equal to degree of final decrease in forbidden gap width of preceding layer and also equal to forbidden gap width in first of mentioned layer or smaller. Working layer is provided with p-n junction exposed at its surface. Layer disposed on working-layer p-n junction and having gradually increasing forbidden gap width to value corresponding to working layer and polarity of conductivity reverse to that of working layer.

EFFECT: maximized current-power sensitivity, enhanced maximal photodetection frequency, uniform parameters with respect to surface area.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is used in optical data acquisition systems with high registration efficiency of light radiation by means of avalanche photodiodes with Geiger discharge quenching circuit. Into solid Geiger detector with active restorer, which includes avalanche photodiode the anode whereof is connected to the shift voltage bus and cathode is connected to the first electrode of damping resistor, and a switching restoring transistor, there introduced is the additional damping resistor. The first electrode of the additional damping resistor is connected to the second electrode of damping resistor and to the sink of switching restoring transistor the gate of which is connected to the first electrode of damping resistor, and sink is connected to the second electrode of the additional damping resistor and detector power bus. Switching restoring transistor is made in the form of transistor with a built-in channel.

EFFECT: increasing dynamic range of detector as well as increasing registration efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics, photography.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used, for instance in wide-field heat direction finding or thermal imaging devices working in two spectrum regions. The dual spectrum photodetector consists of p modules, each having photosensitive elements, two multiple-element photosensitive lines, a multiplexer and a base. The first multiple-element line is sensitive in one spectrum region and lies on the substrate of the first photosensitive element and the second multiple-element line is sensitive in the other spectrum region and lies on the substrate of the second photosensitive element. In one version first photosensitive elements are trapezium shaped, which enables to arrange the modules such that photosensitive structures, each formed by the lines which are sensitive in one spectrum region, have the shape of regular polygons. In the other version second photosensitive elements are rectangular shaped, which enables arrangement of the modules such that photosensitive structures are in form of a line.

EFFECT: design of dual spectrum large-format multiple-module photosensitive structures of different configurations.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics, semiconductors.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microelectronics and can be used in designing semiconductor ultraviolet radiation sensors. A semiconductor UV radiation sensor has a substrate on which there are series-arranged wiring layer made from TiN, a photosensitive AlN layer, and an electrode system which includes a platinum rectifying electrode which is semi-transparent in the C-region of UV radiation, connected to the AlN layer to form a Schottky contact, first and second leads for connecting to an external measuring circuit, where the first lead is connected to the wiring layer and the second to the rectifying electrode. The method of making a semiconductor UV radiation sensor involves successive deposition of a wiring TiN layer and a photosensitive AlN layer onto a substrate through reactive magnetron sputtering on a general processing unit in a nitrogen-containing gas medium with subsequent formation of a platinum rectifying electrode which is semitransparent in the C-region of UV radiation, connected to the photosensitive AlN layer to form a Schottky contact, and leads for connecting the rectifying electrode and the wiring layer to an external measuring circuit. The wiring and photosensitive layers are deposited continuously without allowing cooling down of the substrate. The platinum rectifying electrode is made through three-electrode ion-plasma sputtering of a platinum target at pressure of 0.5-0.6 Pa for 4-6 minutes, target potential of 0.45-0.55 kV and anode current of 0.8+1.2 A. Sensitivity of the end product is equal to 65-72 mA/W.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity of the end product.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: infrared radiation sensitive structure having a substrate whose top layer is made from CdTe, a 10 mcm thick working detector layer made from Hg1-xCdxTe, where x=xd=0.2-0.3, a 0.1-0.2 mcm thick insulating layer made from CdTe, and a top conducting layer with thickness of approximately 0.5 mcm also has a 0.5-6.0 mcm thick lower variband layer between the substrate and the detector layer, where the said variband layer is made from Hg1-xCdxTe, where the value of x gradually falls from a value in the range of 1-(xd+0.1) to a value xd, between the working detector layer and the insulating layer, a top variband layer with thickness of 0.03-1.00 mcm made from Hg1-xCdxTe where the value of x gradually increases from a value xd to a value in the range of 1-(xd+0.1), and dielectric layers between the insulating layer and the top conducting layer. Disclosed also is a method of making the said structure.

EFFECT: possibility of making a highly stable infrared sensitive structure with broad functional capabilities.

12 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of reducing spectral density of photodiode diffusion current fluctuation in high frequency range involves applying reverse bias V across a p-n junction with a short base and a blocking contact to the base, said reverse bias satisfying the conditions 3kT < q|V| < Vb,t and 3kt < q|V| < Vb,a, where: k is Boltzmann constant; T is temperature; q is electron charge; Vb,t is tunnel breakdown voltage; Vb,a is avalanche breakdown voltage.

EFFECT: disclosed method enables to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the photodiode in the high frequency range by reducing spectral range of diffusion current fluctuation.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio infrared photodiode has a heavily doped layer (1) of a main p-n junction, a heavily doped layer (2) of an additional p-n junction, a padded base (3) for the main and additional p-n junctions and a substrate (5). The common base (3) has a space-charge region (4) for the main p-n junction. An ohmic contact (6, 7, 8) is formed for each of the layers of the structure. The total thickness of the heavily doped layer of the main p-n junction and the space-charge region of the main p-n junction lying in the common base satisfies a condition defined by a mathematical expression. To increase the S/N ratio in the infrared photodiode, diffusion current of the additional p-n junction and the sum of the diffusion current and photocurrent of the main p-n junction are recorded, and the diffusion current of the additional p-n junction is then used for correlation processing of the signal and noise of the main p-n junction. S/N ratio in the infrared photodiode is increased by using diffusion current of the additional p-n junction, whose noise is correlated with noise of the diffusion current of the main (infrared radiation detecting) p-n junction, for correlation processing of the signal and noise of the main p-n junction.

EFFECT: high signal-to-noise ratio of the infrared photodiode.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used in threshold photodetectors for detecting weak electromagnetic radiation in the infrared range. The high signal-to-noise ratio infrared photodiode has a heavily doped layer adjacent to a substrate which is transparent for infrared radiation, whose thickness l1 satisfies the condition: and a weakly doped layer of another conductivity type (base), whose thickness d satisfies the condition d<L. Ohmic contacts are formed along two opposite sides of the periphery of the weakly doped layer. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the infrared photodiode, the sum of diffusion current and photocurrent of the p-n junction, and current of the longitudinal conductance of the base, which flows between ohmic contacts formed along two opposite sides of the periphery of the weakly doped layer, is determined, while applying a small voltage across said contacts, which satisfies a given condition.

EFFECT: invention increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the infrared photodiode by using current of longitudinal conductance of the base, whose noise is correlated with noise of the diffusion current of the p-n junction, for correlated processing of the signal and the noise of the p-n junction which detects infrared radiation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Up!